Mittwoch, 01 September 2021 14:26

SCHÜRER, U. (2017)

Über Waldelefanten.

Der Zoologische Garten 86 (1-6): 108-166


An attempt is made to provide a survey of the African Forest Elephants kept in various zoological gardens between 1882 and the present. Due to the very mixed quality and reliability of sources, and the difficult question which elephants from the northern part of their range may have been hybrids, I do not offer the data as a table. The two main areas of origin were today‘s Gabon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, specifically the elephant training stations at Api and Gangala-na-Bodio or Wando and Aru. In the elephant training centers, four calves were born in 1930, of which three survived. From Gangala-na-Bodio, Forest Elephants, Savannah Elephants and hybrids between both have been exported. There are also exports for which data are available, but not on their final destination.

I also discuss the possible existence of Pigmy Elephants, coming to the conclusion that there is no proof. Growth tables and photographs of Forest Elephants in zoological gardens offer too little support for the thesis. Studies of the anatomy and the genome and observations of free-living Forest Elephants suggest that Pigmy Elephants do not exist as a taxonomic unit.

In many cases, the health of Forest Elephants kept in zoological gardens was poor. This was largely due to insufficient housing and management, preventing breeding in Europe and in America. This would have been only theoretically possible in a few cases anyway. Most Forest Elephants were kept as single individuals, either alone or together with African Savanna or Asian Elephants. Unlike those kept in the elephant training centers in what was then the Belgian Congo, most Forest Elephants in zoos were short-lived. With the current knowledge of elephant management, a new start in keeping and breeding Forest Elephants could be made outside their native home. They are critically endangered due to loss of habitat and severe poaching.


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Sonntag, 04 Juli 2021 17:05

SVÁBIK, K. (rev. 2020)

Mixed-species exhibits with Mongooses (Herpestidae) and Madagascar Carnivores (Eupleridae).



Currently, there are 34 species of mongooses described in the family Herpestidae, although further taxonomic research may lead to this number changing in the future. Twenty-five members of the taxon live in Africa, and nine in Asia. According to the current subdivision of Herpestidae, ― using not only morphology, but also behavioural ecology and molecular markers ― two subfamilies are supported within the taxon. The subfamily Herpestinae involves 23, mostly large and solitary mongoose species (genus Atilax, Bdeogale, Cynictis, Galerella, Herpestes, Ichneumia, Paracynictis, Rhynchogale, Xenogale), while the subfamily Mungotinae comprises 11, mainly small and social species (genus Crossarchus, Dologale, Helogale, Liberiictis, Mungos, Suricata). The list shows which species have been kept in mixed exhibits in captivity. Due to the similarities in morphology and lifestyle, two additional species from family Eupleridae - the Ring-tailed Vontsira (Galidia elegans) and the Narrow-striped Boky (Mungotictis decemlineata) - are also mentioned here.


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Sonntag, 04 Juli 2021 07:58

SVÁBIK, K. (2021)

Mixed-species exhibits with Pigs (Suidae).

133 Seiten, Farbfotos

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Mixed-species exhibits with different mammals in the last few decades became a major trend. The success of a mixed-species exhibit depends on how we can take general animal husbandry criteria into account in more complex ways in comparison with a single-species exhibit. Those general rules that are important in animal exhibitry are still valid to a greater extent when presenting a multi-species captive environment. As many articles and other publications deal with the subject of general advantages and disadvantages of the mixed-species exhibits, instead of this, here I will assemble a detailed list of mixed exhibits involving at least one member of Suidae. The main aim of these documents is to summarize data and experiences about this exhibitry type with the hope that these manuals will be useful supplement for the husbandry guidelines of different species.

The study lists species combinations and mixed exhibits with eight species of Suidae. Altogether 158 mixed exhibits with suids have been collected from 96 zoological institutions worldwide until April 2021. Combinations and mixed exhibits were not counted with domestic pig, only a few examples were added as an „interesting” supplements.

The results show that the most popular „participants” are the Red River Hog and the Common Warthog: the former has been listed in 52 and the latter in 50 mixed exhibit. Those folowed by Eurasian Wild Boar which has been listed in 20, Sulawesi Babirusa in 19, Visayan Warty Pig in 14, Giant Forest Hog in 2, Bushpig in 2 and Bearded Pig in 1 mixed exhibit.

In regard to species combinations Common Warthog has been socialized with 62 and Red River Hog with 55 different species. Those followed by Eurasian Wild Boar which has been combined with 26, Sulawesi Babirusa with 14, Bearded Pig with 13, Visayan Warty Pig with 11, Giant Forest Hog 7 and Bushpig with 3 other species.


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Reproductive anatomy,manipulation of ovarian activity and non-surgical embryo recovery in suni (Neotragus moschatus zuluensis).

J. Reprod. Fert. 88: 521-532.


Marked disparity in the uterine horn dimensions and relative degrees of caruncle development in suni suggested that exclusive or predominant dextral implantation occurs in association with bilateral ovulatory activity. Daily urinary measurements of pregnanediol-3-alpha-glucuronide revealed an oestrous cycle of ca. 21 days in length. Ovarian activity was controlled for synchronization of oestrus by using progestagen-impregnated intravaginal sponges and multiple ovulations were induced by using exogenous gonadotrophin therapy. An effective transcervical uterine catheterization technique was developed for the non-surgical collection of embryos. The efficiency of embryo recovery performed 5 days after sponge removal was 50-0%.


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The reproductive behaviour of the suni Neotragus moschatus zuluensis in captivity.

Koedoe 39 (1) 123-126.

Volltext (PDF)


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Montag, 31 Mai 2021 08:53

POHLE, C. (1995)

Huftierhaltung- und -zucht im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde in den ersten vier Jahrzehnten seines Bestehens.

MILU, Berlin 8: 415-451.


Die Arbeit enthält eine Auflistung der seit der Eröffnung des Tierparks bis anfangs 1995 gehaltenen Huftierformen. Basis sind die Tierbücher, die seit Bestehen des Tierparks vorliegen. Bei der Eröffnung wurden 109 Huftiere in 34 Formen gehalten, 1995 waren es 85 Formen mit 662 Individuen. Von den zahlreichen Publikationen über einzelne Arten werden nur wenige genannt, vielmehr wird auf die im MILU in Fortsetzungen veröffentlichte Bibliographie des Tierparks verwiesen.


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Donnerstag, 27 Mai 2021 15:17

FLACK, A. (2015)

Lions, Lords, and Automobiles: Animal Entertainment and Travel Technologies in the Late Twentieth Century.

Arcadia, 2015, no. 17 - Arcadia Collection: Histories across Species.


Opened in April 1966, the “Lions of Longleat” was the world’s first drive-thru lion reserve outside of Africa. Established by circus showman Jimmy Chipperfield and the Marquis of Bath, the Wiltshire attraction invited visitors to enter the park’s “wild” spaces and to gaze upon the beasts from the comfort and security of their very own automobiles. Fifty animals were initially acquired from animal dealers in Uganda and from zoos throughout the UK and Europe to make up the park’s first group of African lions. Presented as “even better than Africa,” the park was immediately popular with the public (even though the idea provoked significant opposition among those concerned by the prospect of predators in the English rural landscape). In the twelve months following the park’s opening, 188,500 visitor cars entered the estate along with 580 motor coaches. Indeed, massive visitor numbers caused long and winding traffic jams that clogged up nearby villages as visitors flocked for a close encounter with the African wilds.


Freigegeben in F
Sonntag, 23 Mai 2021 13:33

ZIDAR, J. (2008)

Keeping red pandas in captivity - Hållande av röd panda i fångenskap.

Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Etologi- och Djurskyddsprogrammet, Skara: Studentarbete 197. 32 Seiten. ISSN 1652-280X.

Volltext (PDF)


The result demonstrates that zoos that keep the red panda not necessarily follow the husbandry and management guidelines for captive red pandas. The result shows that the keeping and management of red pandas in captivity can be improved. Enclosures are small indicating that enclosure size for pandas is not prioritized by zoos. Enclosures in some zoos are even smaller than the minimum recommendations of 80 m2. Almost half the zoos have visitors around big parts of the enclosure despite the recommendation of restricted visitors’ access to two sides of the enclosure. The result shows that carnivores are placed in nearby enclosures, despite the recommendation of at least 50 m. distance. Bamboo is not fed every day in all zoos and some zoos give it only rarely despite the recommendations of 200 g bamboo to each panda, every day. The results show that many zoos offer less nest boxes then recommend. The same survey or a complemented version could be sent to all keepers of the red panda to get results from all regions were the panda is kept. The survey could benefit from some additional questions and some modifications. The following improvements could be made. Instead of asking for the mean summer temperature it would be a good idea to ask for the maximum summer temperature. That way we can see all zoos that should be aware of the risk of high temperatures and consider cooling systems. Instead of asking how large part of the enclosure that is climbable it would be better to ask for the number of climbable structures. This would give better data for comparison. To complement the question of interiors we could ask how many logs, shrubs and rocks are available and how they are distributed. We could also ask if the water sources in the enclosures are used and in what way. This could help us determine if all zoos should have water sources in the enclosure. Another question that could be asked is if enrichments are used, what kind of enrichments that are used, and how often they are available. Future studies could investigate the cause of hair loss in captive pandas. If it is related to stress, the results could indicate that there are deficiencies in the captive environment, and in that case that has to be investigated further. Future field studies where camera traps could be placed near water sources could investigate in what way water is important for red pandas.


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Samstag, 15 Mai 2021 10:19

BROWNING, H. & VEIT, W. (2021)

Freedom and Animal Welfare.

Animals 2021,11: 1148.

Volltext (PDF)

Simple Summary:

There is an ongoing debate on the ethics of keeping animals in captivity and particularly as to whether freedom matters to their welfare. Freedom is a continuum, and zoo animals are provided with some freedoms that wild animals are not (such as freedom from hungeror disease) but may also lack some freedoms (such as behavioural choice). In this paper, we look at how freedom may benefit animal welfare by allowing them access to the resources they need, as well as through the additional value of a free life itself. In the end, we call for more scientific work on comparisons between the welfare of captive and wild animals, as we cannot guess what is good for animals without conducting research to find out. Knowing more about the welfare of captive and wild animals and how it relates to the amount of freedom they experience will allow us to discover what is important for animal welfare and make decisions that better reflect the animals’ own point of view.


The keeping of captive animals in zoos and aquariums has long been controversial. Many take freedom to be a crucial part of animal welfare and, on these grounds, criticise all forms of animal captivity as harmful to animal welfare, regardless of their provisions. Here, we analyse what it might mean for freedom to matter to welfare, distinguishing between the role of freedom as an intrinsic good, valued for its own sake and an instrumental good, its value arising from the increased abilityto provide other important resources. Too often, this debate is conducted through trading intuitions about what matters for animals. We argue for the need for the collection of comparative welfare data about wild and captive animals in order to settle the issue. Discovering more about the links between freedom and animal welfare will then allow for more empirically informed ethical decisions regarding captive animals.


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Sonntag, 02 Mai 2021 09:32


Höchstalter europäischer Vögel im Zoologischen Garten Basel.

Onithologischer Beobachter 61 (4): 128-132.


Bei 72 einheimischen Vogelarten wurde im Zoo Basel eine nennenswerte Haltungsdauer erzielt. In einer Tabelle angegeben werden das erwerbs- bzw. Schlupfdatum, das Alter in Jahren, Monaten und Tagen sowie ob der Vogel am 01.09 1964 noch am leben war. Die Veröffentlichung wird durch eine hier ebenfalls berücksichtigte Kurzmitteilung von A. SCHENKER (1978) im Ornithol. Beobachter 75 (2): 96 ergänzt.


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