Fossa Cryptoprocta ferox International Studbook (ISB) 2014.
73 Seiten mit Fotos, Grafiken und Tabellen. © Zoo Duisburg
The data reported in this studbook are current through 31 December 2014. On that date the historical population was 144.108.61 (313) animals and the living population was 78.58.0 (136) animals in 57 institutions. This latter number includes:
1.1.0 (2) animals in 1 institution in the Asian region;
3.2.0 (5) animals in 1 institution in the African region;
37.24.0 (61) animals in 27 institutions in the European region; and
37.31.0 (68) animals in 28 institutions in the North American region.
Zoo Duisburg not only manages the global population of the fossa but also the European zoo population that started in 1972 with Zoo Basel, Switzerland, as the very first holder. The first offspring in the zoo world was recorded two years later at Montpellier Zoo, France. The species is difficult to breed, so breeding successes were and still are limited and the population only slowly increased since the 1970s. Over the years several animals have been exchanged between Europe and North America to improve the genetics of the respective population.
The first fossa recorded in North America was at the National Zoo in Washington in 1954. However, the species has been exhibited consistently only since 1985, when a male and a female were imported to San Diego from Zoo Basel. This pair produced the first zoo-born fossa in North America in 1989. Since then, over the last 25 years, the North American fossa population has continued to grow in size more rapidly than the European one, not only due to zoo breeding but also due to animals that occasionally came into the managed population from private institutions. Ueno Zoological Garden in Japan started to keep fossas with a pair in 2010, as the only holding institution in the Asian region so far. Five animals are listed for the capital zoo of Antananarivo on Madagascar, where in 2011 the first captive-born fossa could be recorded for this region.
The global captive population of the fossa has potential to develop further, but also faces certain limitations. The age structure is not well-dispersed throughout the various age classes, with some of the latter being regionally empty, nor is there an even sex ratio. Especially concerning is the few number of younger individuals in the population, most notably among the females. This population should thus focus on producing offspring at regular intervals in order to maintain a more even distribution of reproductive age animals to insure further breeding successes in the future. The population must also aim at recruiting new holders to increase the holding capacity and to be able to accommodate further offspring. The gene diversity can only be increased with additional potential founder animals and by equalizing founder representation (by breeding animals with the lowest mean kinships).
There are currently several fossa conservation and research activities taking place. In 2014, a cooperation between the Fossa Fund (initiated in 1994 by Zoo Duisburg in order to support conservation and research activities within the species’ natural habitat on Madagascar) and the German NGO "Chances for Nature" started.
National Studbook Four Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis).
Hrsg.: Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi.TR.No2018/02.
Conclusions and Recommendations:
Four horned antelopes continue to face threats to their longterm survival in their natural habitats across their distribution range and are accordingly listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and in the Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act of India. The threats faced by the species remain operational and the populations across their range are showing declining trend. Maintenance of demographically stable and genetically viable ex-situ populations is thus crucial for ensuring the continued survival of the species. The captive population in Indian zoos is characterized by a declining trend (λ = 0.0676). The population remains biased towards females with a limited number of proven breeders, though a large proportion belong to reproductively active age classes. It retains approximately 93% genetic diversity introduced by 16 founders. Values of population mean inbreeding and mean kinship indicate that specimens are unrelated to each other; however, the founder genome is poorly represented with the population containing genetic diversity of approximately only 8founder animals. Population simulations run using PMx software indicate that supplementation with one effective founder every two years and increasing the population growth rate to 1.0252and population size to 200 specimens in Indian institutions can ensure that the population remains viable over the next 100 years. The captive population of Four horned antelope in Indian zoos therefore requires intensive management efforts towards ensuring achievement of ex-situ conservation goals to address the following concerns:
- Additional housing facilities are requiredto ensure availability of adequate space for holding the additional number of specimens needed for maintaining a genetically viable and demographically stable population.
- The wild origin specimens that are currently present in the population should be assessed for relatedness using appropriate molecular genetics tools. The assessment so carried out should form the basis for deciding mate choice.
- Issues that limit optimum reproductive performance of the captive population viz. housing and husbandry practices and keeping of unpaired animals need to be addressed for ensuring effective population growth.
European Studbook for Douroucouli 2007-2010, Aotus lemurinus griseimembra & Aotus azarai boliviensis. Current until 31.12.10.
107 Seiten. Marwell Wildlife, Winchester.
The Studbook provides a full overview of the living population, births, deaths and transfers over period 2007-2010, and also a full historical listing (a printed version of this list is only available on request). All animals registered in the studbook have been issued with a unique studbook number. Even if stillborn, animals will still be entered into the database as this is useful for reproductive analysis and also future demographic analysis. Temporary numbers mark animals of completely unknown origin and/or destiny, or animals where further investigation is needed.
The total number of douroucouli in captivity as reported to the studbook keeper by 31st December 2010 was Aotus lemurinus griseimembra 33.41.11 (85) in 19 institutions and Aotus azarae boliviensis 15.14.2 (31) in 12 institutions. These include animals in EAZA and non EAZA institutions and private holders.
O’CONNOR, J. (2014): European Studbook for Aotus lemurinus griseimembra and Aotus azarae boliviensis 2011-2013.
Captive Population: The total number of douroucouli in captivity as reported to the studbook keeper by 31st December 2013 was
Aotus lemurinus griseimembra 35.41.11 (87) in 22 institutions and Aotus azarae boliviensis 14.18.1 (33) in 14 institutions. These include animals in EAZA and non EAZA institutions and private holders.
Husbandry, breeding and population development of the Sri Lankan Rusty‐spotted cat Prionailurus rubiginosus phillipsi.
International Zoo Yearb. Volume 35: 115-120.
In September 1975 Frankfurt Zoo received 1.1 7 week‐old Rusty‐spotted cats Prionailurus rubiginosus phillipsi from Sri Lanka. As at 31 December 1995 16.19 animals, all descended from this pair, were listed in the international studbook at eight collections (Dmoch, 1996). Between 1976 and 1994 77 Rusty‐spotted cats were born in captivity and breeding data reveal that: sexual maturity is reached within the first year; mean litter size is 1–3 (n= 58); mean time of first mating is 7–8 days after introduction (n= 78); mean mating activity period is 5–7 days (n= 49); gestation period is between 67 and 71 days (mean 69 days, n= 22). Breeding ceased in 1989 at Frankfurt Zoo and in 1991 at Cincinnati, which could indicate an inbreeding depression. This paper describes the diet, growth and development, veterinary care, husbandry and behaviour of the species.
European studbook and breeding lesser galagos (genus Galago) at Prague Zoo.
GAZELLA 41: 31-53.
International Studbook for the Pygmy Hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis Morton, 1844) 2014.
Updated, 31 December 2014
21st Edition, published by Zoo Basel, Switzerland, 2015 (first edition 1975)
All the data of the annual reports returned by 16 February 2015 were included in this edition. This year, 121 out of 139 institutions that keep pygmy hippos responded to our annual questionnaire.
This studbook lists a total of 1454 (585.810.59) pygmy hippos. On 31 December 2014, the International Studbook records 367 (142.222.3) living pygmy hippopotami kept in 139 institutions. The EEP population comprises a total of 126 (49.78) living individuals in 53 institutions.
The usage of this studbook is to show where and how many pygmy hippos are held in captivity. Moreover, the studbook information is used for regular in-depth regional and global demographic and genetic analyses of the living population. Since pygmy hippos are kept on all continents, all regions benefit from this studbook, and in particular Europe and North America, where coordinated breeding programmes exist, which depend on the studbook information for their functioning.
The total number of captive pygmy hippos includes:
45.67 (112) animals in 38 institutions in the Asian region;
2.2 (4) animals in 2 institutions in the Australasian region;
51.94 (145) animals in 62 institutions in the European region;
28.45.3 (76) animals in 18 institutions in the North American region;
4.3 (7) animals in 4 institutions in the Central and South American regions;
12.11 (23) in 12 institutions in the African region.
The focus of this edition of the studbook is on education. It presents various activities that zoos and conservation organisations perform to educate the public on pygmy hippo biology, conservation and threats. Methods include signage, presentations and interactive methods, such as touch tables. There is also an article on the impact of keepers’ talks on visitors’ knowledge of this species. In addition, children conservation education initiatives and programmes in schools and communities adjacent to Sapo National Park in Liberia presented. In Sierra Leone, educational activies comprise meetings with communities, roadshows, drama, presentation and quizzes at schools, nature clubs at schools, forest excursions and drawing competitions for school children, mural paintings, activities on World Environment Day and the development of environmental education materials for the distribution in villages, schools, to GRNP staff members and various stakeholders.
I hope that all these ideas and activities will inspire other zoos to give the pygmy hippos in their zoos a higher profile.
Lesser Kudu Tragelaphus imberbis (Blyth, 1869) European Studboook 2017.
70 Seiten, Grafiken
Published by Zoo Basel, Switzerland.
I would like to thank all ESB members that keep lesser kudus for their cooperation and help to update the European studbook 2017. All the data of the annual reports returned by 17 January 2018 were included in this edition. All ESB members provided their data.
This studbook lists a total of 497.538.15 (1050) lesser kudus. On 31 December 2017, the European studbook records 71 (22.49) lesser kudus kept in 11 EAZA institutions.
A genetic and demographic analysis was performed.
The first lesser kudu listed in the studbook were a pair caught in Ethiopia and taken to the Zoo Zürich in 1931. According to an e-mail from Michael Mettler, Langenhagen, Germany, more lesser kudus were kept before and during that time, for example in the zoos of Hannover and Berlin. However, very little information is available with regard to their origin and breeding history. The studbook keeper would be grateful to receive more information on lesser kudus kept in the early 20th century.
More than twenty years later, Tierpark Hellabrunn, Munich, received two wild caught females in 1955 and a male in 1958. The origin of these animals is unknown, given as “East Africa”. During that time, another pair was caught in Somalia and taken to Zoo Zürich in 1956. Also in 1956, Basel zoo received two pairs from a Swiss, living in Africa. The first birth in captivity was on 23 January 1959 in Munich, followed by another birth on 1 August 1959 at Basel zoo. Only few zoos in Europe have held this species.
The current population descends from 24 founders and has no potential founders. Founder 11 was caught in East Africa and no further information on the capture site can be obtained. He arrived in Hannover on 5 May 1960. The capture location for founder 26 is given as Nairobi and it came to Basel on 28 October 1971. In 1972, Dvur Kralove imported 3.14 lesser kudu from Mbalambala, Garrisa District, Kenya. From these animals, the following six founders, i.e. 100, 101, 102, 103, 104 and 106, have living descendants in the ESB. Apart from founder 11, all these animals seem to be Tragelaphus imberbis imberbis. Founder 11 cannot be assigned to any subspecies because its capture site is unknown and no genetic material remains that could be tested. In addition, three wild caught animals were caught in East Africa and moved to Munich in 1955 and 1958. They had one surviving offspring (stb. no. 13), which was moved to Basel for breeding. Again, it is not known to which subspecies stb. 13 or its parents belong.
(Equally in 1958, Dresden Zoo received a wild caught male from the dealer Demmer. It is not known where this animal was caught and it had no surviving offspring. In 1961, Hannover zoo imported a wild caught male from Tanzania and from 1961 to 1967 further 1.4 wild caught individuals from Kenya.
In 1966, Pretoria received two wild caught females from Ghiazza, unfortunately, nothing is known about their capture location.
In 1975, Hannover Zoo bought a pair from the animal dealer Demmer. Many thanks are due to Michael Mettler from Langenhagen, Germany, who pointed out in an e-mail dated 28 March 2017 that information on the origin of these animals could be found in the 1975 annual report of Hannover Zoo. In there, it says that Hannover was able to obtain a young pair from Mr. von Nagy’s private zoo, Usa river, near Arusha, Tanzania. These two animals were bred there and their parents are thus considered to be two or three new founders.
In 1984, Stuttgart purchased a female from Soest. Once more, nothing is known of its origin, so it could be a new founder or offspring from the studbook population. Since animals were given to Van den Brink in the past, it is assumed to be an offspring from the studbook population. The six founders imported in the 1960s to Hannover have no descendants in the current studbook population, all offspring died or were given to dealer Van den Brink and are lost to follow-up. According to Van den Brink (pers. com., 23.7.2011), they were most likely given to either Seoul zoo, to Japan or to Algeria (Zoo Ben Agnoon in Algier), in which case they or their offspring are probably not represented in the ESB.
Similarly, the two founders in Pretoria had just one young, which left no descendants and are thus not represented in the current studbook population. All the animals within brackets are either founders with no living offspring in the current studbook population or are animals of unknown origin, i.e. it is not known whether they are new founders or individuals with unknown parents from the studbook population).
Five more founders, i.e. 5000, 5001, 5002, 5003 and 5004, were caught in Somalia in 2005 and taken to Maktoum. Eight more founders, i.e. 5005 – 5012, were caught one year later in Somalia and also transferred to Maktoum. All these 13 founders from Somalia are from a person in Sharjah S. (or Samra) and were identified as belonging to Tragelaphus imberbis imberbis. However, with Maktoum leaving EAZA in 2015, these animals no longer belong to the ESB.
In 2015, three males from the US population were imported to Basel from San Diego Zoo and Kansas City Zoo. Their pedigrees are not fully known but do include new founders for the ESB. Two of them were moved to Dvur Kralove and Stuttgart.
In 2016, two males were exported from Beauval to a sanctuary in Djibouti that keeps a pair. It is hoped that in future, offspring from that pair can in return be imported to Europe and add new blood to the narrow genetic founder base.
EEP Studbook 2010 - Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch).
Howletts Wild Animal Park
2010 International Studbook for the ORIENTAL WHITE STORK Ciconia boyciana.
Published by Tama Zoological Park, Tokyo. 115 Seiten.