Predicted distributions and conservation status of two threatened Southeast Asian small carnivores: The banded civet and Hose 's civet.
Mammalia 77(3): 261–271. DOI 10.1515/mammalia-2012-0110
Knowledge of the distribution and habitat preferences of a species is of paramount importance when assessing its conservation status. We used accurately recorded occurrence records and ecological niche modelling to predict the distribution of two threatened and poorly known small carnivore species that occur in Southeast Asia, the banded civet (Hemigalus derbyanus) and Hose’s civet (Diplogale hosei), and analysed their spatial niche differentiation for habitat and elevation. We then identified possible anthropogenic threats, and used our modelling predictions to recommend surveying priorities. The predicted distribution of the banded civet was principally in lowland evergreen forest in southern Myanmar/Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and three Mentawai Islands (Siberut, Sipora and South Pagai), and for Hose ’ s civet in evergreen forest across the higher elevation regions of Borneo. Our niche analyses suggested that there is a tendency for these two species to separate spatially along an elevation gradient: the banded civet is mainly found in lowland areas, whereas Hose ’ s civet primarily occurs at higher elevations. Our study strongly indicated that these two viverrids are forest-dependent species that may be threatened by forest loss, degradation and fragmentation. Field surveys should be prioritised in areas where each species is predicted to occur and no records currently exist.
Distribution, population size and morphometrics of the giant-striped mongoose Galidictis grandidieri Wozencraft 1986 in the sub-arid zone of south-.western Madagascar.
Mammalia 75(4): 353-361
Galidictis grandidieri (Wozencraft 1986) is a nocturnal carnivoran endemic to the threatened spiny forest ecosystem of the Mahafaly Plateau in southern Madagascar. Previous investigations estimated a total population size of about 3000 individuals restricted to an area of 440 squkm, making it one of the geographically most limited and rarest mammalian carnivoran species worldwide. Given the increasing threat through habitat destruction we compiled additional mor- phometric measurements and investigated the distribution and abundance of the species, using grid and transect cap- tures. G. grandidieri were larger than indicated by previous samples and showed signifi cant sexual dimorphism with a mean body mass of 1640 g for males and 1400 g for females (overall mean: 1500 g). The highest densities were found in the littoral forest at the western edge of the Mahafaly Plateau (six to eight individuals/squkm). From there, its abundance declined exponentially towards the east. The distribution of G. grandidieri is probably determined by decreasing water accessibility away from the cliff. We estimate a total distri-bution area of about 1500 squkm and a total population size between 3115 and 4995 animals. Based on these estimates, G. grandidieri occurs in a much larger area than assumed so far, but reaches lower densities.
Mongooses - Their natural history and behaviour.
144 Seiten, 10 s/w Bildtaferln und 26 Strichzeichnungen.
Verlag Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh und London.
- General natural history
- Snakes and other venomous animals
- Reproduction and parental care
- Life span
- Attack and defence
- Sexual and some other types of behaviour
- In the Hawaiian Islands
- Indian folk tales
- In Ancient Egypt
- Mongooses as pets
- Portraits of some species
- Diseases and parasites
- The kinds of mongooses
Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen.
Verlag Wolfgang Walther, Erlangen
Textbände 3-7, Bildtafeln, 5 Ergänzungsbände von GOLDFUSS, G. A. & WAGNER, J. A.:
The hog-badger is not an edentate: systematics and evolution of the genus Arctonyx (Mammalia: Mustelidae)
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 154 (2): 353–385. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00416.x
Hog-badgers (mustelid carnivorans classified in the genus Arctonyx) are distributed throughout East and Southeast Asia, including much of China, the eastern Indian Subcontinent, Indochina and the large continental Asian island of Sumatra. Arctonyx is usually regarded as monotypic, comprising the single species A. collaris F. Cuvier, 1825, but taxonomic boundaries in the genus have never been revised on the basis of sizeable series from throughout this geographical range. Based on a review of most available specimens in world museums, we recognize three distinctive species within the genus, based on craniometric analyses, qualitative craniodental features, external comparisons, and geographical and ecological considerations. Arctonyx albogularis (Blyth, 1853) is a shaggy-coated, medium-sized badger widely distributed in temperate Asia, from Tibet and the Himalayan region to eastern and southern China. Arctonyx collaris F. Cuvier, 1825, is an extremely large, shorter-haired badger, distributed throughout Southeast Asia, from eastern India to Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. The world's largest extant badger, A. collaris co-occurs with A. albogularis in eastern India and probably in southern China, and fossil comparisons indicate that its geographical range may have extended into central China in the middle Pleistocene. The disjunctly distributed species Arctonyx hoevenii (Hubrecht, 1891), originally described within the order ‘Edentata’ by a remarkable misunderstanding, is the smallest and darkest member of the genus and is endemic to the Barisan mountain chain of Sumatra. Apart from A. hoevenii, no other Arctonyx occurs on the Sunda Shelf below peninsular Thailand. The natural history of each species of Arctonyx, so far as is known, is briefly reviewed.
The Distribution of Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana Blanford, 1877) in the United Arab Emirates.
Journal of Arid Environments 54 (1): 55-60.
Blanford's fox, Vulpes cana, was first recorded in Arabia in 1981 and in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 1995. It has since been shown that they are locally abundant in their range in the north-eastern mountains of UAE. Population density, as determined by catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE), was compared for several sampled sites. Predators or the lack thereof may produce the trends observed, as foxes may be an important food source for Arabian leopards. External body measurements, except for body weight, are similar to those previously recorded. Tail tip color is not conclusive in their identification, as individuals with white- and black-tipped tails have been caught.
100 S., 25 s/w-Abb..
Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei 189. 1. Auflage.
A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg Lutherstadt, 1957.
Der Band ist die erste Monographie über die Wildkatze in deutscher Sprache. Jahrelange Beobachtungen an Wildkatzen und die Kenntnis der einschlägigen Literatur befähigen den Verfasser, diese Monographie so umfassend wie nur igend möglich zu gestalten. Es wird auf die Formbildung in und außerhalb Mitteleuropas, die Unterarten, fossile Vorkommen, Artgeschichte, Gattungsverwandtschaft und die Stellung der Gattung Felis im System eingegangen. Aussehen und Gestalt sowie Leben und Verhalten werden beschrieben, weitere Kapitel befassen sich mit der Jugendentwicklung, dem Seelenleben, der Beudeutung für den Menschen, Parasiten und den Vergleich von Haus- und Wildkatze.
A revised taxonomy of the Felidae.
The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group.
Cat News Special Issue 11, 80 pp, mit Farbfotos und Verbreitungskarten. ISSN 1027-2992.
- The current classification of the Felidae was reviewed by a panel of 22 experts divided into core, expert and review groups, which make up the Cat Classification Task Force CCTF of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group.
- The principal aim of the CCTF was to produce a consensus on a revised classification of the Felidae for use by the IUCN.
- Based on current published research, the CCTF has fully revised the classification of the Felidae at the level of genus, species and subspecies.
- A novel traffic-light system was developed to indicate certainty of each taxon based on morphological, molecular, biogeographical and other evidence. A concordance of good evidence in the three principal categories was required to strongly support the acceptance of a taxon.
- Where disagreements exist among members of the CCTF, these have been highlighted in the accounts for each species. Only further research will be able to answer the potential conflicts in existing data.
- A total of 14 genera, 41 species and 77 subspecies is recognised by most members of the CCTF, which is a considerable change from the classification proposed by Wozencraft (2005), the last major revision of the Felidae.
- Future areas of taxonomic research have been highlighted in order to answer current areas of uncertainty.8. This classification of the Felidae will be reviewed every five years unless a major new piece of research requires a more rapid revision for the conservation benefit of felid species at risk of extinction.
Multi-locus analyses reveal four giraffe species instead of one.
Current Biology 26 (18): 2543-2549.
Traditionally, one giraffe species and up to eleven subspecies have been recognized; however, nine subspecies are commonly accepted. Even after a century of research, the distinctness of each giraffe subspecies remains unclear, and the genetic variation across their distribution range has been incompletely explored. Recent genetic studies on mtDNA have shown reciprocal monophyly of the matrilines among seven of the nine assumed subspecies. Moreover, until now, genetic analyses have not been applied to biparentally inherited sequence data and did not include data from all nine giraffe subspecies. We sampled natural giraffe populations from across their range in Africa, and for the first time individuals from the nominate subspecies, the Nubian giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis Linnaeus 1758 , were included in a genetic analysis. Coalescence-based multi-locus and population genetic analyses identify at least four separate and monophyletic clades, which should be recognized as four distinct giraffe species under the genetic isolation criterion. Analyses of 190 individuals from maternal and biparental markers support these findings and further suggest subsuming Rothschild’s giraffe into the Nubian giraffe, as well as Thornicroft’s giraffe into the Masai giraffe . A giraffe survey genome produced valuable data from microsatellites, mobile genetic elements, and accurate divergence time estimates. Our findings provide the most inclusive analysis of giraffe relationships to date and show that their genetic complexity has been underestimated, highlighting the need for greater conservation efforts for the world’s tallest mammal.
First insights into past biodiversity of giraffes based on mitochondrial sequences from museum specimens.
European Journal of Taxonomy 703: 1–33. ISSN 2118-9773. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.703
Intensified exploration of sub-Saharan Africa during the 18th and 19th centuries led to many newly described giraffe subspecies. Several populations described at that time are now extinct, which is problematic for a full understanding of giraffe taxonomy. In this study, we provide mitochondrial sequences for 41 giraffes, including 19 museum specimens of high importance to resolve giraffe taxonomy, such as Zarafa from Sennar and two giraffes from Abyssinia (subspecies camelopardalis), three of the first southern individuals collected by Levaillant and Delalande (subspecies capensis), topotypes of the former subspecies congoensis and cottoni, and giraffes from an extinct population in Senegal. Our phylogeographic analysis shows that no representative of the nominate subspecies camelopardalis was included in previous molecular studies, as Zarafa and two other specimens assigned to this taxon are characterized by a divergent haplogroup, that the former subspecies congoensis and cottoni should be treated as synonyms of antiquorum, and that the subspecies angolensis and capensis should be synonymized with giraffa, whereas the subspecies wardi should be rehabilitated. In addition, we found evidence for the existence of a previously unknown subspecies from Senegal (newly described in this study), which is now extinct. Based on these results, we propose a new classification of giraffes recognizing three species and 10 subspecies. According to our molecular dating estimates, the divergence among these taxa has been promoted by Pleistocene climatic changes resulting in either savannah expansion or the development of hydrographical networks (Zambezi, Nile, Lake Chad, Lake Victoria).