Impact of the use of exotic compared to local pig breeds on socio-economic development and biodiversity in Vietnam.

39 Seiten, 5 Tabellen.
Verlag E. Grauer, Beuren, Stuttgart ISBN 3-86186-496-7


Vietnam owns a considerable variety of local pig breeds. The introduction of pigs and breeds from neighbouring countries (Laos, Cambodia, China) started probably centuries ago, as part of human migration (e.g. Thai and H’mong migrating from China), occupation (China), and trade. The influx of breeds was an important component in the development of Vietnamese local breeds. However, information is lacking on those early phases. The earliest confirmed information on pig breed introduction goes back to the 1920s.

Gene flow in the recent past and present has probably been a net inflow of pigs. Exports (e.g. Vietnamese potbellied pigs to western countries as pets and for scientific use) were negligible. Before 1955 (end of French colonisation) and after 1986 (economic liberalisation), pig imports were directed by commercial interests as the main driving force of gene flow. From 1955 until 1986 the major driving force was the policies of the socialist government, and after 1990 additionally foreign developmental projects, both with the declared aim to benefit the poor farmers, but not always fulfilling their claim.

The inflow of pig breeds to Vietnam consisted of higher-yielding breeds from Europe and America, which were introduced due to their higher performances (in the countries of origin) to improve or replace the low yielding local breeds. Commercial imports consisted of exotic pigs. Current development and poverty alleviation projects at village level usually promote exotics, and only occasionally improved Vietnamese breeds (e.g. promotion of Mong Cai by Vétérinaires sans frontières, Phu Tho).
Information on pig gene flow to and within Vietnam is limited, due to the restricted information policy of both international breeding companies and Vietnamese official sources, but also due to the decentralised nature of pig breed import and distribution. The introduction of exotic pigs was supported by the decentralised nature of the Vietnamese breeding system. Centralised coordination of breeding measures is not well developed, and centralised measures fulfilled their aims only partly. However, the impact of the state-run breeding stations has been considerable; and the advanced use of AI has strongly supported the introduction of exotic genetics to the smallholder producer level.

The influx of exotic breeds has positively influenced output and efficiency of pork production in Vietnam, while the local pig populations have been reduced. Today, pigs of various crossbreeding degrees are widely distributed. Most indigenous breeds show declining population trends, and the majority of local breeds are in a vulnerable or critical condition or even facing extinction. Conservation measures of Vietnamese institutions follow suitable approaches (in-situ conservation on-farm). However, due to shortcomings in set-up and implementation, they may not successfully preserve local pig breeds. National decisions and the willingness to pay for conservation programs depend on expectations for future benefits, which need to be based on scientific proofs of the value of specific traits, and market-backed valuations of products.

Research results indicate a considerable production potential of local pig breeds especially under low-input conditions, favourable adaptation traits, and genetic peculiarities, differentiating them from the European breeds. Local pig breeds are a significant component of the Vietnamese and worldwide biodiversity, are important for resource-poor farmers in Vietnam who depend on local breeds to ensure their livelihoods, and for future breeding measures utilising e.g. favourable adaptation traits. On the other hand, exotic pigs have become increasingly available and accessible for farmers in Vietnam and have enabled them to produce pork with increasing efficiency. Whether pig-keeping resource-poor smallholders in remote and mountainous regions can be integrated in this process, or if they can set up niche production with local pig breeds, remains to be clarified by further investigations. Further investigations are required to define local pig breeds, further characterise their genetic specificities, and to comparatively evaluate their performances under standardised conditions.


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Donnerstag, 15 August 2019 08:04

PLUHÁČEK, J. (2019)

Matters of life and death.

ZOOQUARIA 105: 14-15


Die Entwicklung des EEP wird kurz dargestellt. Probleme sind häufige Sterilitäten bei Hirschkühen, mit denen während einiger Jahre nicht gezüchtet wurde, um nicht-platzierbare Tiere nicht töten zu müssen, was etwa ein Viertel der Individuen betrifft. Ferner besteht ein ungünstiges Geschlechterverhältnis, weshalb vermehrt auch Junggesellenherden gehalten werden sollten.


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The Vietnamese sika Cervus nippon pseudaxis conservation project.

International Zoo Yearbook 32: 56-60·


Ziel des Projekts war, Sikas aus dem Gatter im Cuc Phuong Nationalpark an europäische Zoos zu senden, um die genetische Variabilität der europäischen Popultion zu erhöhen und die Kooperation zwischen den vietnamesishcen Behörden und Institutionen mit en Zoos zu stärken.



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Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity of the Vietnamese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis).

J Hered. 2004 Jan-Feb; 95(1):11-8.


The Vietnamese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) is an endangered subspecies of economic and traditional value in Vietnam. Most living individuals are held in traditional farms in central Vietnam, others being found in zoos around the world. Here we study the neutral genetic diversity and population structure of this subspecies using nine microsatellite loci in order to evaluate the consequences of the limited number of individuals from which this population was initiated and of the breeding practices (i.e., possible inbreeding). Two hundred individuals were sampled from several villages. Our data show both evidence for limited local inbreeding and isolation by distance with a mean F(ST) value of 0.02 between villages. This suggests that exchange of animals occurs at a local scale, at a rate such that highly inbred mating is avoided. However, the genetic diversity, with an expected heterozygosity (H(e)) of 0.60 and mean number of alleles (k) of 5.7, was not significantly larger than that estimated from zoo populations of much smaller census size (17 animals sampled; H(e) = 0.65, k = 4.11). Our results also suggest that the Vietnamese population might have experienced a slight bottleneck. However, this population is sufficiently variable to constitute a source of individuals for reintroduction in the wild in Vietnam.


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Genetic diversity analysis of captive populations : the Vietnamese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) in zoological parks.

Zoo Biology 22:  465-475.


The Vietnamese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) is an endangered subspecies; it has disappeared in the wild, but is being bred in zoological parks. We studied the neutral genetic diversity and population structure of herds kept in different European zoos, using nine microsatellite loci. The goal was to evaluate the consequences of founding effects and breeding practices on the level and structure of genetic variability. The level of genetic diversity within the European zoos is not lower than that of the populations kept in Vietnamese farms. Strong differences among zoological parks and between the European group and the Vietnamese population were detected. This is probably due to founding effects, genetic drift, and possibly hybridization in both Europe and Vietnam. We expected to find a much lower level of genetic diversity in Europe. The current overall level of genetic diversity is probably due to the recent introduction of Cuc Phuong individuals, and to important differences among the populations of different zoological parks, which increase the total genetic variability. Although the current level of genetic variability is not particularly low, future levels are probably threatened by the current herd sizes and structure. Based on these results, management guidelines are proposed.


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Mauremys annamensis (Siebenrock 1903) – Vietnamese Pond Turtle, Annam Pond Turtle, Rùa Trung Bộ.

In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs 5(7):081.1–14, doi:10.3854/crm.5.081.annamensis.v1.2014,


The Vietnamese Pond Turtle, Mauremys annamensis (Family Geoemydidae), is a medium-sized (carapace length to 285 mm in females, 232 mm in males), highly aquatic turtle known only from the lowland wetlands of central Vietnam. Field records are limited and the natural history of M. annamensis is poorly known, in part due to the difficulty in conducting research within the species’ native range as a result of conflict and political isolation during much of the period since its description. Recent work has delimited the historical distribution and gathered evidence for the historical abundance of M. annamensis, but also indicates that the species has largely been extirpated across its range and is now extremely rare in the wild. Over-collection and habitat loss are the greatest contributors to the species’ decline, while pollution and interspecific hybridization may represent additional threats. Substantial international trade in M. annamensis occurred in the past, and despite national and international protection for the species, surviving populations continue to be threatened by intensive collection efforts. In captivity, the species acclimates well and breeds readily, with females capable of producing several clutches of eggs per year. Current conservation efforts include greater enforcement of trade restrictions, the establishment of a protected habitat area, and planning for future reintroductions from captive stocks. Continued research and conservation measures are required to save this critically endangered species.

Distribution. – Vietnam. Historically ranged across central Vietnam coastal lowlands from the municipality of Da Nang and Quang Nam Province south to Phu Yen Province and west into the low-lying inland areas of Gia Lai and Dak Lak provinces.

Synonymy. – Cyclemys annamensis Siebenrock 1903, Cuora (Cyclemys) annamensis, Cuora annamensis, Annamemys annamensis, Mauremys annamensis, Annamemys annamemys (ex errore), Cathaiemys annamensis, Annamemys merkleni Bourret 1940, Annamemys mekleni (ex errore), Clemmys guangxiensis Qin 1992 (partim, hybrid), Mauremys guangxiensis, Ocadia glyphistoma McCord and Iverson 1994 (partim, hybrid).

Subspecies. – None.

Status. – IUCN 2014 Red List: Critically Endangered (CR A1d+2d, assessed 2000); TFTSG Draft Red List: Critically Endangered (CR, assessed 2011); CITES: Appendix II with zero quota for commercial purpose; Vietnam: Decree No. 32/2006/ND-CP.

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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 09:12

LE, M., HOANG, T. & LE, D. (2004)

Trade Data and Some Comments On the Distribution of Mauremys annamensis (Siebenrock, 1903).

Asiatic Herpetological Research 10: 110-113.


This trade survey of Annam Pond Turtle reveals that this species is likely to have larger distribution than previously thought. The records in the trade in Quy Nhon and Ho Chi Minh City suggest its range could extend much further south. In addition, given the one way south-north trade route, the absence of Mauremys mutica in the trade south of Hai Van Pass and the reported absence of M. annamensis in the trade north of the Pass support the hypothesis that the Pass is the natural barrier for the two species ranges. This hypothesis combined with the long existence of the Pass might indicate that the speciation between the two species happened when their ancestors dispersed across the Pass, and were subsequently isolated, by the means of rafting or walking through narrow land strip emerged during the low sea level period. In terms of conservation, M. annamensis has become much rarer even in the trade, suggesting immediate conservation measures to protect it.

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Potential distribution and effectiveness of the protected area network for the crocodile lizard, Shinisaurus crocodilurus (Reptilia: Squamata: Sauria).

SALAMANDRA 50 (2): 71-76.


The crocodile lizard, Shinisaurus crocodilurus Ahl, 1930, is a monotypic taxon, restricted in occurrence to southern  China  and  northern  Vietnam.  Wild  populations  are  presently  suffering  tremendous  declines,  mainly  due  to  illegal poaching,  habitat  destruction,  and  fragmentation,  which  already  led  to  the  extinction  of  populations  in  Guangxi  and Hunan provinces in China. In order to accelerate the discovery of so far unknown populations of S. crocodilurus and to identify suitable priority areas for conservation strategies, we determined the species’ potential distribution using correlative species distribution models (SDMs) based on locality records and a set of satellite-based  environmental predictors.

In addition, we evaluated the coverage of the species’ potential distribution with designated protected areas according to IUCN standards. The resulting SDM revealed potentially suitable habitats to be scattered and disconnected while being very small in size. Moreover, present coverage with nature reserves is extremely poor, underlining the urgent need for improved habitat protection measures and potential population restoration of S. crocodilurus.

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A comparative study of crocodile lizards (Shinisaurus crocodilurus Ahl, 1930) from Vietnam and China.

Raffl. Bull. Zool. 56(1): 181 – 187.


Preliminary morphological comparisons between Chinese and Vietnamese Shinisaurus representatives showed no significant differences that would justify a separate taxonomic status of the single known Vietnamese population. Also first mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons showed very low differentiation therefore, being likely to represent the same taxon. In addition, we provide further information about the habitat, and preliminary data concerning the reproduction and feeding ecology of Vietnamese S. crocodilurus. We further stress biogeographical and conservational aspects of the endangered species in Vietnam.

PDF Download available from: [accessed Jul 13, 2017].



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 10:13

LE, Q. K. & ZIEGLER, T (2003)

First record of the Chinese crocodile lizard from outside of China: Report on a population of Shinisaurus crocodilurus Ahl, 1930 from North-eastern Vietnam.

Hamadryad, Tamil Nadu 27(2): 193 – 199.

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