Dienstag, 04 April 2017 14:17

BMEL (2014)

Gutachten über Mindestanforderungen an die Haltung von Säugetieren vom 7. Mai 2014.

298 Seiten, einschließlich der Differenzprotokolle der Vertreter der Tier- und Naturschutzverbände, sowie der Vertreter der Zooverbände. Herausgeber: Bundesministerium für Landwirtschaft.

Volltext (PDF)

Das Gutachten füllt die zum Teil unbestimmten Rechtsbegriffe des Tierschutzgesetzes betreffend die Haltung von Säugetieren wildlebender Arten aus.


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Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

PLoS ONE 11(7): e0158124. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158124


Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people’s views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos’ mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant’s zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare benchmarks to optimize care of zoo elephants.

Link zum Volltext: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0158124



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Freitag, 29 Mai 2015 09:53


Angst bei Tieren - ein zoologisches und ein forensisches Problem.

Dtsch. tierärztl. Wschr. 100: 322-327.



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Preliminary findings of behavioral patterns in captive alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) and prospects for future conservation.

Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 2010; 34(2): 111-117 © TÜBİTAK, doi:10.3906/vet-0707-2


Captive farming of alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) in China has been used for conservation and harvesting of musk since the mid 1950s. Despite this long history, management practices and captive breeding have been primarily based on trial and error due to lack of behavioral and ecological information about this vulnerable species. Understanding behavioral patterns plays a vital part in determining appropriate management systems; hence the aim of this study was to determine the effect of captivity on behavioral patterns of alpine musk deer by comparing wild-caught and the captive-born alpine musk deer. From August 2002 to January 2003, the behavioral patterns of 30 wild-caught (WC) and 15 captive-bred (CB) adult alpine musk deer were recorded at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), located in Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu province, China. Focal sampling was used to observe the frequencies of 12 behavior categories. The behavioral patterns of WC and CB musk deer were found to be similar; however, when gender was considered, male WC deer showed a significantly high er frequency of agonistic nteraction. These preliminary results suggest that captivity has had no immediate impact on the behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer despite 10 generations of captivity. Therefore, the alpine musk deer is not suited for domestication and further investigation into the effectiveness of musk deer farming for the purpose of harvesting musk should be undertaken.


Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures (10 m × 10 m), in groups ranging from 5 to 7 individuals. Each enclosure contained a central yard with 7 adjoining indoor cells (4 m²). Wire mesh separated enclosures enabled animals to see, hear, and smell each other. Human interaction was limited to 5 min at dawn and dusk during which animals were fed and husbandry duties were conducted.

During the study, males and females were housed separately from March to October; both CB and WB individuals, however, were housed in the same enclosures. From November to February, one male was introduced into each of the female enclosures and the males introduced into the female enclosure were both CB and WB, as with commercial breeding practices.



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Enclosure Design for Captive Slow and Pygmy Lorises.

In: Primates of the Oriental Night - proceedings of the Indonesian Workshop: Taxonomy, husbandry, and conservation of tarsiers and lorises. Jakarta, Indonesia, 15-25 February 2003, at the Pusat Primata Schmutzer / Schmutzer Primate Center, Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta. Special edition of Treubia, Bogor: 123-135


While large numbers of slow and pygmy lorises are commonly kept in local zoos and rescue centers, information about
enclosure design and minimal housing requirements is often lacking. We present recommendations for designing indoor and
outdoor loris enclosures for exhibits, rescue centers, and sanctuaries. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each
enclosure type and address construction specifications, furnishings, environmental requirements, social considerations, and
keeper monitoring. Essential requirements for loris release into naturalistic outdoor enclosures are presented along with
questions for future studies.


In some facilities such as primate rescue centers, wire cages may be the best option available. An outdoor cage measuring 2.00 m x 2.50 m x 1.80 m can successfully house 1-3 slow lorises if the furnishings are sufficient. (See climbing structures and nest box sections.) Wire should always be free of rust or sharp edges. Poly vinyl coated wire is ideal because it resists corrosion from moisture and loris urine marking. Wire gage of 2 cm x 2 cm is comfortable for lorises to grasp, and it will keep rodents and potential predators outside. Outdoor enclosures must also have a solid roof to protect lorises from sun and rain.

Maximum flexibility can be achieved by building several smaller cages (minimum size of 1.70 m x 1.00 m x .70 m per slow loris), which are connected with removable wire tunnels. Depending on whether the tunnel gates are open or closed, lorises can be kept alone or given access to other enclosures. If cages share common walls, double wire mesh or solid walls must be used to prevent lorises from biting their neighbor ’s fingers. Keeper doors should be large enough for a person to walk inside the enclosure or easily reach any area inside the cage. Doorframes must be made of a solid material that will not bend. Otherwise, lorises may be able to escape by squeezing their bodies through the small gaps between door openings. Cages should be elevated at least 15 cm above the ground to so that excreta and other waste will fall below. Indoor cages can easily be moved for cleaning if wheels are attached to the bottoms. Food dishes and nest boxes can be placed on wire shelves, which are also useful for loris resting places.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 12:42


Artgemäße Bisonhaltung.

TVT-Merkblatt Nr. 97.
23 Seiten, 8 Abbildungen
Tierärztliche Vereinigung für Tierschutz e.V., Geschäftsstelle D-49565 Bramsche


1. Einleitung
2. Zoologische Systematik
3. Verbreitung und Lebensweise
4. Verhalten
4.1 Sozialverhalten
4.2 Fortpflanzung
4.3 Geburt
4.4 Kuh-Kalb-Verhalten
4.5 Komfortverhalten
4.6 Fress-/Trinkverhalten
4.7 Lokomotion
5. Klimaansprüche
6. Haltung
6.1 Einzäunung
6.2 Fütterung
6.3 Tränke
6.4 Witterungsschutz
6.5 Haltung im Winter
7. Umgang (Handling)
8. Pflege und Eingriffe
9. Krankheiten
10. Schlachtung
11. Rechtliche Grundlagen
12. Besonders zu beachten
13. Literatur

Volltext herunterzuladen von: http://www.tierschutz-tvt.de/merkblaetter.html#c5



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 06:30


Leitfaden zur Bisonhaltung in Deutschland - Geschichte, Haltung, Zucht, Tiergesundheit, Nutzung und Versicherung,

148 Seiten, 36 Abbildungen, 32 Tabellen.

Schüling Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3-86523-203-8.


Ob als Hobby oder im Erwerb: Die Haltung von Bisons in Deutschland nimmt zu. Das Ziel der Haltung sind vitale und gesunde Tiere. In Zusammenarbeit mit dem Deutschen Bisonzuchtverband e. V. und verschiedenen Bisonhaltern aus Deutschland entstand dieser Leitfaden. Im Mittelpunkt stehen Haltung und Fütterung. Daneben wird ausführlich auf Sozialverhalten, Zucht, Tiergesundheit sowie die Nutzung der Bisons eingegangen. Wichtiges Wissen rund um die Haltung und Nutzung der Tiere ist kompakt und praxisnah zusammengefasst.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 06:25

CARROLL, B. (ed., 2002)

EAZA-Haltungsrichtlinien für Krallenaffen.

Deutsche Übersetzung von Eva Zimmermann et al.
103 Seiten.
EAZA Amsterdam.
Deutsche Fassung produziert von Berufsverband der Zootierpfleger, Redaktion "Arbeitsplatz Zoo", Dresden. ISBN 9783865232748.


BARRÃO RUIVO, E. (ed. 2010)

2nd edition, 218 pp.


The  review  that  has  led  to  this  second  edition  was  started  in  2008  and completed in 2010. In some places the changes from the first edition are considerable. This includes a modified structure, to reflect the standard EAZA husbandry guidelines format, introduced in 2008. There has been a considerable revision of Section 1, Biology and Field Data which results from both changes in taxonomy and the discovery of a number of new  species  over  the  last  decade. Changes in Section 2 reflect advances in  husbandry and our greater understanding of diets, health care and social behaviour. The  EAZA  Regional Collection Plan for the  Callitrichidae  highlights the need for sound husbandry and population management in order to maintain our populations of callitrichids in captivity. Some species require considerable management due to small population sizes and difficulties in  establishing  multiple-generation breeding. Some programmes are vital for conservation reasons, such as those for the pied tamarin and the lion tamarins.  Furthermore, our experience over the years tells us that we need constantly to seek advances in the care, wellbeing and welfare of the animals in our breeding programmes.  This second edition of the husbandry guidelines  has been written by experts in husbandry, taxonomy, social behaviour, nutrition and animal health and reflects what we see as best practice for our animals.

Volltext: http://www.marmosetcare.com/downloads/EAZA_HusbandryGuidelines.pdf




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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 16:58

EAZA Elephant TAG (2005)

Management Guidelines for the Welfare of Zoo Animals - Elephant.

36 Seiten. EAZA, Amsterdam.


Elephants are kept in zoos as part of an overriding conservation mission so that they are in actively managed breeding programmes. This may mean that non-breeding elephants are kept at some zoos to ensure maximization of the capacity for elephant breeding zoos. Their presence enables progressive educational activities and demonstrates links with field conservation projects and benign scientific research, leading to continuous improvements in breeding and welfare standards.

Zoos have a duty of care: that standards of husbandry practices, housing, health and welfare management are humane and appropriate to the intelligence, social behaviour, longevity and size of elephants. All zoos should aim to continuously improve welfare standards.
Zoos have a moral and legal responsibility to ensure the safety of visitors and staff.

Zoos must continually assess their performance against the EAZA Elephant Management Policy with its defined standards and procedures, in order to demonstrate legal compliance and address legitimate public concerns. The policy documents will be reviewed annually and comments can be submitted at any time by members to one of the EEP Coordinators for consideration.

The goal of this policy statement is the ongoing well-being of elephants in controlled environments in European collections. Furthermore these recommendations offer a tool to all elephant keeping institutions for improving their standards as old keeping regimes are phased out over the years and with the aging of individual elephants.

All sections of this document are intended as exemplary and make no claim to be comprehensive.



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The design of new bear facilities.

Kapitel 2 der EAZA Bear Husbandry Guidelines. 45 Seiten, Abbildungen, Tabellen. EAZA, Amsterdam


This chapter considers both outdoor and indoor enclosures, their furnishings, substrates and the technical features of new bear facilities. An enclosure should be designed to provide all the requirements necessary for the care and maintenance of the bears and also, if needed, for reproduction. The facility must not only be escape proof, but should also create suitable conditions and stimulation which will enable the animals to perform a wide range of species-specific behaviours. The environment must not permanently create problems, which the animals cannot solve, and should be sufficiently flexible in design for any adverse situations to be easily rectified.

It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the normal behaviour of bears, their use of habitat and particularly their locomotor activities in relation to the use of cage furnishings and structures in outdoor enclosures, substrates and any other factors, which may effect them. This will enable the zoo to design facilities, which meet the animals' physical and behavioural needs. Feeding, social and spatial organization and reproductive biology will be treated in more detail in subsequent chapters. Only general features of these aspects of bear biology will be considered in this chapter, where they are relevant to the design of a bear facility.



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© Peter Dollinger, Zoo Office Bern hyperworx