Distribution of breeding birds in the Gediz Delta, Western Turkey.

Zoology in the Middle East 47(1):39-48. DOI:10.1080/09397140.2009.10638345.

Abstract:

Atlas mapping of breeding birds in Gediz Delta Ramsar Site on the western coast of Turkey was performed in 2002. The study area of 305 km2 was divided into 305 1x1 km square UTM grids. Breeding evidence was obtained for 92 species in 291 UTM squares; 47 were classified as confirmed breeding, 22 as probable breeding, and 23 as possible breeding. Among the breeding species, three were European species of global conservation concern (Falco naumanni, Pelecanus crispus, Emberiza cineracea), 12 were species with a concentrated population and with unfavourable conservation status in Europe, and 34 were species with their population not concentrated in Europe but with unfavourable conservation status in the region. Among those with a threatened status, 7 species were vulnerable, 4 were rare, 2 were localised, 18 were declining, and 18 were depleted species. During the study, various threats were identified in 173 UTM squares out of 291 (59.5%). Among these, the most frequently observed were pollution observed in 30% of the squares, overgrazing in 22% and illegal hunting in 22%.

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Sonntag, 02 Mai 2021 09:32

WACKERNAGEL, H. (1964)

Höchstalter europäischer Vögel im Zoologischen Garten Basel.

Onithologischer Beobachter 61 (4): 128-132.

Inhalt:

Bei 72 einheimischen Vogelarten wurde im Zoo Basel eine nennenswerte Haltungsdauer erzielt. In einer Tabelle angegeben werden das erwerbs- bzw. Schlupfdatum, das Alter in Jahren, Monaten und Tagen sowie ob der Vogel am 01.09 1964 noch am leben war. Die Veröffentlichung wird durch eine hier ebenfalls berücksichtigte Kurzmitteilung von A. SCHENKER (1978) im Ornithol. Beobachter 75 (2): 96 ergänzt.

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Feather Corticosterone Measurements of Greater Flamingos Living under Different Forms of Flight Restraint.

Animals 2020,10: 605-619. doi:10.3390/ani10040605. www.mdpi.com/journal/animalsArticle

Simple Summary:

Greater Flamingos are commonly kept under flight restraint in zoos. Some are pinioned, others only featherclippedand some remain physically intact butlive in aviariesthat areoften not  large  enough  to  fly. In  this  study,  we  compared  these  three  groups  by  measuring corticosterone (a hormone associated with stress)in their feathersin order to find out which of the restraining methods  is  most  compatible  with  animal  welfare. Additionally,  we  carried  out behavioralobservations on all groups to detect potential stressors other than the status of flight itself. We  expected  to  find  differences  in  CORTf  between  deflighted  and airworthyflamingos. However, no  significant  differences  in feather corticosterone were  measured between  the  three groupsand the hypothesis was rejected. The most important factor for the level of corticosteronewas found to be the zoological institution itself, reflecting the housing conditions.We hypothesizethat the method by which a Greater Flamingo is hindered from flying does not have measurableeffect on the corticosterone concentration in its feathers.Although these findings suggest that all methods are equally impacting animal welfare,we highlight the need for further improved studies based on this model.

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Montag, 08 Juli 2019 07:00

Remicle

Als Remicle bezeichnet man die stark reduzierte äußerste Handschwinge am Vogelflügel. Dabei handelt es sich um ein kleines steifes Federchen an der Endphalanx des 2. Fingers, das zusammen mit den Handschwingen und Deckfedern der Stabilisierung des Flügels während des Fluges dient.

Bei einigen Vogelgruppen ist das Remicle stets vorhanden: Lappentaucher (Podicipediformes), Seetaucher (Gaviformes), Röhrennasen (Procellariiformes), Ruderfüßer (Pelecaniformes), Reiher (Ardeidae), Ibisse (Threskiornithidae) und Flamingos (Phoenicopteriformes). In anderen Gruppen fehlt es stets: Hühnervögel (Galliformes), Kuckucke (Cuculiformes), Papageien (Psittaciformes) und Nachtschwalben (Caprimulgiformes). Bei Vögeln weiteren Gruppen kann es vorhanden sein oder fehlen.

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A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing.

Nature 526: 569–573 (22 October 2015)

Abstract

Although reconstruction of the phylogeny of living birds has progressed tremendously in the last decade, the evolutionary history of Neoaves—a clade that encompasses nearly all living bird species—remains the greatest unresolved challenge in dinosaur systematics. Here we investigate avian phylogeny with an unprecedented scale of data: >390,000 bases of genomic sequence data from each of 198 species of living birds, representing all major avian lineages, and two crocodilian outgroups. Sequence data were collected using anchored hybrid enrichment, yielding 259 nuclear loci with an average length of 1,523 bases for a total data set of over 7.8 × 107 bases. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses yielded highly supported and nearly identical phylogenetic trees for all major avian lineages. Five major clades form successive sister groups to the rest of Neoaves: (1) a clade including nightjars, other caprimulgiforms, swifts, and hummingbirds; (2) a clade uniting cuckoos, bustards, and turacos with pigeons, mesites, and sandgrouse; (3) cranes and their relatives; (4) a comprehensive waterbird clade, including all diving, wading, and shorebirds; and (5) a comprehensive landbird clade with the enigmatic hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) as the sister group to the rest. Neither of the two main, recently proposed Neoavian clades—Columbea and Passerea1—were supported as monophyletic. The results of our divergence time analyses are congruent with the palaeontological record, supporting a major radiation of crown birds in the wake of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) mass extinction.

 

prum-biblio

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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 14:16

DOLLINGER, P. (1971)

Tod durch Verhalten bei Zootieren.

Death through behaviour in zoo animals.

Vet. med. Diss. Zürich.
Juris Verlag Zürich. 229 Seiten, 26 Tabellen, 11 Grafiken, 15 Fotos

Tierpsychologische Abteilung des Zoologischen Instituts, Prof. Dr. H. Hediger, und
Veterinär-Pathologisches Institut, Prof. Dr. H. Stünzi, der Universität Zürich
Zoo Zürich

Zusammenfassung:

Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit dem von HEDIGER (1956) geschaffenen Begriffs des Todes durch Verhalten (TdV) bei Zootieren. Dieser Terminus wird erstmalig definiert, wobei zwischen direktem und indirektem TdV unterschieden wird (pp. 13-14).

Aus der Literatur werden Angaben über die Häufigkeit der traumatischen Todesursachen – welche sich weitgehend mit den direkt durch Verhalten verursachten Todesfällen decken – in verschiedenen Zoos und aus verschiedenen Pathologischen Instituten zusammengestellt (pp. 15-23).

Um sichere Anhaltspunkte über die Bedeutung des TdV zu erhalten, wurden die Todesfälle im Säugetier-, Vogel- und Reptilienbestand des Zürcher Zoos von 1954-1969 bearbeitet (pp.24-47). Dabei zeigte es sich, dass über die Frequenz des indirekten TdV retrospektiv nichts ausgesagt werden kann, dass jedoch der direkte TdV bei Säugetieren und Vögeln die wichtigste Todesursache darstellt (23.4 resp. 29.4 % der Todesfälle), während er bei Reptilien relativ unbedeutend ist.

Eine Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse aus dem Zürcher Zoo findet sich auf Seite 48.

Den breitesten Raum nimmt eine analytische Untersuchung über das Phänomen des TdV ein (pp. 49-152). Es wird ein Schema der am TdV beteiligten psychologischen, ökologischen, ethologischen und pathologischen Komponenten gegeben (p.49) und deren Beziehungen untereinander werden anhand einiger exemplarischer Beispiele dargestellt (pp. 49-53).

Anschliessend wird detailliert auf die einzelnen Komponenten eingegangen, wobei auf die auslösenden Faktoren (psychologische und ökologische Momente) besonderes Gewicht gelegt wird, da deren Kenntnis Voraussetzung und bester Ansatzpunkt für eine wirksame Prophylaxe des TdV ist (pp- 53-126).

Von den zum  Tod führenden Verhaltensweisen (pp. 127-144) werden Automutilation, Inanition und Kannibalismus sowie das Syndrom des Ausbrechens, Ausreissens und Entweichens näher untersucht.

Die den Tod bewirkenden Läsionen und Funktionsstörungen werden nur der Vollständigkeit halber gestreift (pp. 144-152) und schliesslich werden noch einige grundsätzliche Bemerkungen zur Prophylaxe des TdV gemacht (pp. 153-156).

Den Abschluss des Textteils bildet die umfangreiche Kasuisitik aus den Zoos von Zürich und Mulhouse (pp.157-196) und die Bibliographie (pp. 200-216).

Abstract:

The problem of “death through behaviour” (death caused by effects of behaviour) of zoo animals (HEDIGER,l 1956) is discussed in the present paper.

A definition of this term is provided recognising direct and indirect cause of death through behaviour (pp. 13-14).

Reports from various pathology-laboratories and zoos dealing with traumatic deaths which could be contributed to animal behaviour are reviewed (pp. 15-23).

In order to emphasize the importance of above phenomenon, deaths of mammals, birds and reptiles which occurred at Zurich zoo between 1954 and 1969 were analysed (pp.24-47). The frequency of deaths caused indirectly through behaviour could not be recognised. Behaviour as direct cause of death occurred most frequently in mammals and birds (23.4 and 29.4 % respectively), but was relatively unimportant in reptiles.
The results of the survey from Zurich zoo are summarized on page 48.

The phenomenon of death through behaviour is analysed (pp. 49-152). The psychological, ethological, ecological and pathological factors and their interrelations participating in the occurrence of deaths through behaviour are illustrated on a scheme with some practical examples (pp. 49-53).

All components are discussed each in detail with particular attention to the triggering factors (psychological and ecological moments) in order to gain knowledge and basis for prophylaxis (pp- 53-126).

Some behavioural pattern leading to death, such as automutilation, inanition, cannibalism and also the occurrence of break-outs, tearings and escapes are discussed (pp. 127-144).

The lesions and functional disturbances were only briefly noted (pp. 144-152) and general remarks are given on prophylaxis (pp. 153-156).

In the final chapter case histories are listed from the zoos of Zurich and Mulhouse/France (pp.157-196) and references of the literature are provided (pp. 200-216).

Datenblatt PDF

 

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Freitag, 27 April 2018 14:08

KAISER, M. (2011)

Zur Lebensdauer einiger Sperlingsvögel (Passeriformes) im Tierpark Berlin.

MILU Berlin 13 (3): 402-412.

Inhalt:

Es werden die Lebensdaten für 34 Sperlingsvogel-Arten mitgeteilt.

 

kaiser-biblio

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Mittwoch, 08 März 2017 07:30

HACKETT, S. J., KIMBAL, R. T. et al. (2008)

HACKETT, S. J., *, KIMBAL, R. T., REDDY, S., BOWIE, R. C. K., BRAUN, E. L., BRAUN, M. J., CHOJNOWSKI, J. L., COX, W. A., HAN, K.-L., HARSHMAN, J., HUDDLESTON, C. J., MARKS, B. D-, MIGLIA, K. J., MOORE, W. S., SHELDON, F. H., STEADMAN, D. W., WITT, C. C. & YURI, T. (2008)


A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History.

Science 320 (5884): 1763-1768 (27. Juni 2008). DOI: 10.1126/science.1157704

Abstract:

Deep avian evolutionary relationships have been difficult to resolve as a result of a putative explosive radiation. Our study examined ∼32 kilobases of aligned nuclear DNA sequences from 19 independent loci for 169 species, representing all major extant groups, and recovered a robust phylogeny from a genome-wide signal supported by multiple analytical methods. We documented well-supported, previously unrecognized interordinal relationships (such as a sister relationship between passerines and parrots) and corroborated previously contentious groupings (such as flamingos and grebes). Our conclusions challenge current classifications and alter our understanding of trait evolution; for example, some diurnal birds evolved from nocturnal ancestors. Our results provide a valuable resource for phylogenetic and comparative studies in birds.

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Samstag, 04 März 2017 16:56

MAYR, E. & AMADON, D. (1951)

A Classification of Recent Birds.

American Museum Novitates 1496: 1-42.
American Museum of Natural History, New York.

Aus der Einleitung:

During the course of incorporating the Rothschild Collection of birds with the general collection of the American Museum of Natural History, an attempt was made to arrive at a natural arrangement for each family or other unit. This often led to rather detailed studies or to intensive efforts to determine the correct position of difficult genera. A number of publications growing from these studies are included in the bibliography (see titles by Amadon, Chapin, Delacour, Mayr, Vaurie, and Zimmer). They relate primarily to Old World families not yet included in Peters' "Check-list" for which no authoritative list exists comparable to Hellmayr's for the New World.

The principal purpose of this paper is to give these findings more general expression. We have of course incorporated the work of others whenever known to us and have included the non-passerine groups, although few changes are made from the now wellestablished sequence of Wetmore (1934, followed by Peters). Indeed we have throughout attempted to make no changes from the established sequence except when they are clearly indicated by recent evidence. Occasion is taken to give a corrected count of species in each family of birds; such a count proved a useful feature of a previous paper by the senior author (Mayr, 1946).

As a result of various discoveries and recent revisions the total number of species in the present list is 8590 as compared with 8616 in the previous one. The change within five years amounts to less than one-half of one per cent. Because of the large number of insular forms of doubtful status, the number of species of birds will always remain an estimate. The final figure may vary by several hundreds either way, depending on the point of view of the enumerator. The five "species" of Todus or the three of Rynchops, for example, might be considered races just as have the former "species" of Anhinga. Further study of continental forms, on the other hand, often gives clear-cut answers as to the racial or specific status of forms previously of dubious status. The result of the two recent counts indicates, however, that the final figure will be within 2 per cent of 8600. For all practical purposes this figure will be satisfactory as a very close approach to the actual number of species of living birds.

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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 07:35

HOLLAND, G. (2008)

Encyclopedia of Aviculture (Vol 1).

932 Seiten.
Verlag Hancock House Pub Ltd., ISBN-13: 978-0888394606, ISBN-10: 0888394608

Verlagstext:

Recognised avicultural experts world-wide have contributed to make this a truly international avicultural handbook. A wide variety of valuable species are held outside of managed species programs and it is essential that we maximise the breeding potential of these species to ensure they contribute to long-term self-sustainable populations. In this book, the aviculturist is provided with proven, practical methods for the successful management and propagation of most of the families of birds in the world. Vital, practical components for avicultural success that are universally applicable to a wide range of species, such as diets, compatibility with other species, habitat requirements, incubation, and hand-raising techniques are included.Aviculturists today are faced with the challenge of establishing captive-bred strains that are no longer reliant on replenishments from wild stock and also in assisting to reduce the current rate of species extinctions. It is the authors' hope that this book will assist aviculturists in achieving this goal.

Inhalt:

  •     Stress Management
  •     Control of Vermin
  •     Propogation of Livefood
  •     Avicultural Management
  •     Compatible Species

The aviculturist is provided with proven, practical methods for the successful management and propagation of most of the families of birds in the world. Species accounts vary from

  •     Ostrich
  •     Hummingbirds
  •     Waxbills
  •     Congo Peafowl
  •     Kiwi
  •     Saddle-bill Stork
  •     Bee-eaters
  •     Swallows
  •     Red Siskins

Components for avicultural success that are universally applicable to a wide range of species

  •     Diet
  •     Compatibility with Other Species
  •     Habitat Requirements
  •     Incubation
  •     Handraising Techniques

Aviculturists today are faced with the challenge of establishing captive-bred strains that are no longer reliant on replenishments from wild stock, while attempting to reduce the current rate of species extinctions. Glen's commendable desire that this book will assist aviculturists in achieving this goal is certainly achieved.

This title is more suited to the serious aviculturist who would appreciate the wealth of research and extensive information provided on a vast array of species.

 

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