MATSCHEI, C. (2003)
Haltung und Zuchr von Goralen, Nemorhaedus (Smith 1827) in Zoologischen Gärten von Nordamerika, Europa und Singapur.
MILU, Berlin 11 (1): 43-56.
Haltungs- und Zuchtgeschichte der Gorale in Nordamerika, Europa und Singapur von 1957-2003 werden beschrieben. 3 Arten in 5 Formen werden nachgewiesen. Die derzeit erfolgreichste Unterart ist der Mittelchinesische Goral. Alle Tiere der westlichn Hemisphäre sind auf 7 Importtiere des San Diego Zoo in den 1980er Jahren zurückzuführen. Bis 2002 wurden in Europa, Nordamerika und Singapur mehr als 130 Geburten gemeldet. Einige Tiergärten der USA unterbrachen die Zucht Ende der 90er Jahre.
MERZ, E. (1978)
Male-male interactions with dead infants in Macaca sylvanus.
Primates 19: 749–754. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02373640
Arbeit durchgeführt in der Montagne des Singes, Kintzheim
Infants ofMacaca sylvanus are often involved in male-male interactions. Very similar interactions occur also with dead infants. The present paper describes male-male interactions with dead infants and emphasizes similarities and differences between these and those involving live infants. Causation is also briefly discussed.
BISSONNETTE, A., DE VRIES, H. & VAN SCHAYK, C. P. (2009)
Coalitions in male Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus: strength, success and rules of thumb.
Animal Behaviour 78 (2): 329-335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.05.010
Arbeit durchgeführt im Affenberg Salem
Several quantitative models of coalition formation assume that a coalition is successful if the strength of the coalition is greater than the strength of the target, but unsuccessful otherwise. However, strong empirical evidence in favour of this hypothesis is still lacking. In this study, we provide an empirical test of this assumption in Barbary macaque males, by using a field-based estimate of individual competitive ability from which coalition strength is derived. Coalition success was determined for 90 coalitions composed of two partners and targeted at one male. Of these, 72.2% were behaviourally successful and 27.8% were unsuccessful. Asymmetry in strength was a significant predictor of coalition success, as this factor alone could explain up to 78.6% of coalition outcomes in the study group. Males behaved as if they were at least partially informed about the nature of this asymmetry. The targets of attacks by coalitions were more likely to counterattack as asymmetry in strength decreased, and coalition partners formed coalitions that produced on average a greater asymmetry in strength than would be expected by chance. However, we provide evidence that males may have used simple rules of thumb based on their knowledge of dyadic and third-party relationships, rather than estimates of asymmetry in strength per se. We conclude that competitive ability is an important factor in coalition formation in Barbary macaque males and discuss additional factors not included in this study, which may account for the unexplained outcomes.
AMICI, F., WIDDIG, A., VON FERSEN, L.. LOPEZ CAICOXA, A. & BONAVENTURA, M. (2021)
Intra-specific Variation in the Social Behavior of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).
Front. Psychol., Sec. Comparative Psychology 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.666166
Arbeit durchgeführt in der La Montagne des Singes Kintzheim, im Tiergarten Nürnberg und im Zoo Cordoba.
Non-human primates show an impressive behavioral diversity, both across and within species. However, the factors explaining intra-specific behavioral variation across groups and individuals are yet understudied. Here, we aimed to assess how group size and living conditions (i.e., captive, semi-free-ranging, wild) are linked to behavioral variation in 5 groups of Barbary macaques (N=137 individuals). In each group, we collected observational data on the time individuals spent in social interactions and on the group dominance style, along with experimental data on social tolerance over food and neophobia. Our results showed that differences in group size predicted differences in the time spent in social interactions, with smaller groups spending a higher proportion of time in close spatial proximity, but a lower proportion of time grooming. Moreover, group size predicted variation in dominance style, with smaller groups being more despotic. Social tolerance was affected by both group size and living conditions, being higher in smaller groups and in groups living in less natural conditions. Finally, individual characteristics also explained variation in social tolerance and neophobia, with socially integrated individuals having higher access to food sources, and higher-ranking ones being more neophobic. Overall, our results support the view that intra-specific variation is a crucial aspect in primate social behavior and call for more comparative studies to better understand the sources of within-species variation.
WIDDIG, A., STREICH, W. J. & TEMBROCK, G. (2000)
Coalition formation among male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).
Am. J. Primatol. 50 (1):37–51. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(200001)50:1<37::AID-AJP4>3.0.CO;2-3
Arbeit durchgeführt im Affenberg Salem.
A coalition is formed when one animal intervenes in an ongoing conflict between two parties to support one side. Since support of one party is also an act against the other party, coalitions are triadic interactions involving a supporter, a recipient, and a target. The purpose of this study was to test which of three possible theories explains coalition formation among male Barbary macaques: 1) Males support kin to enhance their indirect fitness (kin selection). 2) Males support nonkin to receive future reciprocal support (reciprocal altruism). 3) Males pursue self-interests and immediately benefit via nonkin support (cooperation). Coalition formation was investigated among 31 semi-free male Barbary macaques in the Salem Monkey Park, Germany during the mating season. The results show: 1) Males intervened more often in dyadic conflicts in which a related opponent was involved and supported related opponents more than unrelated opponents. Close kin supported each other more often than distant kin. 2) Some evidence for reciprocal support was found. However, reciprocity was probably a by-product of targeting the same individuals for dominance. 3) Coalition formation among nonkin is best interpreted as cooperation, based on self-interests. Male Barbary macaques seem to intervene more often to stabilize and less often to improve their rank. Although our data were limited, the results revealed that kin support, reciprocal support, and cooperative support were all involved in coalition formation among male Barbary macaques.
PAUL, A. & KUESTER, J. (1996)
Infant handling by female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Affenberg Salem: testing functional and evolutionary hypotheses.
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 39: 133–145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002650050275.
Arbeit durchgeführt im Affenberg Salem
Assisting the genetic parents in the rearing of young, a widespread phenomenon in many birds and mammals, is usually regarded as an altruistic or mutualistic behavior. Infant handling by females other than the mother is also common in many primates, but due to high within- and between-species variation and limited knowledge about fitness consequences there is no consensus about its evolutionary and functional significance. Analysis of female infant-handling patterns and its reproductive consequences in three groups of semifree-ranging Barbary macaques revealed that nulliparous females significantly more often handled infants than parous females, but infant handling experience did not affect survival of their own first live-born offspring. Females interacted preferentially with closely related infants, but infant handling frequency improved neither infant survival nor maternal fecundity. Reciprocation of infant handling by mothers was rare. Although “aunting to death” occurred in the population, the hypothesis that infant handling serves to reduce the fitness of competitors was not supported. Limited evidence suggests that females at least sometimes use infants as strategic tools in the course of alliance formation. In concert with this poor evidence for a functional basis of the behavior, several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that infant handling evolved as a non-adaptive by-product of a strong selection for mother-offspring bonding. (1) Rates of infant handling were highest among females that experienced early infant loss. (2) Females caring for infants or yearlings of their own handled other infants significantly less often than females without dependent offspring. (3) Infant handling by females was most prevalent during the infants’ first month of life. (4) Both “aunting to death” and a successful adoption occurred irrespective of kinship relations. Although the by-product hypothesis appears to be the only one able to explain all results of this study, the apparent rarity of infant handling in non-female-bonded species suggest that kin selection is a possible alternative explanation for the evolution of female infant-handling in primates.
PAUL, A., KUESTER, J. & ARNEMANN, J. (1996)
The sociobiology of male–infant interactions in Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus.
Animal Behaviour 51 (1): 155-170. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1996.0013.
Arbeit durchgeführt im Affenberg Salem.
Unlike most Old World monkeys, male Barbary macaques frequently associate with and care for infants shortly after birth. Three functional hypotheses have been proposed to explain male–infant interactions in this and other species. (1) The ‘paternal investment hypothesis’ proposes that males invest in their own progeny or otherwise related infants, (2) the ‘mating effort hypothesis’ proposes males care for infants to increase their access to mothers, and (3) the ‘agonistic buffering hypothesis’ proposes that males use infants to regulate their relations with other males. These hypotheses were tested using data on male–infant interactions, paternity and sexual behaviour obtained during a longitudinal study on Barbary macaques living in a large outdoor enclosure. Paternity of 91 infants was determined by DNA fingerprinting. Hypothesis 1 was not supported, because males did not preferentially interact with closely related infants. Similarly, hypothesis 2 was not supported because male caretakers were not more likely to sire the next infant of the mother than non-caretakers. Hypothesis 3 was supported because (1) the direction of at least one type of triadic interactions was significantly biased towards higher-ranking males, (2) the patterning of triadic interactions was strongly dependent on the rank distance between the males, and (3) interaction frequency increased significantly during periods of high inter-male tension. While kin relations were unimportant, the use of infants familiar with the opponent suggests that males make use of their knowledge of relationships between other group members. Beyond agonistic buffering, triadic interactions may serve an important function in coalition formation.
PAUL, A. & THOMMEN, D. (1984)
Timing of Birth, Female Reproductive Success and Infant Sex Ratio in Semifree-Ranging Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus).
Folia Primatologica 42 (1): 2-16. ISSN: 0015-5713 (Print); eISSN: 1421-9980 (Online).
Arbeit durchgeführt im Affenberg Salem.
Examined were 5 years of data on the reproduction of a semifree-ranging population of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). In this seasonally breeding species – birth season: mid-March to beginning of August – primiparous 4-year-old females gave birth significantly later in the year than older primiparous and multiparous females, respectively. Multiparous females without an infant from the preceding season gave birth significantly earlier than females who had raised an infant. 88.4% of birth intervals were approximately 1 year, 11.6% about 2 years. Infant loss did not influence the length of the interbirth interval, but after the birth of the next surviving infant the interval was significantly longer. The interval following the 1st infant was significantly longer than after subsequent infants. After the birth of daughters primiparous females had markedly longer birth intervals than after the birth of sons. Infant mortality was 9.1%. Neonatal mortality was influenced by rank and parity of the mother and sex of the infant. Allomothering and aggression by older group members are thought to be the main causes of infant mortality. Female reproduction rates were not dependent on rank. High-ranking females, however, bore their 1st infant significantly earlier than low-ranking females. Low-ranking females had more daughters than sons, in high-ranking females the reverse was found. Differences from findings of other species are discussed with regard to differences in social organization and the reproductive strategies resulting from them.
RIEGER, I. (1978)
Social Behaviour of Striped Hyenas at the Zurich Zoo.
Carnivore 1: 49-60.
Meeting striped hyenas sniff at the mane and the anal pouch of a conspecific, which presents by turning its tail upright and extruding its anal pouch. During agonistic behavior, striped hyenas turn their black throat patches towards one another. Bites are directed against this patch and the legs. Back returning inhibits attack. For optical displays, striped hyenas use their tails, manes and ears. Meet i ng behavior of striped and spotted hyenas is compared and the evolution of anal gland phermones is discussed. Results of this paper suggest that certain subspecies of striped hyenas might forage in small social units.
VÁCLAVOVÁ, L. & ANDĚRA, M. (2007)
Historie chovu a výskytu paovce hřivnaté (Ammotragus lervia) v České republice.
History of keeping and occurrence of the Barbary Sheep (Ammotragus lervia) in the Czech Republic.
Lynx (Praha), n. s., 38: 73–82 (2007). ISSN 0024–7774.
In the Czech Republic, Barbary sheep have been kept without interruption since the 1940s. The first animals were imported by W. HAGENBECK to the Prague Zoo in 1935–1936. The greatest development of the Barbary sheep breeding occurred in the 1980s, at which time the Barbary sheep were bred in 9 of the 15 zoos in the Czech Republic, and their total number exceeded 100 head annually (Fig. 1). Thereafter, by the mid-1990s, the number decreased, varying between 33 and 54 head since 1995. In recent years, Barbary sheep have been bred in only four zoos in this country, viz. in Brno, Dvůr Králové nad Labem, Hodonín, and Prague, the latter being the only one that keeps a rather numerous herd. During the past 22 years (1984–2006), with exact evidence of the breeding, 388 births of young were recorded (mean, 17.7 births / year, range 4–38 births / year), yielding a total of 494 young (i.e. 1.3 young per parturition on average). In the period mentioned, the percentage of stillborn young averaged 6.6%, and 55.1% of young survived the 1st year of life on average (Table 1). In captivity, the Barbary sheep show distinct seasonality in breeding: while the young are born throughout the year (except in October when not a single parturition was recorded), the absolute majority of parturitions (86.7%) occurring in late winter and early spring (February to May, Fig. 2). In the 1970s, Barbary sheep several times escaped from within the Plzeň Zoo and, as a result, a free-living population developed (1984–1987). This population appeared to be very vital, capable of reproducing every year and finally divided into several groups which stayed in the areas of several hunting grounds west of Plzeň in the area limited by Road E49 (from Plzeň to Karlovy Vary), the stream of the Mže River, the Hracholusky Dam Reservoir, and the valley of the Úterský Brook (district of Plzeň-sever). The occurrence of the Barbary sheep was recorded in 5 mapping quadrats (6044, 6144, 6145, 6245, 6246), corresponding to 0.8% of the territory of the Czech Republic (Fig. 3). According to unsubstantiated reports, in the early 1990s the population numbered some 47 head, young less than two years of age accounting for over two thirds accounting for that number. In 1991 a decision was reached to completely remove the Barbary sheep from the wild. The last concrete evidence of their occurrence was a female shot in the hunting ground of the Hunters Association at Pernarec in August 1994. The Barbary sheep living in the wild mostly stayed in steep slope terrain locally with rock formations, lying at 380–420 m a. s. l. and mostly grown with secondary young pine-oak woodland (Figs. 4, 5). The animals were rather tame and aggressive at first, but later they gradually adopted the behavioural responses of free-living game. Judging from the occurrence of young, the population reproduced throughout the calendar year. Two shot specimens were subject to epizootological examinations, supplemented by parasitological faecal analyses that revealed the presence of common species of parasites infesting both free-living and domestic ruminants. The occurrence of the Barbary sheep, later recorded in the area to the NE of Plzeň (1999–2000), was connected with several individuals that escaped from the newly established game sanctuary at the boundary between the districts of Rokycany and Rakovník.
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