SVÁBIK, K. (2022a)
Mixed-species exhibits with zoo-housed Aardvarks (Orycteropodidae).
68 Seiten, Farbfotos
The study lists species combinations and mixed exhibits with the only one member of family Orycteropodidae. Altogether 55 mixed exhibits with Aardvark (Orycteropus afer) have been collected from 34 zoological institutions worldwide until October 2022. In regard to species combinations Aardvark has been socialized with 42 different species.
In general it can be concluded that the Aardvark in most cases is uncomplicated in reference to the socialisation with other animals. Many of the listed mixed-species exhibits with Aardvarks take place in nocturnal houses. Due to their relatively big body size and not least because of their willingness to move, Aardvark is among the species that are far better kept conventionally with the possibility of using an outdoor enclosure. Fortunately, there has been a trend in Europe for some years now to no longer keep this species in nocturnal houses. ... This “new type” of exhibitry for them means that the earlier classic examples of socialize them with other night-active and smaller species such as galagoes or bats are not more possible, instead of this in many cases they can be kept together with diurnal mongooses such as meerkats.
SVÁBIK, K. (2022)
Mixed-species exhibits with zoo-housed Hippopotamuses (Hippopotamidae).
128 Seiten, Farbfotos
Mixed-species exhibits with different mammals in the last few decades became a major trend. The success of a mixed-species exhibit depends on how we can take general animal husbandry criteria into account in more complex ways in comparison with a single-species exhibit. Those general rules that are important in animal exhibitry are still valid to a greater extent when presenting a multi-species captive environment. As many articles and other publications deal with the subject of general advantages and disadvantages of the mixed-species exhibits, instead of this, here I will assemble a detailed list of mixed exhibits involving at least one member of Hippopotamidae. The main aim of these documents is to summarize data and experiences about this exhibitry type with the hope that these manuals will be a useful supplement for the husbandry guidelines of both species of hippopotamids. Furthermore the study partly focuses on negative experiences in order to improve exhibit management criteria and trying to avoid combinations that have not been proved as successful. The most important aspects of a successful mixed exhibit are the purposeful use of space and enclosure furnishings, the appropriate feeding techniques, decision-making of which species we want to breed and the right choice of species and individuals.
SVÁBIK, K. (rev. 2020)
MIXED-SPECIES EXHIBITS WITH CARNIVORANS II:
Mixed-species exhibits with Mongooses (Herpestidae) and Madagascar Carnivores (Eupleridae).
Currently, there are 34 species of mongooses described in the family Herpestidae, although further taxonomic research may lead to this number changing in the future. Twenty-five members of the taxon live in Africa, and nine in Asia. According to the current subdivision of Herpestidae, ― using not only morphology, but also behavioural ecology and molecular markers ― two subfamilies are supported within the taxon. The subfamily Herpestinae involves 23, mostly large and solitary mongoose species (genus Atilax, Bdeogale, Cynictis, Galerella, Herpestes, Ichneumia, Paracynictis, Rhynchogale, Xenogale), while the subfamily Mungotinae comprises 11, mainly small and social species (genus Crossarchus, Dologale, Helogale, Liberiictis, Mungos, Suricata). The list shows which species have been kept in mixed exhibits in captivity. Due to the similarities in morphology and lifestyle, two additional species from family Eupleridae - the Ring-tailed Vontsira (Galidia elegans) and the Narrow-striped Boky (Mungotictis decemlineata) - are also mentioned here.
SVÁBIK, K. (2021)
Mixed-species exhibits with Pigs (Suidae).
133 Seiten, Farbfotos
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Mixed-species exhibits with different mammals in the last few decades became a major trend. The success of a mixed-species exhibit depends on how we can take general animal husbandry criteria into account in more complex ways in comparison with a single-species exhibit. Those general rules that are important in animal exhibitry are still valid to a greater extent when presenting a multi-species captive environment. As many articles and other publications deal with the subject of general advantages and disadvantages of the mixed-species exhibits, instead of this, here I will assemble a detailed list of mixed exhibits involving at least one member of Suidae. The main aim of these documents is to summarize data and experiences about this exhibitry type with the hope that these manuals will be useful supplement for the husbandry guidelines of different species.
The study lists species combinations and mixed exhibits with eight species of Suidae. Altogether 158 mixed exhibits with suids have been collected from 96 zoological institutions worldwide until April 2021. Combinations and mixed exhibits were not counted with domestic pig, only a few examples were added as an „interesting” supplements.
The results show that the most popular „participants” are the Red River Hog and the Common Warthog: the former has been listed in 52 and the latter in 50 mixed exhibit. Those folowed by Eurasian Wild Boar which has been listed in 20, Sulawesi Babirusa in 19, Visayan Warty Pig in 14, Giant Forest Hog in 2, Bushpig in 2 and Bearded Pig in 1 mixed exhibit.
In regard to species combinations Common Warthog has been socialized with 62 and Red River Hog with 55 different species. Those followed by Eurasian Wild Boar which has been combined with 26, Sulawesi Babirusa with 14, Bearded Pig with 13, Visayan Warty Pig with 11, Giant Forest Hog 7 and Bushpig with 3 other species.
KRAAIJ, E. & TER MAAT, P. (2011)
Old World Monkeys in Mixed Species Exhibits - Factors influencing the success of old world monkeys in mixed species exhibits.
Thesis number: 594000, Van Hall Larenstein University for Applied Sciences. 38 Seiten.
In zoos there is a lack of space for old world monkeys as enclosures become bigger and more naturalistic, because of the advances in enclosure design. A potential solution is housing old world monkey species in mixed species exhibits. The main question to research this potential is: Which of the TAG recommended captive old world monkey species are successfully kept in mixed species exhibits and which factors influence this success? Information to answer this question was gathered by means of a literature research and a questionnaire sent to European zoos keeping old world monkeys in mixed species exhibits. Every situation was reported as successful or not and then factor spossibly influencing this success were determined. These were determined by looking at how often they were applied and then at the success and failure percentage with application and non‐application. Possible factors were niche occupation, habitat, social structure, species ratio, age class, breeding, size of the enclosure, escape routes, visual barriers, separation period and method of introduction. Finally intervention was researched on how and when it should be applied. In total 71 mixed situations were gathered. These consist of 131 combinations (every animal mixed with a TROWM counted separately, even though in the same exhibit). There are 17 combinations of TROWMs with TROWMs, 51 combinations of TROWMs with non‐recommended (OW) Ms and 63 combinations of TROWMs with other animal species. Of the 71 mixed situations found, 60 are successful. The factorssize of the enclosure, escape routes, spe cies temperament and individual personality show to have an effect on the success of the mixed situation. Of these escape routes was determined by its high percentage of success when applied and a high failure percentage when not applied. The factors sufficient space, individual personality and species temperament are most often mentioned by the zoos as being important to the outcome of a mixed situation. Niche occupation, habitat, age class and breeding have no effect on the success of a mixed exhibit and social structure, visual barriers and species ratio could not be determined to have an effect on the outcome of a mixed situation.Separation periods and introduction methods are applied in nearly all cases but both in successful and unsuccessful ones. These factors are probably used as a way of preventing conflicts, but could not be proven to actually do this. Application of intervention was only reported by two institutions. Intervention was applied when aggression or stress occurred. For resolving aggression a firehose was used and for resolving stress the species were temporarily separated. 19 of the 24 TAG recommended old world monkey species have a higher success than failure percentage in mixed species exhibits.4 others were not mixed at all and of only one the failure percentage was higher than its success percentage. Together with the overall high success percentage of the mixed situations, mixed species xhibits seem a valuable solution to the space issues of this taxon.
UDELL, C. C. (1981)
Breeding the Zebra Cephalophus zebra duiker at the Los Angeles Zoo.
International Zoo Yearb. 21: 155-158.
Es wird über die Haltung, Fütterung und Zucht von Zebraduckern im Los angeles Zoo berichtet sowie von einem Versuch, die Tiere mit Zwergmeerkatzen zu vergesellschaften, der daran scheiterte, dass die Meerkatzen nach einigen Monaten beganndne, den ducker-Bock anzugreifen.
PEARSSON, E. L., DAVIS, J. M. & LITCHFIELD, C. A. (2010)
A Case Study of Orangutan and Siamang Behavior Within a Mixed-Species Zoo Exhibit.
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 13:4, 330-346, DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2010.507125.
A Mixed-Species zoo exhibit is an exhibit that contains two or more distinct species, and is becoming increasingly common across the globe, as exposure to other species allows for animals in captivity to behave in ways similar to their natural environments. Zoo exhibits that have mixed species have built in enrichment activities for the animals as they interact with one another. In this way these living environments can increase animal welfare by reducing boredom, increasing behavioral diversity These researchers at an immersion exhibit at Adelaide Zoo in South Australia examined the behavior of orangutans and siamangs within a mixed-species exhibit by collecting empirical data on the presence of affiliative interactions, aggression, inter-species mingling, natural behaviors, and the absence of stereotypic behaviors. The exhibit included two orangutans (a male and a female), and two simang, which also included one male and one female. The simangs were younger (born since the 2000s), and the organgutans were older. In the wild, while the two species might forage together, they often chase and even attack the each other, with the siamangs typically initiating the attacks. At the beginning of the introductory phase, the animals were introduced using a series of gradual introductions, beginning with visual contact only. At the time of the research, the orangutans and siamangs had been on display together for six months. During the research, most interactions between Karta the orangutan and the siamang pair were playful, which included, pulling hair and running away, wrestling, and poking each other, as well as grooming, embracing and sharing food. The interactions were typically initiated by the siamangs. Further, supplanting of one species by the other was infrequent and typically occurred when one group tried to initiate play and the other did not wish to comply. Further, the two groups did use the exhibit equally with little to no segregation. The authors conclude that the presence of affiliative interactions beyond mere mutual tolerance supports the argument that mixed-species exhibits can be beneficial. It is possible that the greater success of the integration at this exhibit is due to the brief separation overnight. However, four months after the conclusion of the study, one of the siamangs did sustain a fracture of the radius and ulna of his left arm, and bite marks on the back of Karta the orangutan’s head suggest she was responsible, although the witness (a zoo visitor) was unable to describe the cause of context. So, while in general the two species were able to interact peacefully, there is an inherent danger in placing two species with disproportionate strengths together. To alleviate some of this danger, a surveillance system should be put in place, as well as ensure adequate safety routes. However, the fact that Irian the siamang was unable to reach the safety route before sustaining the injury should be considered.
Main Points and Potential Applications
- Mixed-Species zoo exhibits can be beneficial in ensuring the well-being of each species, although the integration can be challenging and unsuccessful if not taken gradually and carefully.
- It is necessary to monitor the two species and to ensure adequate safe routes are available in case of a disagreement.
THOMAS, W. D. (1968)
Mixed exhibit for Polar bears and Arctic foxes Thalarctos maritimus and Alopex lagopus at Omaha Zoo.
International Zoo Yearbook 8: 18-20.
Der Artikel berichtet über die Vergesellschaftung von 5 Moante alten Eisbären und adulten Polarfüchsen auf einer 300 m² großen Anlage, was über eine Zeitraum von 14 Monaten gut ging.
RENDLE, J., WARD, S.J. & McCORMICK, W. (2018)
Behaviour and enclosure use of captive parma wallabies (Macropus parma): an assessment of compatibility within a mixed-species exhibit.
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 6(2) 2018: 63-68.
Many zoos choose to house parma wallabies (Macropus parma) in mixed-species exhibits and a
successful combination of species can provide a source of enrichment. However, there are potential
health and welfare concerns, so it is important to consider species compatibility. This study investigates the effects of mixed-species housing on the parma wallaby. Parma wallabies at Dudley Zoological Gardens were observed for nine days in two different housing systems: mixed species (MS), with Patagonian mara (Dolichotis patagonum), and single species (SS). Scan sampling of all individuals, across a range of behaviours, was carried out for 90 minutes across the day. Differences in foraging behaviour were observed, with wallabies housed in the MS exhibit foraging significantly less than the SS group (W27=899.0, P<0.01). Wallabies in the MS enclosure performed a novel behaviour, agonistic directional urination that was not observed in the SS group. Enclosure use was analysed using a Spread of Participation Index (SPI); values revealed MS wallabies utilised less of their enclosure, with a notable preference for areas not frequented by the mara (W27=899.0, P<0.05). The results suggest that the MS wallabies are affected by the presence of the mara, both behaviourally and in enclosure use, which could be indicative of a negative welfare state. This study provides evidence of species incompatibility, a potential issue for the welfare of captive parma wallabies and the successful maintenance of this species in captivity. Careful and continual monitoring of species within mixed-species enclosures is recommended.
SICK, N. (2015)
Einfluss des Sozialstatus residenter männlicher Kattas (Lemur catta) auf die Interaktionen mit juvenilen Neuankömmlingen bei einer Vergesellschaftung.
40 Seiten plus Anhang
Universität Ulm, Institut für Evolutionsökologie und Naturschutzgenomik
Betreuung: Dr. Miriam Knörnschild
Wie viele Lemuren untersteht auch L. catta der Weibchendominanz. Ist dieser Faktor nicht vorhanden beeinflusst der Dominanzstatus der männlichen Tiere das soziale Leben. Untersucht wurde der Einfluss des Sozialstatus von acht männlichen L. catta im Zoo von Augsburg bei einer ergesellschaftung mit vier juvenilen Tieren. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass das Markierverhalten der residenten Tiere signifikant zunahm. Die juvenilen Tiere suchten während der Vergesellschaftung vermehrt Kontakt zu den dominanten Tieren der residenten Gruppe. Während rangniedere
residente Männchen agonistische Verhaltensweisen zu Anfang vermehrt kumulierten, war dies bei dominanten Männchen erst später der Fall. Innerhalb dieser agonistischen Verhaltensmerkmale konnte gleichgeschlechtliches Deckverhalten beobachtet werden. Diese Verhaltensweise wurde bei L. catta bisher noch nicht beschrieben. Die Ergebnisse lassen vermuten, dass rangniederer Tiere vermehrt Angst um den Verlust ihres Status haben, wohingegen dies bei dominanten Tieren nicht der Fall ist. Fehlt juvenilen Tieren der Schutz der weiblichen Dominanz, suchen diese vermehrt Kontakt zu dominanten Männchen.
Similar to other lemurs, L. catta is normally under female dominance. In absence of this factor, the social life is affected by the dominance status of the males. In the present study we investigated the influence of the social status of eight male L. catta in the Zoo of Augsburg on socialization with four juvenile animals. The scentmarking behavior of the residents was significantly increased. The juveniles showed increased grooming contact with dominant animals of the resident group. Lowranking resident males accumulated agonistic behaviors at the beginning of socialization, whereas dominant animals showed it later on. Male-male mounting behavior of the resident animals was observed as a part of agonistic behavioral patterns, which has not yet been described in L. catta before. The results suggest that lowranking animals might be driven by increased fear of losing their social status, whereas this does not seem to be the case within dominant animals. When losing the protection of female dominance, the juvenile L. catta showed more frequent contact with dominant males.