Stable fighting strategies to maintain social ranks in captive male Alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus).

Animal Science Journal Vol 83 (8): 617–622, August 2012 


This study was conducted at the Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm of China from July to September 2008. Results showed that captive male musk deer exhibit aggressive dominance behavior, by which a stable social ranking is established. Generally, there were three types of aggression in agonistic interactions among males: attacking, displacing and threatening. Threatening was more frequently observed than displacing and attacking. When in conflict with other deer, high-rank males exhibited significantly more attacking than displacing and threatening. Moreover, no attacking occurred in low-rank and middle-rank males, but these individuals initiated significantly more threatening displays than high-rank individuals. Among musk deer groups with different social ranks, there were no significant differences between threats received by middle-rank and low-rank groups, but attacks directed to high-rank males was significantly lower than displacing and threatening behaviors. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that when a captive male musk deer population is assembled, individuals should be diversified in fighting ability and level of aggression. In particular, deer with higher aggression should not be enclosed with deer with similar tendencies, but should be enclosed with individuals with lower fighting levels. This should maintain stable social structures within captive musk deer groups and improve the overall welfare of captive musk deer.



Freigegeben in M

Preliminary findings of behavioral patterns in captive alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) and prospects for future conservation.

Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 2010; 34(2): 111-117 © TÜBİTAK, doi:10.3906/vet-0707-2


Captive farming of alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) in China has been used for conservation and harvesting of musk since the mid 1950s. Despite this long history, management practices and captive breeding have been primarily based on trial and error due to lack of behavioral and ecological information about this vulnerable species. Understanding behavioral patterns plays a vital part in determining appropriate management systems; hence the aim of this study was to determine the effect of captivity on behavioral patterns of alpine musk deer by comparing wild-caught and the captive-born alpine musk deer. From August 2002 to January 2003, the behavioral patterns of 30 wild-caught (WC) and 15 captive-bred (CB) adult alpine musk deer were recorded at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), located in Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu province, China. Focal sampling was used to observe the frequencies of 12 behavior categories. The behavioral patterns of WC and CB musk deer were found to be similar; however, when gender was considered, male WC deer showed a significantly high er frequency of agonistic nteraction. These preliminary results suggest that captivity has had no immediate impact on the behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer despite 10 generations of captivity. Therefore, the alpine musk deer is not suited for domestication and further investigation into the effectiveness of musk deer farming for the purpose of harvesting musk should be undertaken.


Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures (10 m × 10 m), in groups ranging from 5 to 7 individuals. Each enclosure contained a central yard with 7 adjoining indoor cells (4 m²). Wire mesh separated enclosures enabled animals to see, hear, and smell each other. Human interaction was limited to 5 min at dawn and dusk during which animals were fed and husbandry duties were conducted.

During the study, males and females were housed separately from March to October; both CB and WB individuals, however, were housed in the same enclosures. From November to February, one male was introduced into each of the female enclosures and the males introduced into the female enclosure were both CB and WB, as with commercial breeding practices.



Freigegeben in M
Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 12:42


Artgemäße Bisonhaltung.

TVT-Merkblatt Nr. 97.
23 Seiten, 8 Abbildungen
Tierärztliche Vereinigung für Tierschutz e.V., Geschäftsstelle D-49565 Bramsche


1. Einleitung
2. Zoologische Systematik
3. Verbreitung und Lebensweise
4. Verhalten
4.1 Sozialverhalten
4.2 Fortpflanzung
4.3 Geburt
4.4 Kuh-Kalb-Verhalten
4.5 Komfortverhalten
4.6 Fress-/Trinkverhalten
4.7 Lokomotion
5. Klimaansprüche
6. Haltung
6.1 Einzäunung
6.2 Fütterung
6.3 Tränke
6.4 Witterungsschutz
6.5 Haltung im Winter
7. Umgang (Handling)
8. Pflege und Eingriffe
9. Krankheiten
10. Schlachtung
11. Rechtliche Grundlagen
12. Besonders zu beachten
13. Literatur

Volltext herunterzuladen von:



Freigegeben in S
Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 06:30


Leitfaden zur Bisonhaltung in Deutschland - Geschichte, Haltung, Zucht, Tiergesundheit, Nutzung und Versicherung,

148 Seiten, 36 Abbildungen, 32 Tabellen.

Schüling Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3-86523-203-8.


Ob als Hobby oder im Erwerb: Die Haltung von Bisons in Deutschland nimmt zu. Das Ziel der Haltung sind vitale und gesunde Tiere. In Zusammenarbeit mit dem Deutschen Bisonzuchtverband e. V. und verschiedenen Bisonhaltern aus Deutschland entstand dieser Leitfaden. Im Mittelpunkt stehen Haltung und Fütterung. Daneben wird ausführlich auf Sozialverhalten, Zucht, Tiergesundheit sowie die Nutzung der Bisons eingegangen. Wichtiges Wissen rund um die Haltung und Nutzung der Tiere ist kompakt und praxisnah zusammengefasst.



Freigegeben in C
Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 06:25

CARROLL, B. (ed., 2002)

EAZA-Haltungsrichtlinien für Krallenaffen.

Deutsche Übersetzung von Eva Zimmermann et al.
103 Seiten.
EAZA Amsterdam.
Deutsche Fassung produziert von Berufsverband der Zootierpfleger, Redaktion "Arbeitsplatz Zoo", Dresden. ISBN 9783865232748.


BARRÃO RUIVO, E. (ed. 2010)

2nd edition, 218 pp.


The  review  that  has  led  to  this  second  edition  was  started  in  2008  and completed in 2010. In some places the changes from the first edition are considerable. This includes a modified structure, to reflect the standard EAZA husbandry guidelines format, introduced in 2008. There has been a considerable revision of Section 1, Biology and Field Data which results from both changes in taxonomy and the discovery of a number of new  species  over  the  last  decade. Changes in Section 2 reflect advances in  husbandry and our greater understanding of diets, health care and social behaviour. The  EAZA  Regional Collection Plan for the  Callitrichidae  highlights the need for sound husbandry and population management in order to maintain our populations of callitrichids in captivity. Some species require considerable management due to small population sizes and difficulties in  establishing  multiple-generation breeding. Some programmes are vital for conservation reasons, such as those for the pied tamarin and the lion tamarins.  Furthermore, our experience over the years tells us that we need constantly to seek advances in the care, wellbeing and welfare of the animals in our breeding programmes.  This second edition of the husbandry guidelines  has been written by experts in husbandry, taxonomy, social behaviour, nutrition and animal health and reflects what we see as best practice for our animals.





Freigegeben in C
Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 16:58

EAZA Elephant TAG (2005)

Management Guidelines for the Welfare of Zoo Animals - Elephant.

36 Seiten. EAZA, Amsterdam.


Elephants are kept in zoos as part of an overriding conservation mission so that they are in actively managed breeding programmes. This may mean that non-breeding elephants are kept at some zoos to ensure maximization of the capacity for elephant breeding zoos. Their presence enables progressive educational activities and demonstrates links with field conservation projects and benign scientific research, leading to continuous improvements in breeding and welfare standards.

Zoos have a duty of care: that standards of husbandry practices, housing, health and welfare management are humane and appropriate to the intelligence, social behaviour, longevity and size of elephants. All zoos should aim to continuously improve welfare standards.
Zoos have a moral and legal responsibility to ensure the safety of visitors and staff.

Zoos must continually assess their performance against the EAZA Elephant Management Policy with its defined standards and procedures, in order to demonstrate legal compliance and address legitimate public concerns. The policy documents will be reviewed annually and comments can be submitted at any time by members to one of the EEP Coordinators for consideration.

The goal of this policy statement is the ongoing well-being of elephants in controlled environments in European collections. Furthermore these recommendations offer a tool to all elephant keeping institutions for improving their standards as old keeping regimes are phased out over the years and with the aging of individual elephants.

All sections of this document are intended as exemplary and make no claim to be comprehensive.



Freigegeben in E

Husbandry and Pathology of Polar Bears (Thalactos maritimus) in Swiss Zoos.

European Association of Zoo- and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV)
First scientific meeting, May 16 - 18, 1996, ROSTOCK, Germany: 47-54.

Volltext PDF


Die Zoos von Basel und Zürich halten Eisbären unter Bedingungen, die der gegenwärtigen schweizerischen Tierschutzgesetzgebung entsprechen. Währenddem die Lebensdauer der als Erwachsene oder Subadulte erworbenen Eisbären zufriedenstellend ist, ist die Aufzuchtrate der Jungtiere unannehmbar tief. Die Haltung genügt daher dem Grundsatz der Nachhaltigkeit nicht. Als das Hauptproblem werden Verhaltensstörungen angesehen, die durch sozialen Stress und das Unvermögen der Bären, sich der Zooumgebung anzupassen, verursacht werden, und zu Stereotypien, Jungentötung und Hautkrankheiten führen. Unter den gegebenen Bedingungen sollte daher die Eisbärenhaltung mittelfristig eingestellt werden. Die Tierschutzgesetzgebung ist so zu ändern, dass sie dem Verhalten der Art besser Rechnung trägt. Im weiteren enthält der Beitrag Informationen über Fütterung, Lebenserwartung und Fortpflanzungsbiologie, sowie einen Überblick über die Sektionsbefunde bei Eisbären in schweizerischen Zoos.



Freigegeben in D

The design of new bear facilities.

Kapitel 2 der EAZA Bear Husbandry Guidelines. 45 Seiten, Abbildungen, Tabellen. EAZA, Amsterdam


This chapter considers both outdoor and indoor enclosures, their furnishings, substrates and the technical features of new bear facilities. An enclosure should be designed to provide all the requirements necessary for the care and maintenance of the bears and also, if needed, for reproduction. The facility must not only be escape proof, but should also create suitable conditions and stimulation which will enable the animals to perform a wide range of species-specific behaviours. The environment must not permanently create problems, which the animals cannot solve, and should be sufficiently flexible in design for any adverse situations to be easily rectified.

It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the normal behaviour of bears, their use of habitat and particularly their locomotor activities in relation to the use of cage furnishings and structures in outdoor enclosures, substrates and any other factors, which may effect them. This will enable the zoo to design facilities, which meet the animals' physical and behavioural needs. Feeding, social and spatial organization and reproductive biology will be treated in more detail in subsequent chapters. Only general features of these aspects of bear biology will be considered in this chapter, where they are relevant to the design of a bear facility.



Freigegeben in K
Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 07:58


Environmental enrichment - methods of improving old enclosures and keeping new ones stimulating.

Kapitel 3 der EAZA Bear Husbandry Guidelines.
15 Seiten, Abbildungen, Tabellen. EAZA, Amsterdam


Bears should live in an environment where they can, as far as possible, replicate a repertoire of natural behaviour including foraging, feeding and breeding. In addition they are highly intelligent and easily become bored in over restricted enclosures and are highly prone to show abnormal behaviour. The visitor wishes to see the bears active and behaving normally, while zoos seek to provide an environment which stimulates normal behaviour and is flexible in use and easy to manage. In many zoos bear enclosures are old and their replacement may be delayed until funds are available to build new housing. This section of the guidelines addresses the ways in which existing enclosures may be improved and new ones (see chapter 2) maintain a high degree of diversity and novelty.



Freigegeben in U
Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 16:47

EAZA Giraffe EEPs (2006)

EAZA Husbandry and Management Guidelines for Giraffa camelopardalis.

140 Seiten, Abbildungen, Tabellen.
Burgers’ Zoo, Arnhem


2.2 Feeding:



Freigegeben in E
© Peter Dollinger, Zoo Office Bern hyperworx