Zur Geschichte der Baumkänguru-Haltung in europäischen und einigen anderen Zoos.
BULETTE Berlin 7: 7-45.
Es wird über die frühe Haltung von Baumkängurus in Zoologischen Gärten berichtet in einem Zeitraum, der nicht oder nicht vollständig von den Listen des International Zoo Yearbook und der Internationalen Zuchtbücher bzw. vom Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS) erfasst ist. Bei der Verwendung von Angaben, die von Haltern z. B. an das International Zoo Yearbook gemacht worden sind, ist wegen häufiger Fehlbestimungen Vorsicht geboten. Sie waren nicht alle brauchbar. Insgesamt ist das Wissen über viele Kängurus aus Neuguinea lückenhaft.
Insgesamt sind acht der zehn heute allgemein anerkannten Baumkänguru-Arten gepflegt worden. Leider sind nicht von allen sich selbst erhaltende Zoobestände hervorgegangen. Das lag häufig an unzureichenden Haltungsbedingungen, fehlenden Informationen über das Sozialverhalten der einzelnen Arten und auch an mangelnden Kenntnissen der Zoologischen Gärten in der Baumkänguru-Pflege. Über das Verhalten von D. dorianus, D. matschiei und D. ursinus liegen wenigstens in Zoologischen Gärten angefertigte und publizierte Verhaltenscbeschreibungen vor. Diese Praxis ist heute leider nicht mehr üblich und bedeutet einen vermeidbaren Wissensverlust. Für D. goodfellowi und D. matschiei gibt es heute weltweit koordinierte Zuchtprogramme, für D. goodfellowi sogar ein "Global Management Species Program" GSMP der World Association of Zoos and Aquaria (WAZA).
Zentren der Baumkänguru-Haltung waren besonders der Zoo London, die Zoologischen Gärten von Amsterdam, Rotterdam und Berlin, der San Diego Zoo, die australischen Zoologischen Gärten, besonders Melbourne und Sydney und das Baiyer River Sanctuary in Papua-Neuguinea. Das heute leider nicht mehr bestehende Baiyer River Sanctuary war der einzige Ort, an dem mit drei Baumkänguru-Arten in großem Umfang planmäßige Zucht betrieben wurde. Bei meinem Aufenthalt im Jar 1974 war der Baumkänguru-Bestand dort 16 D. doriae, 21 D. matschiei und 21 D. goodfellowi. Viele der dortigen Nachzuchten sind dank des rührigen Leiters GRAEME G. GEORGE in andere Zoologische Gärten gelangt.
Saiga-Antilopen (Saiga tatarica) im Kölner Zoo: tiergärtnerische Erfahrungen und Beobachtungen.
Z. Kölner Zoo 59. 135-149.
Die Saiga (Saiga tatarica) ist eine stark bedrohte Antilopenart aus den Steppen und Halbwüsten Asiens, die aktuell von keinem Zoo außerhalb Kasachstans mehr gehalten wird. Die ehemalige Haltung und Zucht dieser außergewöhnlichen Antilope im Kölner Zoo von 1976 bis 2009 ist Gegenstand dieses Artikels. Es ist eine Rückschau auf den durchaus schwierigen Charakter der Tiere und ihre Anforderungen an die Tierpflege. Die Daten zu Leben und Zucht der Saigas in Köln haben sehr interessante Informationen zutage gebracht. Hervorzuheben sind die unterschiedliche Dauer der Tragzeit bei einzelnen Jungtieren und Zwillingen und vor allem das im Vergleich zum Freiland geringere Auftreten von Zwillingsgeburten im Kölner Zoo. Ebenfalls genaue Daten zum maximalen Alter und zur Fortpflanzung bei Saigas mit exakt bekanntem Alter. Solche Beobachtungen sind in der Form nur im Zoo möglich und ergänzen Daten aus dem Freiland. Es unterstreicht einmal mehr die einzigartige Möglichkeit und Bedeutung von Beobachtungen und Forschungen im Zoo.
Pater Davids Hirsch oder Milu (Elaphurus davidianus Milne Edwards, 1866), 150 Jahre, 1865 bis 2015.
Der Zoologische Garten 85(6): 363-400.
The population of the Père David's deer or milu (Elaphurus davidianus), which was discovered in China by Père Armand David in 1866, has grown from five, or even merely three individuals, imported from China to approximately 5000 during a time-span of 140 years. We tried to find out more about the origin of the 18 individuals which formed the original herd of the 11th Duke of Bedford at Woburn Abbey. His breeding-group was the only safeguard for this species between the years 1900 and 1946. Of the 18 individuals three were offspring of Berlin Zoo, three originated from Cologne Zoo and probably all the rest came from the Jardin d‘Acclimatation in Paris. The origin of the breeding herd at the Jardin d‘Acclimatation is not clear. The first individuals either came from Berlin Zoo or were imported directly from China in the years between 1876 and 1886. In Berlin Zoo's breeding records there is a remarkable gap for the years 1879 and 1880. If they came from Berlin Zoo, the imported male and two females would be the sole founders of the herd, and if the Jardin d‘Acclimatation had done an own import, then there would be at least five founders. At Berlin Zoo at least 18 milu calves were born between the years 1878 and 1895. The final destinations of most of these could be traced in literature. Some of them are not quite conclusive yet. We sketched the development of the worldwide zoo-stock of Père David's deer, the return to China and the re-settlement in the original habitat in newly established reserves and finally even outside the reserves. After centuries the milu has again gained the status of a free-living species thanks to the efforts of several zoological gardens, the Dukes of Bedford and the Chinese conservation authorities.
Orang Utan EEP - Best practice Guidelines
148 Seiten, Abbildungen, Tabellen.
Barcelona Zoo für die Great Ape Taxon Advisory Group (GATAG)
Aus der Einleitung:
In spring 2016, (unofficial) EAZA Quick Population Assessments (QPA) were provided by the EAZA specialists for demography and genetics for both populations. According to both analysis, the average annual birth rates in the last years were 7 births per year in in the Borneans and 5 births per year in the Sumatrans, while an average of 9 births per year for the Borneans and 8 births per year for the Sumatrans are expected to be necessary to maintain population size. Based on these informations, one would expect population sizes to slightly decrease in the coming years. This clearly indicates to be very careful in using methods for contraception. Simultaneously, the problems to place (temporarily) surplus male individuals in a timely manner are evident.
In April 2018, a workshop will be held in Karlsruhe Zoo to develop an EAZA Long-term Management Plan (LTMP) for the orang utan species. At the same time, the EEP coordinator and his team will have published the 35th edition (2017) of the orang utan studbook.
We are now working since a considerable couple of years to develop and to define “Best Practice Guidelines” (BPG) for the orang utans in the EEP. Now, we are able to present this first edition that is devided into three main sections (biology & field data, management in zoos and references & appendices). Of particular importance are chapters for Enclosure Design, Feeding, Social Structure, Breeding, Behavioural Enrichment, Handling & Identification, Veterinary Aspects and Research. I would like to express my deep appreciation to all contributors for their enormous time effort and work they have put into compiling these guidelines. Hopefully, this will enhance the managing and care of orang utans in participating zoos in the future.
Rosalià Abreu and the Apes of Havana.
International Journal of Primatology 29 (2): 289-302
Rosalià Abreu (1862–1930) was a wealthy amateur collector and keeper of primates, including apes. She was the first person to keep orangutans and chimpanzees alive in captivity for their natural lifespans, and the first to breed chimpanzees. Although not a scientist, she made her animals available for scientific study, and it was on her animals that the first published observations of chimpanzee mating, birth, and development were made. The system of husbandry that she designed for apes, with an emphasis on spacious cages, vegetarian diet, cleanliness, and social contact (preferably conspecific, but heterospecific where conspecifics were not available), were groundbreaking in their time. Through her extensive correspondence, her methods of husbandry spread and formed the basis of captive ape practices around the world. Though much of Abreu’s work was forward-looking, other aspects, such as her belief that chimpanzees were monogamous and had psychic abilities, strike modern readers as eccentric. Nonetheless primatologists today may be helped to see the cultural assumptions that underlie today’s research by noting those that guided research in the past.
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines - Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).
175 Seiten. Veröffentlicht duch Barcelona Zoo, Januar 2017.
Right from the very beginning it has been the concern of EAZA and the EEPs to encourage and promote the highest possible standards for husbandry of zoo and aquarium animals. For this reason, quite early on, EAZA developed the “Minimum Standards for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria”. These standards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which the members of EAZA feel themselves committed. Above and beyond this, some countries have defined regulatory minimum standards for the keeping of individual species regarding the size and furnishings of enclosures etc., which, according to the opinion of authors, should definitely be fulfilled before allowing such animals to be kept within the area of the jurisdiction of those countries. These minimum standards are intended to determine the borderline of acceptable animal welfare. It is not permitted to fall short of these standards. How difficult it is to determine the standards, however, can be seen in the fact that minimum standards vary from country to country. Above and beyond this, specialists of the EEPs and TAGs have undertaken the considerable task of laying down guidelines for keeping individual animal species. Whilst some aspects of husbandry reported in the guidelines will define minimum standards, in general, these guidelines are not to be understood as minimum requirements; they represent best practice. As such the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for keeping animals intend rather to describe the desirable design of enclosures and prerequisites for animal keeping that are, according to the present state of knowledge, considered as being optimal for each species. They intend above all to indicate how enclosures should be designed and what conditions should be fulfilled for the optimal care of individual species.
This document reflects our current knowledge about general biology and keeping requirements to provide adequate levels of wellbeing for Gorillas, the biggest size great ape species, in captive environments. While providing information about
different aspects that should be taken into account when managing gorillas in captivity to ensure a healthy and selfsustainig population, helping to de development of a global “ex situ conservation” program, also provides information about the situation of the species in the wild and “in situ conservation” projects supporting field conservation work in host countries to which all the zoo institutions keeping gorillas are encouraged to support following the IUCN strategy of One Plan Approach.
Section 1., Biology and Field Data, reflects our current knowledge of species in the natural environment using the most recent taxonomic information. The philosophy behind this is that ex situ conservation can be used more effectively as a conservation tool if it is part of an integrated approach to species conservation (IUCN, 2014). The potential need for a conservation role of an EAZA ex situ population has therefore been decided in consultation with in situ specialists.
This section provides wide and actual information about the species in its natural habitat.
Section 2., Management in Zoos, covers housing and exhibition, nutrition, food presentation and enrichment, social structure and behaviour. There is also useful information on the formation of breeding groups and bachelor groups. Control of breeding is an essential component of successful managed programmes and comprehensive information to assist zoo veterinarians to decide on the most appropriate contraception method for their animals is provided. Managed programmes also rely on the movement of animals between zoos and advice on handling and transport is provided. It is essential that gorillas are provided with complex environments and there is detailed practical information on environmental enrichment. One indispensable method of feeding enrichment is the use of browse and information on suitable plants species is provided. A comprehensive veterinary section provides information on current knowledge on all aspects of medical care. Our knowledge can only increase through appropriate research and the final section covers ongoing and recommended research topics.
Voller Text: https://www.eaza.net/assets/Uploads/CCC/2017-BPG-Gorilla-approved.pdf
A Case Study of Orangutan and Siamang Behavior Within a Mixed-Species Zoo Exhibit.
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 13:4, 330-346, DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2010.507125.
A Mixed-Species zoo exhibit is an exhibit that contains two or more distinct species, and is becoming increasingly common across the globe, as exposure to other species allows for animals in captivity to behave in ways similar to their natural environments. Zoo exhibits that have mixed species have built in enrichment activities for the animals as they interact with one another. In this way these living environments can increase animal welfare by reducing boredom, increasing behavioral diversity These researchers at an immersion exhibit at Adelaide Zoo in South Australia examined the behavior of orangutans and siamangs within a mixed-species exhibit by collecting empirical data on the presence of affiliative interactions, aggression, inter-species mingling, natural behaviors, and the absence of stereotypic behaviors. The exhibit included two orangutans (a male and a female), and two simang, which also included one male and one female. The simangs were younger (born since the 2000s), and the organgutans were older. In the wild, while the two species might forage together, they often chase and even attack the each other, with the siamangs typically initiating the attacks. At the beginning of the introductory phase, the animals were introduced using a series of gradual introductions, beginning with visual contact only. At the time of the research, the orangutans and siamangs had been on display together for six months. During the research, most interactions between Karta the orangutan and the siamang pair were playful, which included, pulling hair and running away, wrestling, and poking each other, as well as grooming, embracing and sharing food. The interactions were typically initiated by the siamangs. Further, supplanting of one species by the other was infrequent and typically occurred when one group tried to initiate play and the other did not wish to comply. Further, the two groups did use the exhibit equally with little to no segregation. The authors conclude that the presence of affiliative interactions beyond mere mutual tolerance supports the argument that mixed-species exhibits can be beneficial. It is possible that the greater success of the integration at this exhibit is due to the brief separation overnight. However, four months after the conclusion of the study, one of the siamangs did sustain a fracture of the radius and ulna of his left arm, and bite marks on the back of Karta the orangutan’s head suggest she was responsible, although the witness (a zoo visitor) was unable to describe the cause of context. So, while in general the two species were able to interact peacefully, there is an inherent danger in placing two species with disproportionate strengths together. To alleviate some of this danger, a surveillance system should be put in place, as well as ensure adequate safety routes. However, the fact that Irian the siamang was unable to reach the safety route before sustaining the injury should be considered.
Main Points and Potential Applications
- Mixed-Species zoo exhibits can be beneficial in ensuring the well-being of each species, although the integration can be challenging and unsuccessful if not taken gradually and carefully.
- It is necessary to monitor the two species and to ensure adequate safe routes are available in case of a disagreement.
Mixed exhibit for Polar bears and Arctic foxes Thalarctos maritimus and Alopex lagopus at Omaha Zoo.
International Zoo Yearbook 8: 18-20.
Der Artikel berichtet über die Vergesellschaftung von 5 Moante alten Eisbären und adulten Polarfüchsen auf einer 300 m² großen Anlage, was über eine Zeitraum von 14 Monaten gut ging.
Das Wildkaninchen im Südwesten Deutschlands.
Teil I: Mitt. BAG Kleinsäuger, Heft 2/2015: 25-30.
Teil II: Mitt. BAG Kleinsäuger, Heft 3/2015: 6-10.
Bis in die erste Hälfte des 19. Jahrhundert war das Europäische Wildkaninchen (Oryctolagus cuniculus [LINNAEUS, 1758]) in Deutschland weit verbreitet und kam im großer Zahl vort. Heute ist es vor allem aufgrund der Myxomatose nur noch in der Mitte und dem Norden Deutschlands häufiger anzutreffen, während es im Süden nur vereinzelt kleine Populationen gibt. ANDREAS RÜHLE beobachtet seit einigen Jahren Wildkaninchen. Das bietet die möglichkeiet, Vergleiche zur eigenen Freilandhaltung von Hauskaninchen bei weitgehend arttypischer Ernährung anzustellen.
Husbandry Manual for the Greater One-horned or Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis LINNÉ, 1758).
94 Seiten. Zoo Basel.
To date two husbandry guidelines for Rhinoceroses have been published, the Husbandry Guidelines for Rhinoceroses, edited by Reinhard Göltenboth et al., published in the EEP Yearbook 1994-95 and the AZA Rhinoceros Husbandry Resource Manual, edited by Michael Fouraker & Tarren Wagener (1996). Both guidelines cover all five living rhino species. The Indian or Greater one-horned rhino, however, is in many aspects somewhat atypical. As the International Studbook Keepers and the EEP Species Coordinators we felt the need to have a more specific manual at hand. Using the two general guidelines as a basis, we compiled this mono-specific husbandry manual for the Indian rhino.
The Basel Zoo has been continuously keeping Indian rhinos for almost half a century. So far 27 calves have been born in Basel, including the first captive-born Indian rhino worldwide (male Rudra, 1956). The experiences of a wide variety of collaborators, former and current, of the Basel Zoo, with very different points of view have been summarized in this paper - keepers, technicians, researchers, veterinarians, curators and directors. Further important input came from many other European and American zoos currently keeping Indian rhinos.
These guidelines emphasize the practical aspects of keeping Indian rhinos. In animals with as slow a reproduction as the Indian rhinos, it is often impossible to give recommendations based on statistically sound data. Many observations have been made only a couple of times over a keeper's professional life. Nonetheless, they can give us hints about how to improve our understanding of these beautiful creatures. However, intuition, common sense and good nerves are as important as quantifiable facts if you want to keep Indian rhinos successfully.