Der Luchs im Jura – unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Solothurner Juras.
Mitteilungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft des Kantons Solothurn, Heft 43, 2017, S. 177–234.
Der Luchs war bereits während der letzten Eiszeit im Jura heimisch, aber im 18. Jahrhundert starb er aus. Nach der Rettung der Wälder und der wilden Paarhufer wurde der Luchs 1974/75 im Neuenburger und Waadtländer Jura wiederangesiedelt. Erste Tiere wanderten in den frühen 1980er-Jahren gegen Nordosten ab und erreichten 1983 den Kanton Solothurn. Heute ist praktisch der gesamte schweizerische und französische Jura besiedelt. Der Artikel rekapituliert die Geschichte dieser Rückkehr und präsentiert Erkenntnisse zur Biologie und Ökologie des Luchses. Die Grundlagen des Monitorings, das Informationen zu Verbreitung, Bestand und Entwicklung liefert, werden vorgestellt. Die ökologischen Voraussetzungen für die Existenz des Luchses im Jura sind so gut wie seit Jahrhunderten nicht mehr. Aber der Jura ist eine intensiv genutzte Kulturlandschaft, und der Luchs muss sich Lebensraum und Beutetiere mit dem Menschen teilen. Mögliche Konflikte, die sich daraus ergeben können, werden dargelegt und Lösungen aufgezeigt.
50 years of lynx presence in Switzerland.
KORA Bericht Nr. 99e. 80 Seiten, farbig illustriert. ISSN 1422-5123.
Wiederansiedlung der Moorente am Steinhuder Meer - ein Rückblick auf 8 Jahre Auswilderung.
WildTierZeit 01/2022: 4-8.
Es wird ein Überblick über die Auswilderung von 798 Moorenten am Steinhuder Meer im Zeitraum 2011-2019 gegeben. Die Auswilderungsmethoden werden dargestellt und diemit den verschiedenen Methoden gemachten Erfahrungen werden diskutiert.
Störarten in der Donau.
Auenmagazin 20: 42-45.
Störe sind ein wesentliches Faunenelement der Donau und stellten in der Vergangenheit durch ihre Migration eine Verbindung zwischen dem alpinen Donauraum und dem Schwarzen Meer her. Heute sind zwei von sechs Donaustören bereits ausgestorben und die verbliebenen Arten sind durch Wilderei, Beifang, Migrationsbarrieren und Habitatverlust vom Aussterben bedroht. Eine Vielzahl von Projekten forciert Bemühungen zum Schutz und zur Wiederansiedelung, welche jedoch nur koordiniert und in internationaler Kooperation Aussicht auf Erfolg haben.
Reintroducing Cuvier’s gazelle. Better than expected from captive-bred founders.
Global Ecology and Conservation 23, e01094, ISSN 2351-9894, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01094.
The use of captive-bred animals as founder stock for reintroduction is sometimes discouraged due to their low genetic diversity and even accumulation of deleterious alleles. In October 2016, 43 Cuvier’s gazelles (12 males and 31 females), managed under a European Endangered Species Programme (EEP) and housed in captivity, formed the base of a reintroduction project in Tunisia. The project approach used soft-release techniques. Upon arrival, animals were released in acclimatisation pens, so they could adjust to the new conditions gradually before true release. This study reports on the three-year period gazelles were in the acclimatisation pens before release into the wild. To assess the suitability of captive-bred Cuvier’s gazelles as founder stock for reintroduction, the demographic parameters of the reintroduced population were studied for three reproductive seasons in Tunisia (2017–2019). The demographic parameters of the reintroduced population were also compared to those from the source captive population as a control during the first breeding season. If the animals used as founders were unsuited, a decrease in demographic parameters could be expected over time in the reintroduced population, as well as lower demographic variables compared to the source population. Contrary to expectations, during the three-year study period, all demographic variables increased in the population reintroduced in Tunisia, except juvenile mortality, which decreased. Moreover, none of the demographic values of the gazelles in Tunisia were significantly different from the source population. We hypothesize that in the extremely bottlenecked captive Cuvier’s gazelle population used as founder stock, genetic diversity was still high enough to surmount the presumably deleterious effects of inbreeding. This is probably due to very high heritability (h2), a parameter providing information on the quantitative genetic variation associated with multi-locus quantitative traits previously found in this population. Although reintroduction programs have traditionally been undertaken purely as management exercises, ours was designed to meet a research objective as well. We wanted to find out the adaptive variation in sex ratio in offspring of female Cuvier’s gazelles using the size of the enclosure as a proxy reflecting their body condition. As found in captivity using consanguinity level as a proxy of body condition, in the reintroduced population, mothers in large enclosures produced more daughters while those in the small ones produced more sons, which supports adaptive manipulation of the birth sex ratio favoured by natural selection in reintroduced Cuvier’s gazelles.
Evaluation of habitat use of a semi-captive population of Cuvier’s gazelles Gazella cuvieri following release in Boukornine National Park, Tunisia.
Acta Theriologica 50(3):405-415. DOI:10.1007/BF03192635.
Thirteen Cuvier’s gazelles were relocated to a 6-ha acclimatization enclosure in Boukornine National Park (Boukornine NP) in Tunisia, where they are part of a reintroduction project. To determine the degree of adaptation and habitat use under the new conditions, the acclimatization enclosure was divided into 6 sections according to topography, plant cover and plant species in the area. Signs of gazelle activity were coded as feeding site, paths, passages, feces and resting places. Sampling was done in spring, summer and autumn from September 2000 to July 2001. Multivariate analysis using PATN analysis and Χ2 distribution tests were used to analyze the data. Multivariate analysis yielded 5 groups of biotopes according to the above variables. The Χ2 distribution test showed the significant effect of each variable on the presence of signs of gazelles. Cuvier’s gazelles prefer areas with low and west to north facing slopes and scant plant cover; animals are attracted to the proximity of the fence as the limit of their territory and even though the presence of humans does not represent a disturbance, gazelles select areas far (> 50 m) from the supplementary feeding and water supply for their activities.
The Swedish population of Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus – supplemented or re-introduced?
Ornis Svecia 20: 202-206.
We have investigated historical records of observations of Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus of the original Fennoscandian population in the area in Sweden where captive-reared goslings of the same species were released during 1981–1999. The release project has ear-lier been regarded as a re-introduction project. The data in this review include reports from many sources and we can present earlier unpublished observations from the area. The large number of observations of birds from the Fennoscandian population proves that the release of gos-lings in the actual area was a supplementation of a small but extant population and not a re-introduction.
Breeding success, dispersal, and long-term changes in a population of Eagle Owls Bubo bubo in southeastern Sweden 1952–1996.
Ornis Svecica 7(2): 49-60.
In 1950 when the Eagle Owl became legally protected in Sweden, the species was nearly extinct in most parts of the country and survived only with a small population in the southeastern part of the country, along the Baltic Sea coast. This population has been studied in 1952–1996. Recoveries of birds ringed in the study area demonstrated that dispersal was limited; post-fledging dispersal was on average 56.8 km in the first year of life. In birds older than one year the mean distance from the hatching site to the site of recovery was 47.7 km. The mean brood size in successful nests was 1.47 young. However, the mean reproductive success calculated for all occupied territories was only 0.68 young per pair and year. Among all pairs, 43.7% bred successfully and 24.7% failed. Thus, each year 31.6% of the pairs stayed in the territory without breeding. For an extended part of this long term study, reproduction seems to have been just enough to maintain a stable population size in the study area. Only in the years 1986–90, there seemed to be a surplus of young produced in the study population resulting in new breeding pairs, predominantly outside the old study area. From a national project with captive breeding, 2,759 young Eagle Owls have been released in nearly all parts of Sweden. Around 1982, the number of pairs originating from the released birds was in equilibrium with the original "wild" population, and in 1995 the released birds and their descendants were about twice as many. In recent years probably many pairs are of mixed origin, and the mixing of the two populations is likely to increase in the future. In total, there were about 400 territories occupied by Eagle Owls in Sweden in 1996.
West Indian iguana Cyclura spp. reintroduction and recovery programmes: zoo support and involvement.
International Zoo Yearbook 49: 49-55.
Many West Indian rock iguanas Cyclura spp comprise small restricted island populations that are threatened by habitat conversion and degradation, free-ranging domestic animals and invasive species. In the 1980s, concerted conservation efforts were initiated for Caribbean iguanas, using a combination of captive-breeding programmes and head-starting of wild-collected hatchlings for reintroduction, and habitat protection. Zoological facilities have been involved in the conservation efforts from the start, providing expertise, resources and extensive funding for various aspects of the conservation programmes, and by providing space to house ex situ groups of iguanas as assurance populations. Health assessments of wild and captive iguanas, and databases related to the biology and health of the species have benefited not only the wild populations but also those being bred and maintained in captivity. Data compilation and analysis through the use of population-management software have made it possible to manage the genetic diversity of the individuals being captive bred for release. The involvement of zoological facilities has been fundamental to the efforts that have gone into bringing the Grand Cayman blue iguana Cyclura lewisi and the Jamaican iguana Cyclura collei back from the brink of extinction. A review of the conservation efforts for West Indian iguanas, including the role played by zoos, is presented.
Reintroduced Chinese Alligators Now Multiplying In The Wild In China.
ScienceDaily, 18 July 2009.
The Wildlife Conservation Society announced today that critically endangered alligators in China have a new chance for survival. The WCS's Bronx Zoo, in partnership with two other North American parks and the Department of Wildlife Conservation and Management of the State Forestry Administration of China, has successfully reintroduced alligators into the wild that are now multiplying on their own.