The harvest of wild birds for aviculture: an historical perspective on finch trapping in the Kimberley with special emphasis on the Gouldian Finch.

Australian Zoologist (1999) 31 (1): 92–109.


Commercial trapping of finches by licensed trappers was permitted in the Kimberley region of Western Australia until the end of 1986. We provide a history of the trade, focussing particularly on the period since 1968. Details are provided of the legal and policy framework in which the trade operated, trappers, capture, handling and marketing methods, and capture tallies. Reasonably accurate capture tallies are available from 1974. From then until 1986, over 280 000 finches of eleven species were caught and sold. The number of trappers declined by 50% during that time, but the number of finches caught did not decline. However, the number of Gouldian Finches captured declined sharply after 1977. Regression analyses ol Gouldian Finch capture rates failed to identify any consistent rainfall or market variables which might have contributed to the decline. We conclude that the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Gouldian Finch suffered a major population decline in the Kimberley area in the late 1970s. We also discuss a range of “sustainable conservation” issues related to the harvest of wild birds for the avicultural trade and suggest that a “sustainable conservation” strategy aimed at establishing a viable captive population is incompatible with a strategy aimed at protecting habitat.


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Sonntag, 07 März 2021 09:09

KLÖS,H.-G. (2005b)

Tierfänger und Grosstierhändler - Erinnerungen eines alten Tiergärtners, Teil 2.

BONGO Berlin 35: 7-42.

Aus dem Inhalt:

Biografische Angaben, Tierlieferungen und Anekdoten

  • Charles Cordier
  • Christoph und Walter Schulz
  • Niederländische Händler
  • Samen Eckers
  • Georg von Basilewsky
  • Julius Mohr
  • Albert Mees


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Sonntag, 07 März 2021 09:07

KLÖS,H.-G. (2005a)

Tierfänger und Grosstierhändler - Erinnerungen eines alten Tiergärtners, Teil 1.

BONGO Berlin 34: 3-42.

Aus dem Inhalt:

Biografische Angaben, Tierlieferungen und Anekdoten

  • Firma Hagenbeck
  • Firma Ruhe
  • Firmen Molinar und Terni


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Freitag, 07 Februar 2020 08:41

OSTRZECHA, P. & HIRT, J. (2003)

Schulungsordner Kleinsäuger - Zur Erlangung der Sachkunde für den Zoofachhandel nach § 11 TierSch.G

Mit Ergänzungsliefrung Exotische Kleinsäuger.
302 + 174 Seiten, farbig illustriert.

Herausgeber: BNA, Hambrücken


Auf über 300 Seiten und mit ca. 250 farbigen Abbildungen werden die Grundlagen der Haltung von Zwergkaninchen, Meerschweinchen, Goldhamster, Zwerghamstern, Farbratte und -maus, Mongolischer Rennmaus, Stachelmäusen, Chinchilla, Degu, Streifenhörnchen und Frettchen sowohl im Zoofachhandel als auch in Privathand dargestellt.

Darüber hinaus finden sich ausführliche Angaben über Biologie, Ernährung, Fortpflanzung und Krankheiten der Kleinsäuger.

Die Ergänzungslieferung "Exotische Kleinsäuger" ist inzwischen fester Bestandteil des Schulungsordners Kleinsäuger. Sie behandelt in 10 Kapiteln auf über 170 Seiten alle Aspekte der Haltung und Pflege Exotischer Kleinsäuger und dient als Leitfaden zum Erwerb der Sachkunde. 32 Arten (u.a. Afrikanischer Weißbauchigel, Persische Rennmaus, Sugar Glider) werden in detaillierten Steckbriefen dargestellt.


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Montag, 13 Januar 2020 09:01


Red-whiskered Bulbul: are trapping and unregulated avicultural practices pushing this species towards extinction in Thailand?

Birding Asia 20:49-52


The Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus is a relatively common bird of well-watered open country from South to South-East Asia and southern China. It is naturalised elsewhere, in Mauritius, Australia and North America, and its conservation status is Least Concern. In Thailand the species is much in demand due to its sweet, chuckling song, and it is possibly the most widely kept native cage-bird species in the country, but it has nearly vanished from most of its Thai range due to the illegal trapping of wild birds for sale. The only recent national assessment in which the Red-whiskered Bulbul was considered 'nationally Near Threatened' is already too conservative given its precipitous and rapid decline. Thailand's Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act 1992 permits possession and captive breeding of Red-whiskered Bulbuls only under supposedly stringent safeguards, but this is widely flouted. Most Thai provinces now have their own Red-whiskered Bulbul clubs, with over 100 clubs nationwide. One of these clubs claims more than 50,000 members, each of whom was estimated by the club's director to own at least 5–10 birds, with some having 30 or more birds. The Thai captive population of Red-whiskered Bulbuls therefore now probably numbers in the millions. Some Thai government authorities have inadvertently encouraged the illegal sale and capture of Red-whiskered Bulbuls through, for example, the active promotion of Red-whiskered Bulbul singing contests. Due partly to the active hostility of the huge bulbul fancier lobby, the suppression of trade and wild capture by the Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plants Conservation (DNP), the government authority charged with biodiversity conservation and law enforcement, has been inadequate, haphazard and inconsistent. Additionally the major burden of caring for confiscated wildlife - 28,139 Red-whiskered Bulbuls were confiscated from illegal bird-traders between 2007–2010 alone—has even led some DNP officials to suggest that the protected status of Red-whiskered Bulbul should be revoked. In addition to the reduction or loss of the wild population, the apparently widespread practice of cross-breeding Red-whiskered Bulbuls with Yellow-vented Bulbuls P. goaivier presents a possible additional threat. The breeders believe that the hybrids are more aggressive, and sing more vigorously than Red-whiskered Bulbuls, giving them an advantage in bird-singing competitions. The hybrids concerned are usually backcrosses with Red-whiskered Bulbuls from which they are almost indistinguishable. Prize-winning Red-whiskered Bulbuls in national competitions are usually valued at a minimum of Baht 200,000 (about £3,800) and the highest price so far recorded is Baht 1.6 million (£31,000). There are also published records of Red-whiskered Bulbuls hybridising in captivity with Red-vented Bulbul P. cafer, White-eared Bulbul P. leucotis, White-spectacled Bulbul P. xanthopygos, Black-crested Bulbul P. melanicterus  and Himalayan Bulbul P. leucogenys. ..


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Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States.

PLoS One. 2012; 7(5): e35808.
Published online 2012 May 21. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0035808


The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

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Samstag, 08 Juli 2017 17:44

BENNETT, D. (2015)

International Trade in the Blue Tree Monitor Lizard Varanus macraei.

Biawak, 9(2), pp. 50-57
© 2015 by International Varanid Interest Group


Using Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) trade statistics derived from the CITES Trade Database (UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK), published literature and anecdotal information from the internet, the wildlife trade in Varanus macraei is described. The lizard is a high value pet commodity and although it is traded in relatively small numbers, virtually all trade appears to be of animals harvested directly from the wild population on Batanta Island, Indonesia. Export data suggests an extraction rate of over 6.6 individuals per km² over a decade, with a total value of between US $1-2 million. Trade to some countries including Russia, Taiwan and Ukraine is underestimated or omitted by import data. Overall trade in the species is increasing and prices have remained high despite captive breeding events in Europe and the United States, with captive bred animals representing less than 1% of worldwide trade. 

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Estimating the global trade in Southeast Asian newts.

Biological Conservation 199: 96-100.


The global trade in amphibians is widespread, involves hundreds of species, and has been implicated in amphibian population declines. The pet trade is the primary driver for population declines in one Southeast Asian newt species (Laotriton laoensis), and is a known threat tomost of the 13 other knownspecies fromthe region. Despite this, there has been little attempt to assess the impact of collection for the pet trade on Southeast Asian newts.We examined available import data from the US, Europe and Hong Kong, assessed current online trade and surveyed local pet traders within Southeast Asia. Large numbers of Southeast Asian newts are harvested from the wild to meet the demands of the international pet trade, with more than 7500 individual newts imported into the US alone during 2005–2014. Internet trade surveys revealed the global extent of the trade, with Southeast Asian newts for sale as pets in 15 countries throughout Europe, Asia and North America, at between ~ USD30–260 each. The trade in newts within Southeast Asia appears negligible in comparison. Urgent measures are required in order to conserve Southeast Asian newts but the lack of data on the species and number of individuals impacted by the pet trade makes it difficult to monitor and accurately assess its threat. We strongly recommend that all Southeast Asian newts be listed on CITES. This measure should improve monitoring of trade and provides importing countries opportunity to curb trade in species that were illegally harvested, thus helping to safeguard wild populations.

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Dienstag, 08 Januar 2013 12:41

RUHE, H. (1960)

Wilde Tiere frei Haus.

308 Seiten, mit s/w und farbigen Fotos sowie Strichzeichnungen. Copress Verlag München.


"Wilde Tiere frei Haus" ist die Geschichte einer der ehemals bedeutendsten Tierhandelsfirmen weltweit, erzählt vom damaligen (1960) Seniorchef Hermann Ruhe, der als hervorragender Fachmann und dessen alte Firma als Lieferant bester Tiere galt. Die Firma L. Ruhe KG entstand im 19. Jhdt. aus einem Kanarienvogelhandel. Sie importierte, exportierte und transportierte zu ihrer Blütezeit nicht nur - oft in ihrem Auftrag gefangene - Tiere aller Art, sondern war auch im Völkerschau- und Circusgeschäft tätig und gründete, besaß oder pachtete Zoologische Gärten wie z.B. den Freizeit-Zoo Brunkensen, den Ruhr-Zoo Gelsenkirchen, den Städtischen Zoo Hannover oder die Auto-Safari auf Mallorca.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 12:38

HECK, L. (1952)

Tiere - mein Abenteuer.
Erlebnisse in Wildnis und Zoo.

Gekürzte Ausgabe. Gebunden, 192 Seiten, 31 Abbildungen.

Verlag Ullstein, Berlin.



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