Radiated Tortoise SAFE Program Plan.
AZA institutions that participated in Radiated Tortoise conservation in 2015 and 2016 focused their efforts on raising awareness, capacity building/training, assurance populations, reintroduction, population management, behavior/ethology, anti-poaching/patrolling, disaster emergency response and animal health. The AZA institutions included in the 2015 and 2016 ARCS database spent a total of $200,645 on 11 projects for the Radiated Tortoise over those two years.
Conservation and restoration of the Allis shad in the Gironde and Rhine watersheds.
LIFE Project Number LIFE09 NAT/DE/000008, Final Report covering the project activities from 01/01/2011 to 31/12/2015.
184.108.40.206. Action D.7 Aquarium exhibition in La Rochelle Aquarium, France and the Aquazoo-Löbbecke Museum, Germany
The allis shad exposition in the Aquarium La Rochelle was launched in 2011. A loss of the old adults exposed there in 2013 was compensated by taking three year old specimens from the ex situ stock in the Aquarium la Rochelle that were exposed in a big Aquarium together with other Clupeid fishes in an own thematic section dealing with migratory fish. A new information panel was installed on this occasion which gives reference to the Life+ project. Many hundred thousand visitors have seen the allis shad exposition in La Rochelle and are well informed about the conservation needs for allis shad and the Life+ projects objectives to ensure that. It is intended to continue the exposition in the After-LIFE-time and the natural death of exposed fish, respectively, unless juveniles can be obtained from the hatchery on Bruch. The Aquarium La Rochelle will together with other branches of the Life+ project also contribute to the World Fish Migration Day in 2016.
A second allis shad exhibition in the Aquazoo-Löbbecke Museum in Düsseldorf was officially inaugurated in May 2013. A press conference was held on that occasion and yielded regional TV-reports and articles in newspapers and online media. The Aquazoo offered one of its most exposed Aquariums with a volume of 10 m3 for the exhibition in which 33 one year old allis shad from the Aßlar ex situ facility together with three sturgeons were presented. As in the Aquarium La Rochelle panels informed about the increasing endangerment of the allis shad, its former relevance along the Rhine and the background and the aims of the Life+ project. Unfortunately the Aquazoo was closed in November 2013 for structural restoration and renovation works (which are still not finalized) and the Aquazoo was closed for the public. As all other exposed animals also the allis shad exposition must be reversed. The shads and the sturgeons were brought back to the Aßlar facility in late November. Before that 233,000 visitors have seen the exhibition. Some of them and interested people from all over Europe visited the Aquazoo only in order to see and to take photos of the allis shad.$
Revisiting the reintroduced Eurasian lynx population in Kampinos National Park, Poland.
The European Zoological Journal 88(1): 966-979. https://doi.org/10.1080/24750263.2021.1968046
In the past centuries, many of the Eurasian lynx populations declined and finally disappeared. In Poland, only two populations survived until the 20th century. In the 90s a new population was reintroduced in central Poland but presently, its fate is considered uncertain. While the recurring observations of lynx in the area confirm its presence, they are insufficient to evaluate the state of this population. Therefore, using a population viability model and the reintroduction program data, we analyzed the ambiguities in the vital rates assessments to find the most likely scenario for the development of the population since its reintroduction. Finally, we modeled different options to improve the survival chances of this one and possibly other small populations. Estimated parameters result in a declining population. In the majority of the simulations, lynx populations go extinct within 20 years. This can be improved by reintroduction or natural immigration of new individuals every 4 years, but only if the new individuals arrive within a short period of time after the initial reintroduction. Also, longer time intervals are insufficient to elevate the median time to extinction beyond 50 years. Separately, moderate changes in reproduction or survival rates have only a marginal effect on the population’s survival. Decreasing only the impact of mortality would increase this population’s persistence time, but not ensure its long-term survival. However, decreased mortality in combination with immigration should result in much more successful population development. With higher longevity and release every 4 years the population is more successful even if the new individuals start entering the population up to 20 years later. Even less frequent immigration combined with enhanced longevity still improves survival. Combined adjustment of individuals to their environment and regular immigration provide the best chances of long-term survival. One or both of those factors could explain why lynx is still present in the area.
Method of releasing and number of animals are determinants for the success of European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) reintroductions.
Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 58: 473–482. DOI 10.1007/s10344-011-0597-8
Reintroductions are considered an important part of the action plans and recovery strategies of endangered ground squirrel species, but so far little is known about their proper methodology. We collected primary data on 12 European ground squirrel reintroduction projects carried out at 14 localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland since 1989. We focused on seven methodological aspects of each reintroduction: selection of release site, method of releasing, date of releasing, origin of released animals, total number of released animals, mean number of released animals per season and reintroduction site management. The method of releasing was found to be the key factor in determining the settlement of animals at the target locality. Only soft releasing methods, i.e. the use of enclosures and/or artificial burrows, ensure that animals remain at the target locality. The other factors significantly determining reintroduction success are the number of released animals per season (at least 23 animals required) and the total number of released animals (a minimum of 60 individuals). Long-term management of the site and regular monitoring of the newly established population are necessary. Our recommendations, based on experience with the successes and failures of previous reintroductions, could largely improve the efficiency of future reintroductions of highly endangered species.
Social organization and demography of reintroduced Dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas neglecta) in North Ferlo Fauna Reserve, Senegal.
Mammalia 80(6): 593-600. https://doi.org/10.1515/mammalia-2015-0017
As part of a reintroduction project in Senegal, 23 (9.14) captive-born Dorcas gazelles were released into a 440-ha fenced-in area in Katané (North Ferlo Fauna Reserve, Senegal) in March 2009. After 4 years of seasonal monitoring, the gazelles showed progressive adaptation of their behavior to semi-wild living conditions. Breeding gradually became seasonal, and 53.8% of births occurred during the rainy season (July to September). Gazelle group size and composition varied seasonally. Groups were smallest during the dry season (2.29±1.72) and largest at the beginning of the rainy season (4.18±2.73). Social group composition also showed seasonal variation. There were always a larger proportion of solitary males than solitary females and mixed couples were observed throughout the year. All-male groups were found the least. The proportion of adult females with subadults and juveniles decreased during the early rainy season, while mixed adults, subadults and juveniles groups increased during this period. The mortality rate during the first weeks after release was 13%. Four years of monitoring after release, demographic traits of this released population reveal its adaptation from captive to natural-living conditions.
The role of Senegal in the recovery of the Sahelo-Saharan antelope species: The case of the reintroduction of Dorcas Gazelle.
GNUSLETTER 28(1): 6-8.
Abstract. During the last 25 years Senegal made a signiﬁcant effort to recover the three sahelo Saharan species which disappeared from its sahelian region: the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), the mhorr gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr) and the dorcas gazelle (G. dorcas). With this purpose, the Senegalese government created two fauna reserves: the Guembeul Reserve and the Ferlo North Reserve. The mhorr gazelle was reintroduced in 1984 and the scimitar-horned oryx in 1999. The reintroduction of dorcas gazelles started in April 2007 with a project conceived to be carried out in three phases: phase 1) translocation of 20 gazelles (6.14) from the captive global population living in several zoological institutions in Europe to the Guembeul Reserve, phase 2) acclimtation to the new environmental and management conditions and growing of population under genetic control, and phase 3) translocation of part of the gazelles from the Guembeul Special Fauna Reserve to the North Ferlo Fauna Reserve and genetic reinforcement of the reintroduced population. After 14 months of the reintroduction, the gazelles are well adapted to the new conditions and now number 31 gazelles (9.22). To assure the success of the reintroduction project, other actions related with training and education of local people were carried out.
Ecological and social consequences of bison reintroduction in Colorado.
Conservation Science and Pracfice 1(2). DOI: 10.1002/csp2.9.
Bison were instrumental in shaping North America's Great Plains. Interest in restoring this iconic species and their ecological role in grassland ecosystems is rapidly gaining momentum. To evaluate the potential for bison to enhance habitat quality for wildlife and catalyze public engagement in grassland conservation, we assessed both the ecological and social effects of a recent bison reintroduction (2015) to northern Colorado. Specifically, we explored the effect of bison reintroduction on: (a) bird density and habitat use, (b) mammal habitat use, (c) vegetation composition and structure, and (d) visitor connectedness, known as place attachment, to a shortgrass prairie. We predicted that bison reintroduction would reduce cover and height of some grasses and shrubs, which would increase density and habitat use for obligate shortgrass prairie birds, and increase habitat use for coyote and lagomorphs. In addition, we predicted that visitors would express stronger place attachment to this grassland once bison were reintroduced. To measure ecological and social responses, we surveyed birds, mammals, and plants; and conducted structured visitor surveys before and after bison reintroduction. We found few short-term effects of bison on grassland bird density and habitat use, mammal habitat use, and vegetation composition and structure. However, we measured a significant increase in visitor place attachment to the grassland site 1 year after bison reintroduction. Our results suggest that a new bison reintroduction may have immediate positive benefits for connecting people to conservation, and that the ecological and social effects may unfold over different time scales. We recommend that future bison reintroduction efforts monitor ecological and social outcomes to advance reintroduction biology.
Reintroduction, distribution, population dynamics and conservation of a species formerly extinct in the wild: A review of thirty-five years of successful Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) reintroduction in China.
Global Ecology and Conservation 31: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2021.e01860
Reintroduction plays a vital role in conservation for many endangered species, however, little long-term information is available on the population dynamics and conservation status. Here we provide a detailed account of the Chinese Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) conservation and reintroduction efforts over the past 35 years, and give updated information on current Milu distribution, population dynamics and conservation status based on long-term monitoring (1985–2020) and a detailed follow-up investigation (2013–2020) in 235 wildlife institutions throughout China. Milu conservation in China comprised three phases: i) establishing ex situ populations and increasing the number of Milu through captive breeding (1985–1992); ii) preparing captive Milu for life in the wild and establishing in situ conservation populations (1993–1997); and iii) reintroduction of Milu into the wild throughout their historic range (1998–ongoing). Currently, there are ca. 9062 Milu (including 2825 wild individuals) distributed across 83 sites with 7380 individuals living at Beijing Milu Park, Jiangsu Dafeng Milu Nature Reserve and Hubei Shishou Milu Nature Reserve. The average birth rates in three sites were all over 0.200, and the average adult mortality rates were below 0.085, resulting in a rapid population growth. We discuss a variety of factors that contributed to ex situ conservation success in the reintroduction of a species formerly extinct in the wild, and highlight past and present challenges of Milu conservation in China. Our results will provide helpful information on conservation and reintroduction for other endangered species around the world.
Rückkehr in die Alpen - Wie Alpensteinbock, Bartgeier und Waldrapp wiederangesiedelt wurden.
Artenrettung 2021 (1): 52-70
Tierrechtler und andere Zoogegner, welche die Artenschutzleistung der Zoos kleinreden wollen, verweisen immer wieder darauf, dass die Zoos nur «Anteil an der Wiederansiedlung von etwa einem Dutzend zuvor in der Wildnis ausgestorbener Arten» gehabt hätten und «nur einmal pro Jahrzehnt irgendwo auf Erden eine ausgestorbene Art wieder angesiedelt» werde 24. Dies ist falsch, denn von den rund 60, gegenwärtig oder früher in der Roten Liste der Weltnaturschutzorganisation IUCN der Kategorie «Extinct in the Wild» zugeordneten Tierarten konnten 30 wiederangesiedelt werden. Die meisten davon im Verlauf der letzten 30 Jahre durch oder unter Mitwirkung von Zoos. Wenn man dann noch jene Tierarten berücksichtigt, die regional ausgestorben waren und mit Hilfe der Zoos in Teilen ihres ursprünglichen Verbreitungsgebiets wiederangesiedelt werden konnten, sprechen wir von mehreren hundert Arten, Stützungen lokal bedrängter Bestände nicht mitgezählt. Von diesen regional ausgestorbenen Arten wären mit Sicherheit einige vollständig ausgestorben, hätte man nicht rechtzeitig ex situ-Schutzmaßnahmen zur Anwendung gebracht.
In diesem Artikel sollen die Bemühungen zur Wiederansiedlung von drei Arten im Alpenraum vorgestellt werden, nämlich die erfolgreichen Wiedereinbürgerungen von Steinbock und Bartgeier sowie die noch laufenden Versuche, den Waldrapp wieder heimisch zu machen.
Westliches Haselhuhn. Biologie, Status und Perspektiven einer Erhaltungszucht.
Neustadt (Weinstraße), POLLICHIA. ISBN: 978-3-925754-64-7.
Einleitung zu den Schlussfolgerungen:
Die Abschlussdiskussion des Symposiums am 3.12.2017 behandelte vier Themen zum Problemkreis „Erhaltungszucht als Baustein eines Artenhilfsprogramms für das Westliche Haselhuhn“. Vor deren nachstehender Zusammenfassung sei betont, dass weitere Aspekte des Schutzes des Westlichen Haselhuhns nur am Rande Gegenstand dieser Tagung oder der Diskussion waren, etwa Schutzmaßnahmen im Freiland oder die Frage nach der notwendigen Validierung gemeldeter Nachweise dieser schwierig zu kartierenden Art. Dennoch sind natürlich verlässliche und stimmige Nachweisdaten relevant, um Gründerindividuen (oder Gelege) zum Einrichten eines Zuchtprogramms zu finden.