Montag, 08 März 2021 14:15

Gründerpopulationen

Gründerpopulationen und Wiederansiedlungen von Säugetieren

Über 50 Tierarten und -unterarten haben ausschließlich im Zoo oder in ähnlichen Einrichtungen überlebt. Etwa 20 davon konnten mit Erfolg wiederangesiedelt werden. Die nachfolgende Zusammenstellung enthält Säugetierarten, bei denen die Größe der Ausgangspopulation bekannt ist.

 

Tierart Entnahme aus der Natur (Jahr) Effektive Gründerpopulation Population heute
Przewalskipferd
(Equus przewalskii)
 1899-1947  12 > 2'000 in Zoos, Semireservaten und der Wildbahn
Somali-Wildesel
(Equus africanus somalicus)
1970 + 1972  9 (von 17 eingefangenen Tieren) Zuchtbuchbestand am 31. Dezember 2017: 290. Wiederansiedlungen im Hai Bar-Semireservat (Israel, ab 1972), 2009 Rückführung von einigen Tieren in Semireservat in Djibouti für Zwecke der Umwelterziehung.
Miluhirsch
(Elaphurus davidianus)
1876 (aus Wildgatter)  3 ca. 2'500 in Zoos, Semireservaten und der Wildbahn
Flachlandwisent
(Bison b. bonasus)   
vor 1922  7 > 1'850 in Zoos, Semireservaten und der Wildbahn
Wisent Kaukasuslinie
(Bison bonasus)
1907 (?)  5 > 2'000 in Zoos, Semireservaten und der Wildbahn
Mendesantilope
(Addax nasomaculatus)
1826-1872
1953-1966
15 von 22 der 1953-66 eingefangenen Tiere Zoobestand in regionalen Zuchtbrogrammen 1'005 Tiere (am 31.12.2016), daneben mehrere 1'000 Tiere in privaten Zuchten weltweit.
Wiederansiedlungen: 70 Tiere im NP Souss-Massa, von da aus 10 Nachkommen nach Safia in Dakhla (Marokko); 14 Tiere im NP Bou Hedma, von dort 15 Nachkommen in den NP Djebil und 11 in den NP Senghar, sowie 13 Tiere aus dem EEP und SSP in den NP Djebil (Tunesien); 6 Tiere in der Guembeul Special Fauna Reserve (Senegal)
Säbelantilope
(Oryx dammah)
hauptsächlich 1966-69  44 > 1'530 in Zoos (31.12.2016) und ca. 500 in Wiederansiedlungsprojekten
Mhorrgazelle
(Gazella d. mhorr)
1971 und 1975 14 (4.10) von 17 eingefangenen Tieren 260 (30.09.2015) in europäischen Zoos.
Ab 1990 Wiedereinbürgerung im Bou Hedma Nationalpark (Tunesien), ab 1992 im Souss Massa Nationalpark (Marokko), ferner im Guembeul Réserve de Faune und Réserve de Faune du Ferlo-Nord (Senegal).
Mexikanischer Wolf
(Canis l. baileyi)
1977-80 8 (5 Wildfänge plus 3 von früher gefangenen Rotwölfen abstammende Tiere) > 1150. Wiederansiedlung in den USA ab 1998
Rotwolf
(Canis rufus)
1973 f. (1980 ausgestorben) 14 (von 17 eingefangenen Tieren) 175 in 33 Institutionen im Jahr 2002.
Wiederansiedlung ab 1987, Wildpopulation stieg auf 100-150 wegen der Gefar der Bastardierung mit Wolf und Koyote wurde das Areal auf ein Gebiet beschränkt, das Platz für 20-30 Adulttiere bietet.
Schwarzfußiltis
(Mustela nigripes)
1985-1987 7 (von 18 eingefangenen Tieren) ca. 300 Adulttiere in 5 Zoos und einer Zuchtstation
Wiederansiedlung ab 1991. Wildbestand heute ca. 500 Tiere
     
       
       
     
       

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EAZA Regional Collection Plan Caprinae Taxon Advisory Group.

November 2020. First edition.
EAZA Executive Office: Amsterdam.

Inhalt:

Der Plan enthält eine Einleitung, eine Zusammenfassung der Beschlüsse des durchgeführten Workshops und Informationen sowie Empfehlungen zu den einzelnen Wildformen der Caprinae.

damois-biblio

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Sonntag, 22 November 2020 09:58

VARGAS, A. et al. (2008)

The Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus Conservation Breeding Program

Int. Zoo Yb.(2008)42:190–198
DOI:10.1111/j.1748-1090.2007.00036.x

The Iberian Lynx Conservation Breeding Program follows a multidisciplinary approach, integrated within the National Strategy for the Conservation of the Iberian lynx, which is carried out in cooperation with national, regional and international institutions. The main goals ofthe ex situ conservation programme are to:

  1. maintain agenetically and demographically managed captive population;
  2. create new Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus free-ranging populations through re-introduction.

To achieve the first goal, the Conservation Breeding Program aims to maintain 85% of the genetic diversity presently found in the wild for the next 30 years. This requires developing and maintaining 60–70 Iberian lynx as breeding stock. Growth projections indicate that the ex situ programme should achieve such a population target by the year 2010. Once this goal is reached, re-introduction efforts could begin. Thus, currentex situ efforts focus on producing psychologically and physically sound captive-born individuals. To achieve this goal, we use management and research techniques that rely on multidisciplinary input and knowledge generated on species’ life history, behaviour, nutrition, veterinary and health aspects, genetics, reproductive physiology, endocrinology and ecology. Particularly important is adapting our husbandry schemes based on research data to promote natural behaviours in captivity (hunting, territoriality, social interactions) and a stress-free environment that is conducive to natural reproduction.

vargas-biblio

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Sonntag, 15 November 2020 14:07

PLETZER, A. (2015)

Grundlagen für ein Erhaltungszucht-Programm für die nördliche Batagur-Schildkröte Batagur baska (Gray, 1830) (Reptilia: Testudines: Geoemydidae).

148 Bl. : Zsfassungen (2 Bl.) ; Ill., graph. Darst.
Graz, Univ., Masterarb., 2015

Zusammenfassung:

Zur Erhaltung der hochgradig gefährdeten nördlichen Batagur-Schildkröte (Batagur baska) ist ein umfassender Managementplan notwendig, damit ein gesundes weiteres Überleben der Tiere und eine spätere Auswilderung möglich ist. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird zuerst ein Überblick über den aktuellen Bestand, sowie zu Biologie, Gefährdung, Schutz und Zuchterfolge gegeben. Zur Dokumentation aller vorhandenen Daten der Individuen in menschlicher Obhut, ein „Studbook“ (Zuchtbuch) konzipiert, womit es in Zukunft auch leichter möglich sein wird, Analysen der Populationsentwicklung zu erstellen und Änderungen des Bestandes und der Struktur nachzuverfolgen. Darauf aufbauend wurde mithilfe des Programms VORTEX eine PVA (Population Viability Analysis) für diese Art durchgeführt, bei der verschiedene Modelle zur Überlebensfähigkeit der Populationen berechnet wurden. Aufgrund der unzureichenden Datenlage sind die Ergebnisse dieser Modelle aber nur bedingt aussagekräftig. Für den Entwurf zukünftiger Vorgehensweisen wurden Fragestellungen formuliert, deren Beantwortung für einen strukturierten Managementplan erforderlich ist. Vor allem die Klärung der Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse von Zuchttieren untereinander sowie genetischer regionaler Unterschiede ist für eine Erstellung von geeigneten Zuchtplänen dringend notwendig. Des Weiteren wurden anhand umfassender Literaturrecherchen und mit aktuellen Erkenntnissen aus genetischen Analysen konkrete Handlungsempfehlungen abgeleitet. Generell kann gesagt werden, dass Batagur baska innerhalb eines Erhaltungszuchtprogramms wahrscheinlich eine genügend hohe Gendiversität erhalten kann, um nicht durch Inzuchtdepression vom Aussterben bedroht zu sein. Die Frage, ob noch genügend genetische Variabilität für eine erfolgreiche Wiederansiedelung vorhanden ist, kann hingegen aufgrund der vorliegenden Daten nicht beantwortet werden.

Summary:

For preservation of the rare and threatened turtle species Batagur baska a comprehensive management plan is necessary, so that a healthy survival and subsequent reintroduction is possible. For this purpose, an overview of the current population size, as well as a summary of the biology, hazards, protection and breeding success of the species is given. For documentation of all individuals in captivity, an International Studbook is created to facilitate subsequent analyses of populations and record and track changes of the structure of the population therein. Based on this data, the program VORTEX was used to conduct a PVA (population viability analysis), where various models with different input parameters were calculated. Due to insufficient data, the results of these models are only of limited significance. For the development of future conservation strategies, the most important open questions were identified. The clarification of relationships between the breeding animals and a better knowledge concerning regional differences of the genetic variability is essential for the establishment of suitable breeding plans. Furthermore, additional recommendations for species protection were derived from literature data and by evaluating results of the genomic analyses. Batagur baska is likely to maintain sufficient genetic diversity within a conservation breeding program in order to avoid the threat of extinction because of inbreeding depression. However, it remains unclear whether the genetic variability is sufficient for a successful reintroduction of the species in the wild.

pletzer-biblio

Freigegeben in P
Montag, 09 November 2020 10:48

BLOMQVIST, L. & LARSSON, H.-O. (2007)

Breeding the Wolverine: Gulo gulo in Scandinavian zoos.

International Zoo Yearbook 29:156 - 163

DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1090.1990.tb03345.x

Inhaltsangabe:

Artikel enthält Angaben über den Status der Art im Freiland, alle von 1915-1989 von Zoos gemeldeten Geburten, Dauer des Oestrus, Wurfgröße und Gewichtsentwicklung des Vielfraßes sowie Inormationen zum skandinavischen Zuchtprogramm.

blomqvist-biblio

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Sonntag, 12 April 2020 06:27

BLOMQVIST, L. & SLIWA, A. (2016)

Role of Zoos in Snow Leopard Conservation: Management of Captive Snow Leopards in the EAZA Region.

Chapter 21 of: MCCARTHY, T. & MALLON, T. (2016) Snow Leopards - Biodiversity of the World: Conservation from Genes to Landscapes: 293-300. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802213-9.00021-3.

Abstract:

The snow leopard has been kept since 1851 in European zoos. Despite the recording of all captive individuals in the international studbook by the first author since 1976, better cooperation in breeding and data sharing was achieved after a snow leopard conference at Helsinki Zoo in 1978 and the establishment of the European Endangered Species Program (EEP) in 1985. The population development and associated genetic losses and characteristics of the snow leopard EEP population are explored. Notwithstanding its healthy status with 216 individuals and a gene diversity (GD) of 95.5%, based on 56 founders, the snow leopard EEP would profit from incorporation into a Global Species Management Plan (GSMP) for the long-term future. The captive snow leopards help their counterparts in the wild by providing precise life history information and safe anesthesia protocols as well as functioning as ambassadors for funding in situ conservation and field studies.

blomqvist-biblio

Freigegeben in B
Samstag, 07 März 2020 11:27

REHÁK, I. (2020)

The great turtle rescue.

ZOOQUARIA 107:  22-23.

Aus dem Inhalt: 

On 11 December 2001, during a joint operation of the Customs Ship Search and Cargo Command and the Agriculture Fisheries and Conservation Department,  about 10,000 live South East Asiatic turtles were seized in Hong Kong. The shipment, originally destined for the Chinese food market, had an estimated market value of $3.2 million. The conservation and scientific value of the confiscated animals, as well as the ethical aspects of the situation, were enormous, and incalculable in monetary terms. Turtles were placed at Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden in Hong Kong. It was an incredible job to take care of such a quantity of mostly damaged, wounded and ill turtles. The wider international cooperation proved to be essential in reducing at least in part the suffering of the turtles. EAZA’s swift reaction and the international rescue that followed were exemplary. The superb cooperation between the Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, TSA and EAZA – namely the EAZA Executive Office, ARTAG, Rotterdam Zoo and 26 other zoos in 11 countries – resulted in the successful import of 988 turtles (285 Cuora amboinensis, 126 Orlitia borneensis, 283 Heosemys spinosa, 90 Heosemys grandis, 204 Siebenrockiells crassicollis) and their consequent housing in individual zoos. During the rescue operation, which attracted a huge amount of publicity and media coverage, EAZA demonstrated its ability to carry out a complicated international operation with speed and efficiency, and we can be rightly proud of that.

rehak-biblio

Freigegeben in R
Samstag, 15 Dezember 2018 10:38

SCHREIBER, A., WANG, M. & KAUMANNS, W. (1998)

Captive breeding of squirrel monkeys, Saimiri sciureus and Saimiri boliviensis: The problem of hybrid groups.

Zoo Biology 17 (2): 95-109

Abstract:

The electrophoretic variability of blood proteins coding for up to 32 genetic loci was analyzed in 108 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus, Saimiri boliviensis, hybrids) from two captive colonies. Twelve polymorphic loci with 31 alleles are reported. The biallelic Ada* locus, G‐statistics and Hardy‐Weinberg genotype equilibria are useful for recognizing hybrids between S. sciureus and S. boliviensis. Backcrosses in hybrid stocks and gene flow in a natural hybrid belt, however, complicate the taxonomic diagnosis of captive specimens: S. sciureus phenotypes imported from Peru possessed the allele Ada*132, which generally characterizes S. boliviensis (or species hybrids). The complex taxonomy of Saimiri spp. Requires careful planning of captive breeding. We suggest a genetic analysis of the founder individuals before their inclusion in the European studbook population and to breed S. sciureus from Guyana separately from Peruvian imports, because the latter bear a greater risk of being taxonomically heterogeneous.

schreiber-biblio

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Dienstag, 04 Dezember 2018 10:31

WILMS, T. M. & PARYS, A. (2011)

Waldgeister im Zoo Frankfurt - Management und Nachzucht des Fingertiers (Daubentonia madagascariensis).

Powerpoint-Präsentation mit 46 Folien.

VDZ.Tagung Hannover, 23.06.2011.

Inhalt:

  • Allgemeines über Daubentonia
  • Fingertiere in Frankfurt
  • Management
  • Fortpflanzung

wilms-biblio

Freigegeben in W

Reproduction, Growth and Development in Captive Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).

Zoo Biology 24 (1): 29-49.
https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.20037


Abstract:

Recent success propagating captive beluga has resulted from combined efforts by North American zoos and aquariums to manage disparate collections as a single population. This success has provided a tremendous opportunity to increase our understanding of beluga reproductive biology. Blood samples were collected on a weekly to biweekly basis from 23 female and 12 male beluga, ranging in age from 2–15 years, for analysis of serum progesterone (P) and testosterone (T), respectively. Peri‐parturient observational data, including food intake, duration and signs of labor, and nursing patterns were collected from 15 days prepartum to 30 days postpartum during 21 births. Total body lengths and weights were collected from 10 captive‐born beluga. For female beluga, the mean (±SD) age, body length, and weight at first conceptions were 9.1±2.8 years, 318.0±9.1 cm, and 519±84 kg. Thirty‐five luteal phases and 13 conceptions were detected from January–June, and 70% of luteal phases and 80% conceptions occurred from March–May. The mean luteal phase and total estrous cycle lengths were 30.0±6.5 days and 48.0±4.6 days, respectively. For male beluga, the mean age that males sired their first calf was 13.3±2.6 years. Compared to younger males (<8 years of age, 0.95 ng/ml), levels of T secretion in older males (>8 years of age, 5.0 ng/ml) were elevated significantly only during the interval from January–April. Highest T concentrations (6.2±4.9 ng/ml) were recorded from January–March, whereas nadir concentrations (1.1±1.0 ng/ml) were detected from August–September. The mean gestation length was 475.0±20.4 days (n=9). For parturition, the mean time from the first appearance of fluke or rostrum to delivery, delivery to placental passage, and delivery to nursing were 4.4±2.9 hr, 7.6±1.8 hr, and 43±45 hr, respectively. All cows had decreased food intake on the day of delivery, with 44% having zero intake. Peak 24‐hr nursing activity occurred 3.9±2.7 days post‐partum. Growth (i.e., body weight and length) as a function of age were well described by the Gompertz model (r2=0.91, 0.93). Based on the model, growth in body weight and length were significantly greater in males compared to females. Predicted birth weight (88.9 kg) was similar for both sexes, however, and male calves were predicted to be shorter (154.3 cm) than female calves (160.7 cm). The results provide the first descriptions of captive beluga reproductive physiology, including endocrinology, peri‐parturient behavior, growth, and reproductive maturity. This knowledge is important for helping to maintain genetically diverse, self‐sustaining populations of captive beluga whales. Zoo Biol 24:29–49, 2005. © 2005 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

robeck-biblio

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