PERELADOVA, O. (2022)
Results of 20 years Bukhara deer restoration.
DSG Newsletter 33: 43-48. ISSN 2312-4644.
The Bukhara deer was previously considered as one of the vulnerable red deer subspecies of Cervus elaphus bactrianus. Due to a nomenclature change (IUCN Red List revision) it is now considered to be one of the three subspecies of Cervus hanglu, i.e. C.h.bactrianus. From 2000 to 2002 it had been under a real threat of extinction. It numbered no more than 350 animals in total in all 10 populations throughout its range in Central Asia, and was completely extinct in the most important part of its historical area. In accordance with the MOU and Action Plan on Bukhara deer conservation and restoration (CMS), signed in 2002, and in the frame of WWF projects since 1999, a set of important activities ensured population growth in natural habitats, natural habitat restoration and reintroduction in suitable sites within the historical area.
The implemented activities resulted in significant growth of all populations, which allows the species to be considered as Least Concern.
CHENG, Z. et al. (2012).
Reintroduction, distribution, population dynamics and conservation of a species formerly extinct in the wild: A review of thirty-five years of successful Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) reintroduction in China.
Global Ecology and Conservation 31: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2021.e01860
Reintroduction plays a vital role in conservation for many endangered species, however, little long-term information is available on the population dynamics and conservation status. Here we provide a detailed account of the Chinese Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) conservation and reintroduction efforts over the past 35 years, and give updated information on current Milu distribution, population dynamics and conservation status based on long-term monitoring (1985–2020) and a detailed follow-up investigation (2013–2020) in 235 wildlife institutions throughout China. Milu conservation in China comprised three phases: i) establishing ex situ populations and increasing the number of Milu through captive breeding (1985–1992); ii) preparing captive Milu for life in the wild and establishing in situ conservation populations (1993–1997); and iii) reintroduction of Milu into the wild throughout their historic range (1998–ongoing). Currently, there are ca. 9062 Milu (including 2825 wild individuals) distributed across 83 sites with 7380 individuals living at Beijing Milu Park, Jiangsu Dafeng Milu Nature Reserve and Hubei Shishou Milu Nature Reserve. The average birth rates in three sites were all over 0.200, and the average adult mortality rates were below 0.085, resulting in a rapid population growth. We discuss a variety of factors that contributed to ex situ conservation success in the reintroduction of a species formerly extinct in the wild, and highlight past and present challenges of Milu conservation in China. Our results will provide helpful information on conservation and reintroduction for other endangered species around the world.
DE WIT, P. et al. (eds. 2021)
EAZA Penguin Taxon Advisory Group - Regional Collection Plan.
First Edition.EAZA Executive Office, Amsterdam.
Aus der Einleitung:
The EAZA Penguin TAG encourages all EAZA penguin holders to contribute through concreteconservation education activities (as indirect conservation role). Holders are encouraged to educate thepublic on:
- The status of penguins e.g. 10 of 18 species declining, 10 of 18 species threatened;
- The threats to penguins (in general and for specific species) e.g. conflict between fisheries and penguin colonies, impact climate change, petroleum discharge, risk/consequencesinvasive/introduced predators, infections and trade in wild penguins to meet demands of unscrupulous zoos and private collectors;
- The need to conserve penguins in the wild and to protect their natural habitat;
- How can we help? Education around behaviour change –as a tourist to penguin areas,as a consumer, plastic use,etc.
The EAZA Penguin TAG also encourages all penguin holders to fundraise for any prioritized conservation projects either linked to the penguin species they keep orre-directed to aproject for a more threatened penguin species not kept in human care.The TAG will make sure a list of prioritized conservation projects will be made available and/or circulated annually.
BROUWER, K. et al. (2020)
EAZA Hornbill TAG - Regional Collection Plan.
June 2020, 1st Edition. 350 Seiten. EAZA Executive Office, Amsterdam.
Das Dokument gibt einen Überblick üner die in EAZA- sowie in weiteren Zoos im April 2019 gehaltenen Hornvögel. Es handelt die einzelnen Arten individuell ab und priorisiert ihre Relevanz für Zuchtprogramme, indem es sie in 7 Kategorien unterteilt. Kategorie 1 umfasst die 10 Arten, für die es bereits Zuchtprogramme oder Zuchtbüchert gibt, Kategorie 2 gefährdete asiatische Arten, von denen bereits ein Bestand in EAZA-Zoos vorhanden ist, Kategorie 3 sonstige gefährdete asiatische Arten etc. ...
WOODFINE, T., WILKIE, M., GARDNER, R., EDGAR, P., MOULTON, N. & RIORDAN, P. (2017)
Outcomes and lessons from a quarter of a century of Sand lizard Lacerta agilis reintroductions in southern England.
Int. Zoo Yearb. 51: 87-96. https://doi.org/10.1111/izy.12155
Despite occurring widely across Europe and Asia, the Sand lizard Lacerta agilis is threatened in the north-western part of its range and had disappeared from much of its former habitat in England and Wales prior to concerted conservation action. A breeding population established at Marwell Zoo, UK, contributed to the re-establishment of 26 populations of Sand lizards at heathland and coastal dune sites across southern England as part of a wider multi-stakeholder response to reverse the decline of the species. Knowledge about the biology of Sand lizards was accrued during the process, which helped to refine the management of the breeding population that was maintained in a naturalistic setting within the indigenous range of the species. These successes were underpinned by coordinated collaborative actions and long-term institutional commitments against a backdrop of considerable change in the statutory framework governing Sand lizard conservation. The management of this project was not without cost or risk, including protection of valuable founder stock, incomplete knowledge about the health and disease status of Sand lizards, intrinsic constraints of limited founder representation, and the challenges of monitoring this elusive species post release.
HAVELKA, P. (1995)
Auswilderung, Gefangenschaftsvermehrung und Erhaltung bedrohter Tierarten - eine Aufgabe des Naturschutzes.
Carolinea, Beiheft 9.
Staatl. Mus. f. Naturkde. Karlsruhe & Naturwiss. Ver. Karlsruhe e.V
Die historische Zeit ist gekennzeichnet durch einen zunehmenden Verlust der vom Menschen unbeeinflussten Lebensräume. Insbesondere in den letzten hundert Jahren wird dies von einer bisher unbekannten Form des Verlustes an Tier- und Pflanzenarten lokal und weltweit begleitet. Diesen Trend zu stoppen ist das Anliegen vieler. Die Erhaltung und der Schutz der natürlichen Lebensräume ist dabei die Basis für ein langfristiges Hilfskonzept. Oft ist dies jedoch nicht einfach und es stellt sich die Frage, ob es wünschenswert ist, im Ausgleich für den Verlust an natürlichen Lebensräumen künstliche Biotope bereitzustellen. Die Schlagworte „Natur aus zweiter Hand“ sind wohl allen bestens bekannt.
KOLÁČKOVÁ, K., HEJCMANOVÁ, P., ANTONÍNOVÁ, M. & BRANDL, P. (2011)
Population management as a tool in the recovery of the critically endangered Western Derby eland Taurotragus derbianus in Senegal, Africa.
Wildlife Biology, 17(3) : 299-310. DOI: 10.2981/10-019.
The critically endangered Western Derby elandTaurotragus derbianus derbianus, representing,200 wild individuals,undoubtedly needs a coordinated conservation programme. To promote the survival of this subspecies, a singleworldwide semi-captive population was established in Senegal in 2000, with one male and five female founderstransferred from the Niokolo Koba National Park. To determine a long-term conservation strategy, we useddemographic and pedigree data based on continuous monitoring of reproduction during 2000 - 2009 in breedingenclosures in the Bandia and Fathala Reserves, in conjunction with modelling software. In 2009, the semi-captivepopulation consisted of 54 living individuals (26 males and 28 females), managed using the minimal kinship strategy.The female breeding probability was 84%, annual calf and adult mortality rates were 5.09% and 3.27%, respectively,and the annual population growth rate was 1.36. As the population grew, the animals were progressively separated intofive herds within tworeserves. A pedigree analysis revealedan effective population size of 6.72 andan Ne/N ratio of 0.13.The population retained 77% of the gene diversity (GD). The founder genome equivalent (FGE¼2.21) was relativelylow due to the overrepresentation of one founder male. Although the mean level of inbreeding (F) reached 0.119, asignificant potential GD (92%) was still retained. In this article, we predict GD development in this population in thenext 100 years with the inclusion of new founders. If the whole wild population were included, we could maintain 90%of GD. As this option is not practically feasible, we present three options with the goal of maintaining 75% GD. Wehighly recommend capturing new founders from the remaining wild population to ensure the survival of the subspeciesat least in semi-captivity, which could allow possible reinforcement of the wild population or reintroduction in thefuture. The semi-captive population, if appropriately constituted and genetically managed, could play a considerablerole in Western Derby eland conservation.
WACHER, T., BAHA EL DIN, S., MIKHAIL, G. & BAHA EL DIN, M. (2002)
New observations of the ‘extinct’ Barbary sheep Ammotragus lervia ornata in Egypt.
Oryx 36 (3): 301-304.
The Barbary sheep or aoudad Ammotragus lervia is widely distributed in the mountains of the Sahara and North Africa. The 2000 IUCN Red List assessment of the Egyptian subspecies A. l. ornata categorized this taxon as Extinct in the Wild. We present new evidence, collected during 1997–2000, that this subspecies is extant in both the extreme south-east and south-west of Egypt, and reassess the status of captive aoudad in Egypt. We recommend that the category of A. l. ornata on the IUCN Red List be changed to Critically Endangered, that conservation of wild aoudad in Egypt be prioritized, and that the subspecific status of both the wild and be reassessed.
VARGAS, A. et al. (2008)
The Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus Conservation Breeding Program
Int. Zoo Yb.(2008)42:190–198
The Iberian Lynx Conservation Breeding Program follows a multidisciplinary approach, integrated within the National Strategy for the Conservation of the Iberian lynx, which is carried out in cooperation with national, regional and international institutions. The main goals ofthe ex situ conservation programme are to:
- maintain agenetically and demographically managed captive population;
- create new Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus free-ranging populations through re-introduction.
To achieve the first goal, the Conservation Breeding Program aims to maintain 85% of the genetic diversity presently found in the wild for the next 30 years. This requires developing and maintaining 60–70 Iberian lynx as breeding stock. Growth projections indicate that the ex situ programme should achieve such a population target by the year 2010. Once this goal is reached, re-introduction efforts could begin. Thus, currentex situ efforts focus on producing psychologically and physically sound captive-born individuals. To achieve this goal, we use management and research techniques that rely on multidisciplinary input and knowledge generated on species’ life history, behaviour, nutrition, veterinary and health aspects, genetics, reproductive physiology, endocrinology and ecology. Particularly important is adapting our husbandry schemes based on research data to promote natural behaviours in captivity (hunting, territoriality, social interactions) and a stress-free environment that is conducive to natural reproduction.
REHÁK, I. (2020)
The great turtle rescue.
ZOOQUARIA 107: 22-23.
Aus dem Inhalt:
On 11 December 2001, during a joint operation of the Customs Ship Search and Cargo Command and the Agriculture Fisheries and Conservation Department, about 10,000 live South East Asiatic turtles were seized in Hong Kong. The shipment, originally destined for the Chinese food market, had an estimated market value of $3.2 million. The conservation and scientific value of the confiscated animals, as well as the ethical aspects of the situation, were enormous, and incalculable in monetary terms. Turtles were placed at Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden in Hong Kong. It was an incredible job to take care of such a quantity of mostly damaged, wounded and ill turtles. The wider international cooperation proved to be essential in reducing at least in part the suffering of the turtles. EAZA’s swift reaction and the international rescue that followed were exemplary. The superb cooperation between the Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, TSA and EAZA – namely the EAZA Executive Office, ARTAG, Rotterdam Zoo and 26 other zoos in 11 countries – resulted in the successful import of 988 turtles (285 Cuora amboinensis, 126 Orlitia borneensis, 283 Heosemys spinosa, 90 Heosemys grandis, 204 Siebenrockiells crassicollis) and their consequent housing in individual zoos. During the rescue operation, which attracted a huge amount of publicity and media coverage, EAZA demonstrated its ability to carry out a complicated international operation with speed and efficiency, and we can be rightly proud of that.