Lion Tamarins: Biology and Conservation.
Smithsonian Institution PressWashington, DC. ISBN 1588340724.
Buchbesprechung (BRAIN, P. F.):
An entire volume devoted to the genus Leontopithecus that includes four of the most charismatic South American primates namely the Golden lion tamarin ( L. rosalia); Black lion tamarin (L. chrysopygus); Golden-headed lion tamarin ( L. chrysomelas) and the Black-faced lion tamarin ( L. caissara)! This book, with its 48 contributors, essentially arose out of a series of meetings discussing lion tamarin research and conservation held in Belo Horizonte, Brazil in 1997. The volume is divided into three sections, each with a series of commissioned chapters. Section 1 is devoted to ‘The history and Status of the Lion Tamarins’ and deals with issues such as the discovery of these primates; the phenomenon of their declines within their Brazilian localities in the early 1960s and the variety of conservation initiatives undertaken on them up to 2001. The statuses of these animals in both the wild and captivity are also presented. Section 1 also considers how 1968 changes in Brazilian law recognizing the role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) has resulted in “…empowerment of activities supporting biodiversity conservation, protected areas preservation and management and endangered species recovery…” The section also discusses captive breeding programmes and their potential benefits but warns that the prognoses for the four species are very different (the Golden lion tamarin, having a well-established, genetically diverse population, is certainly in the best situation). Section 2 ‘The Biology of Lion Tamarins’ considers, amongst other issues, genetic studies on these primates; their mating systems and their reproductive biology (“Critical, both for the effective management of a captive breeding program and for the assessment of the viability and future status of wild populations.”). The section also deals with behavioural ecology considerations (e.g. time budgets and the use of space); mating systems and group dynamics; infant care (lion tamarin mothers are more involved in infant transport than are other callitrichid primates and there is a greater level of provisioning to infants) and the different kinds of communication employed by these small primates. Diseases (infective but also congenital, dental and stress) are also considered. Section 3 is devoted to ‘Conservation and Management of Lion Tamarins in the Wild’ and considers reintroduction and translocation studies; the impact of pre-release environments and post-release management on reintroduced Golden lion tamarins; metapopulation management in the conservation of Black lion tamarins; in situ conservation education in relation to these animals as well as challenges for the future.
This is an impressive volume. Callitrichid enthusiasts will be pleased to have all this currently scattered information in a single book. On another level, however, the volume provides a graphic account of the range of scientific studies and other initiatives (including education and political change) needed to undertake effective conservation of complex animals such as these primates. It also, very effectively, illustrates the benefits associated with carrying out much of the work in the country of origin. It is worth reminding ourselves that a substantial number of primate species are predominantly found in only four countries, all with substantial problems
Taxonomy and Nomenclature: Systematic List of Living Primates.
in: T-W-FIENNES, R. N. (1972). Pathology of Simian Primates Part I: General Pathology: XXVII-XLVIII.
Verlag S. Karger • Basel • München • Paris • London • New York • Sydney
Reprinted with amendments from NAPIER, J. R. & NAPIER, P. H. (1967). A Handbook of Living Primates. Academic Press, London.
Die Liste enthält 12 Familien, davon 6 in 15 Untrerfamilien aufgeteilt mit 62 Gattungen und 185 Arten.
Knaurs Kontinente in Farben: Afrika.
298 Seiten, mit 128 einfarbigen und 102 mehrfarbigen Fotos sowie 19 Karten.
Übersetzt und bearbeitet von Margarete Auer.
Verlag Droemer Knaur
Life on high: The diversity of small mammals at high altitude in South Africa.
Biodiversity and Conservation 21 (21): 960-31152823. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-012-0340-0.
The Great Escarpment is the major mountain system in South Africa, yet very few biological surveys have been conducted outside of the well-known Drakensberg section. This is surprising given the important role that mountains play in local and global biodiversity patterns. In this study, small mammal diversity and community composition were estimated at three high altitude (>1,700 m) sites within the Sneeuberg Mountain Complex (SMC) of the Great Escarpment, South Africa from June 2009 to May 2010. The influences of selected environmental variables on diversity were also tested. Of 423 live-captures, a total of 292 unique individuals of 12 small mammal species (one shrew, one elephant shrew and 10 rodents) were identified during 5,280 trap nights. No single environmental variable could account for the variation observed in diversity measurements but vegetation height appeared to be the most important factor to influence the number of individuals captured. It is hypothesised that the high species richness and diversity of small mammals observed in the SMC compared to other parts of the Great Escarpment is due to the SMC being located in a transition zone of the Grassland and Nama-Karoo biomes. Our results suggest that the SMC could be important in conserving small mammal species from western and eastern assemblages across South Africa.
Distribution and habitat choice of Capeclawless otters, Aonyx capensis, in South Africa.
African Journal of Wildlife Research 37 (Apr 2007): 61-70. DOI: 10.3957/0379-4369-37.1.61
Cape clawless otters, Aonyx capensis, are widely distributed in South Africa, as elsewhere on the continent. They occur in a wide variety of environments and most aquatic habitats, from freshwater lakes to the marine littoral,and even in episodic rivers in arid areas, provided freshwater sources are adequate and sufficient food is available. This animal is not much affected by turbid water as it locates prey by touch, and usually forages close to shores or banks. Evidence of presence in given localities and habitats, distributed over a large area of the Northern, Western, and Eastern Cape provinces, was deduced from signs (faecal deposits or distinctive tracks) on land. Accepting the inherent pitfalls of this approach we nevertheless feel using it is acceptable for a first approximation of habitat preferences over a large geographical area. Results point to areas with dense reed beds and a rocky substrate on banks being used most intensively, probably on account of a localized high food biomass.
Coastal Dune Forest Rehabilitation:A Case Study on Rodent and Bird Assemblages in Northern Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.
In: Coastal Dunes: pp.103-115. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-74002-5_7 .
Coastal dune forests in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, are continually exposed to natural and man-induced disturbances that usually initiate ecological succession (van Aarde et al. 1996a; Mentis and Ellery 1994). This succession is associated with temporal and spatial changes in vegetation structure that influence habitat suitability and ultimately the structure of vertebrate communities living there. For example, in the case of birds, we know from studies conducted elsewhere that species richness and diversity correlates with vegetation structural heterogeneity (see Kritzinger and van Aarde 1998 for references).Vegetation succession is also known to affect small mammals (Foster and Gaines 1991), though the patterns recorded in coastal dune forests are less obvious than those for birds (see Ferreira and van Aarde 1999 for references).
Annotated Checklist and Provisional Conservation Status of Namibian Reptiles.
168 Seiten. Windhoek. ISBN
An annotated checklist of indigenous and potentially indigenous Namibian terrestrial, aquatic and marine reptiles is presented. The purpose is to serve as an interim description of Namibian reptile diversity, to establish a taxonomic and biogeographical baseline, and as a preliminary review of the conservation status of Namibian reptiles. Two hundred and forty species of indigenous reptiles are presently known to occur in Namibia. These species comprise an array of approximately 265 described (but not always recognized) taxa, several of which are probably unwarranted. Species accounts are presented for all these species. Four accounts are for new species currently being described. Nineteen species have not yet been recorded from Namibia, but are expected to (accounts given) and another 6 species are less likely to occur (no accounts given). Full accounts are given for the 17 species which have been formally recorded in the past, but the lack of recent evidence suggests that the species is now locally extinct, the original report erroneous, or the species’ occurred as vagrants. Four additional species had been included on various published lists in the past, but have never been formally documented, no specimens are known to exist, and it is unlikely that the species would occur today even as vagrants (no accounts given). In total, 276 species-accounts are presented. Each account cites the original reference and type locality for each taxon, and a short description of the Namibian distribution. Emphasis is placed on Namibian and international legal and conservation status. Eighty-five species (33%) were found to be of local conservation concern. Gaps in knowledge (e.g. taxonomy, biogeography, and conservation status), where future research should be directed, are noted.
The Herpetology of the Southern Kalahari Domain.
Supplement to Koedoe 1984: 171-186.
The herpetofauna of the southrn Kalahari has mixed affinities, as this area lies on a rainfall gradient in a critical area where a transition between the arid south-west and the moister northe-east takes place. As the variation in substrate type is relatively limited, the effect of the rainfall gradient appears to influence and determine the range limits of many taxa in which of 55 recorded reptiles, 11 western taxa overlap or form a parapatric zone with 25 eastern taxa, while the remaining taxa are endemic or wide-ranging.
Zur Herpetofauna des Brandbergs, Südwest-Afrika.
Bonn. zool. Beitr. 34 (1-3): 293-309
Der Brandberg liegt isoliert am Rande der Vornamib-Flächen innerhalb der Nord-Süd verlaufenden Bergränder der Großen Randstufe. Floristisch macht er einen Teil der Karroo-Namibischen Florenregion aus. Es herrscht troisches, episodisch-periodisch sommerfeuchtes Halbwüsten bis Trockenklima. Herpetofaunistische Grenzen lassen sich nicht genau definieren. Die Herpetofauna umfasst 41 Formen (5 Froschlurche, 26 Eidechsen, 10 Schlangen); sie wird dargestellt und bestehende Affinitäten zu den umliegenden zoogeografischen Subregionen werden erörtert. Als Neunachweise für den Brandberg konnten Bufo d. dombensis, Tomopterna marmorata, Python anchietae, Boaedon f. fuliginosus, Naja nigricollis nigricincta und Bitis a. arientans belegt werden.
Scorpions of the Brandberg Massif, Namibia: Species Richness Inversely Correlated with Altitude.
African Invertebrates, 49(2):77-107. https://doi.org/10.5733/afin.049.0205
A previous list of scorpions from the Brandberg Massif and vicinity, north-western Namibia (Omaruru District. Erongo Region), is updated, based on a survey of the Massif and surrounding areas (the region delimited by 21°00′S–21°30′S and 14°00′–15°00′E) conducted during three separate expeditions, and augmented by an examination of material in museum collections. More than 1000 specimens, representing more than 100 point-locality records, were examined for the study. Notes on the ecology and distribution of the scorpions on the Massif and surrounding areas are provided. Excluding one dubious record, 20 scorpion species in seven genera (Brandbergia, Lisposoma, Hottentotta, Parabuthus, Uroplectes, Hadogenes, and Opistophthalmus) of four families (Bothriuridae, Buthidae, Liochelidae, Scorpionidae) are recorded from the area, which presently has the richest scorpion fauna in Namibia, if not southern Africa, and ranks among those with the richest scorpion faunas in the world. The high diversity of scorpions on the Brandberg Massif and vicinity is attributed to the heterogeneity of landforms, substrata and habitats in the area. The scorpions of the Massif and surrounding areas may be classified into seven ecomorphotypes, using every available niche. The species richness of the scorpion fauna is inversely correlated with altitude. The greatest diversity of genera and species occurs at the base of the Massif and in the surrounding areas, and decreases towards the summit. Five species occur in the area surrounding the Massif but not at its base, five at its base (below 500 m) but not on its slopes, two on its lower slopes (500–1000 m), but not on its middle slope (1000–1500 m), upper slope (1500–2000 m) or summit (above 2000 m), and two on its summit, upper and middle slopes only. Only five species occur from the base to the summit of the Massif.