Montag, 09 März 2020 16:45

DONEGAN, T. (2016)

The pigeon names Columba livia, 'C. domestica' and C. oenas and their type specimens.

Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 136(1):14-27.


The name Columba domestica Linnaeus, 1758, is senior to Columba livia J. F. Gmelin, 1789, but both names apply to the same biological species, Rock Dove or Feral Pigeon, which is widely known as C. livia. The type series of livia is mixed, including specimens of Stock Dove C. oenas, wild Rock Dove, various domestic pigeon breeds and two other pigeon species that are not congeners. In the absence of a plate unambiguously depicting a wild bird being cited in the original description, a neotype for livia is designated based on a Fair Isle (Scotland) specimen. The name domestica is based on specimens of the 'runt' breed, originally illustrated by Aldrovandi (1600) and copied by Willughby (1678) and a female domestic specimen studied but not illustrated by the latter. The name C. oenas Linnaeus, 1758, is also based on a mixed series, including at least one Feral Pigeon. The individual illustrated in one of Aldrovandi's (1600) oenas plates is designated as a lectotype, type locality Bologna, Italy. The names Columba gutturosa Linnaeus, 1758, and Columba cucullata Linnaeus, 1758, cannot be suppressed given their limited usage. The issue of priority between livia and domestica, and between both of them and gutturosa and cucullata, requires ICZN attention. Other names introduced by Linnaeus (1758) or Gmelin (1789) based on domestic breeds are considered invalid, subject to implicit first reviser actions or nomina oblita with respect to livia and domestica.


Freigegeben in D

Flagship but only locally: bongo Tragelaphus eurycerus taxonomic history and its effects on current conservation policy.

GAZELLA 44: 65-76.


A review of historical literature plus the examination of zoos and museum specimens and available photos from internet source revealed the hidden diversity of the bongo antelopes, presently Tragelaphus eurycerus. While the Kenya montane form isaaci has received most conservation support in recent years, the present review highlights the species status of the little-known Upper Guinean nominal taxon. Waiting for a through taxonomic revision of the whole complex especially in the central forest block, the Central-Eastern bongos are better considered as members of a distinct species Tragelaphus albovirgatus Du Chaillu, 1861, provisionally considered to include a number of ‘subspecies’. The conservation status of T. albovirgatus and especially of T. eurycerus need further investigations even considering that, excepted for the Kenyan taxon isaaci, their survival may depends exclusively on in situ conservation activities.

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Freigegeben in G

Molecular diversity and phylogenetic analysis of domestic and wild Bactrian camel populations based on the mitochondrial ATP8 and ATP6 genes.

Livestock Science 199 (May 2017): 95-100.


  • We analyzed the diversity of mitochondrial ATP8/6 gene in Bactrian camel populations.
  • All domestic Bactrian camel populations were clustered as a single major group in the haplotype network.
  • A single haplotype was identified in the wild Bactrian camel population, which formed a separate branch.
  • The phylogenetic tree showed the same patterns as the haplotype network.
  • Wild and domestic Bactrian camels evolved from two distinct ancestors.


Freigegeben in Y

The Phylogenetic Relationships of the Shags and Cormorants: Can Sequence Data Resolve a Disagreement between Behavior and Morphology?

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 17 (3): 345-359.


Taxonomic arrangements for the cormorants and shags (Phalacrocoracidae) had varied greatly until two quite similar arrangements, one based on behavior and the other on osteological characters, became the basis for current thought on the evolutionary relationships of these birds. The terms cormorant and shag, which had previously been haphazardly applied to members of the group, became the vernacular terms for the two major subdivisions within this family. The two taxonomies differ in places, however, with the behavioral taxonomy placing several species within the shags and the osteological taxonomy and phylogeny grouping those species (as the marine cormorants) and placing them within the cormorants. In an attempt to resolve the differences in the relationships hypothesized by behavior and morphology, we sequenced three mitochondrial genes (12S, ATPase 6, and ATPase 8). Initial equally weighted parsimony trees differed slightly from our two weighted parsimony trees, one of which was also our maximum-likelihood tree. Many of the branches within our trees were well supported, but some sections of the phylogeny proved difficult to resolve with confidence. Our sequence trees differ substantially from the morphological phylogeny and show that neither the shags nor the cormorants are monophyletic, but form an intermingled group. Some of the groups supported by both the behavioral and the morphological taxonomies (e.g., the cliff shags, Stictocarbo) appear to be polyphyletic. Conversely, the monophyly of the blue-eyed shags, a traditional group that the osteological analysis had found to be paraphyletic, was supported by the sequence data. Until more taxa are sampled and a fully robust phylogeny is obtained, a conservative approach accepting a single genus, Phalacrocorax, for the shags and cormorants is recommended.


Freigegeben in K

Phylogeny and biogeography of the fruit doves (Aves: Columbidae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2014 Jan;70:442-53. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.08.019. Epub 2013 Sep 4.


We reconstruct the phylogeny of fruit doves (genus Ptilinopus) and allies with a dense sampling that includes almost all species, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. We evaluate the most likely biogeographic scenario for the evolution of this group that colonized many islands of the Pacific Ocean. We also investigate the evolution of one of the main plumage character of fruit doves (the color of the crown), and we propose several revisions of the group's systematics. All Ptilinopus taxa formed a monophyletic group that includes two morphologically distinct genera, Alectroenas and Drepanoptila, confirming a previous result found with less species and genes. The divergence time analysis suggests that the basal divergences within Ptilinopus dated to the Early Oligocene, and the biogeographic analysis indicates that fruit doves originated most probably from the proto New Guinea region. The earliest dispersals from the New Guinea region to Oceania occurred with the colonization of New Caledonia and Fiji. A large group of Polynesian species (Central and Eastern), as well as the three taxa found in Micronesia and four species from the Guinean-Moluccan region, form the "purpuratus" clade, the largest diversification of fruit doves within Oceania, which also has a New Guinean origin. However, the eastbound colonization of fruit doves was not associated with a significant increase of their diversification rate. Overall, the Melanesian region did not act as a cradle for fruit doves, in contrast to the New Guinea region which is found as the ancestral area for several nodes within the phylogeny.


Freigegeben in C

A molecular phylogeny of the dove genera Streptopelia and Columba.

The Auk 118(4):874-887, 2001

ABSTRACT: Evolutionary history of the dove genus Streptopelia has not been examined with rigorous phylogenetic methods. We present a study of phylogenetic relationships of Streptopelia based on over 3,600 base pairs of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences. To test for monophyly of Streptopelia, we used several other columbiform taxa, including Columba (Old and New World), Macropygia, Reinwardtoena, and the enigmatic Pink Pigeon (Nesoenas mayeri). On the basis of our analyses, Streptopelia (as currently defined) is not monophyletic; Nesoenas mayeri is the sister species to S. picturata, resulting in paraphyly of Streptopelia. Three main clades of Streptopelia are identified: (1) S. chinensis plus S. senegalensis, (2) S. picturata plus Nesoenas mayeri, and (3) all other species of Streptopelia. It is unclear whether those clades form a monophyletic group to the exclusion of Old World Columba, but several analyses produce that result. Species of Old World Columba are closely related to Streptopelia, with species of New World Columba clustering outside that group. Taxonomic changes suggested by our results include merging Nesoenas with Streptopelia and changing the generic name for New World Columba species to Patagioenas. Vocal similarities between S. picturata and N. mayeri are striking, given the general diversity of vocalizations in other species.


Freigegeben in J

A comprehensive molecular phylogeny for the hornbills (Aves: Bucerotidae).

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol. 67 (2): 468-483


The hornbills comprise a group of morphologically and behaviorally distinct Palaeotropical bird species that feature prominently in studies of ecology and conservation biology. Although the monophyly of hornbills is well established, previous phylogenetic hypotheses were based solely on mtDNA and limited sampling of species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all 61 extant hornbill species, based on nuclear and mtDNA gene sequences extracted largely from historical samples. The resulting phylogenetic trees closely match vocal variation across the family but conflict with current taxonomic treatments. In particular, they highlight a new arrangement for the six major clades of hornbills and reveal that three groups traditionally treated as genera (Tockus, Aceros, Penelopides) are non-monophyletic. In addition, two other genera (Anthracoceros, Ocyceros) were non-monophyletic in the mtDNA gene tree. Our findings resolve some longstanding problems in hornbill systematics, including the placement of ‘Penelopides exharatus’ (embedded in Aceros) and ‘Tockus hartlaubi’ (sister to Tropicranus albocristatus). We also confirm that an Asiatic lineage (Berenicornis) is sister to a trio of Afrotropical genera (Tropicranus [including ‘Tockus hartlaubi’], Ceratogymna, Bycanistes). We present a summary phylogeny as a robust basis for further studies of hornbill ecology, evolution and historical biogeography.


Freigegeben in G

A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing.

Nature 526: 569–573 (22 October 2015)


Although reconstruction of the phylogeny of living birds has progressed tremendously in the last decade, the evolutionary history of Neoaves—a clade that encompasses nearly all living bird species—remains the greatest unresolved challenge in dinosaur systematics. Here we investigate avian phylogeny with an unprecedented scale of data: >390,000 bases of genomic sequence data from each of 198 species of living birds, representing all major avian lineages, and two crocodilian outgroups. Sequence data were collected using anchored hybrid enrichment, yielding 259 nuclear loci with an average length of 1,523 bases for a total data set of over 7.8 × 107 bases. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses yielded highly supported and nearly identical phylogenetic trees for all major avian lineages. Five major clades form successive sister groups to the rest of Neoaves: (1) a clade including nightjars, other caprimulgiforms, swifts, and hummingbirds; (2) a clade uniting cuckoos, bustards, and turacos with pigeons, mesites, and sandgrouse; (3) cranes and their relatives; (4) a comprehensive waterbird clade, including all diving, wading, and shorebirds; and (5) a comprehensive landbird clade with the enigmatic hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) as the sister group to the rest. Neither of the two main, recently proposed Neoavian clades—Columbea and Passerea1—were supported as monophyletic. The results of our divergence time analyses are congruent with the palaeontological record, supporting a major radiation of crown birds in the wake of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) mass extinction.



Freigegeben in P

Genome-Wide Evolutionary Analysis of Natural History and Adaptation in the World’s Tigers.

Current Biology 28 (23). 10.1016/j.cub.2018.09.019.


No other species attracts more international resources, public attention, and protracted controversies over its intraspecific taxonomy than the tiger (Panthera tigris) [1, 2]. Today, fewer than 4,000 free-ranging tigers survive, covering only 7% of their historical range, and debates persist over whether they comprise six, five, or two subspecies [3–6]. The lack of consensus over the number of tiger subspecies has partially hindered the global effort to recover the species from the brink of extinction, as both captive breeding and landscape intervention of wild populations increasingly require an explicit delineation of the conservation management units [7]. The recent coalescence to a late Pleistocene bottleneck (circa 110 kya) [5, 8, 9] poses challenges for detecting tiger subspecific morphological traits, suggesting that elucidating intraspecific evolution in the tiger requires analyses at the genomic scale. Here, we present whole-genome sequencing analyses from 32 voucher specimens that resolve six statistically robust monophyletic clades corresponding to extant subspecies, including the recently recognized Malayan tiger (P. tigris jacksoni). The intersubspecies gene flow is very low, corroborating the recognized phylogeographic units. We identified multiple genomic regions that are candidates for identifying the adaptive divergence of subspecies. The body-size-related gene ADH7 appears to have been strongly selected in the Sumatran tiger, perhaps in association with adaptation to the tropical Sunda Islands. The identified genomic signatures provide a solid basis for recognizing appropriate conservation management units in the tiger and can benefit global conservation strategic planning for this charismatic megafauna icon.


Freigegeben in L

Planning tiger recovery: Understanding intraspecific variation for effective conservation.

Science Advances  26 Jun 2015: 1 (5) e1400175; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1400175


Although significantly more money is spent on the conservation of tigers than on any other threatened species, today only 3200 to 3600 tigers roam the forests of Asia, occupying only 7% of their historical range. Despite the global significance of and interest in tiger conservation, global approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We analyzed variation among all nine putative tiger subspecies, using extensive data sets of several traits [morphological (craniodental and pelage), ecological, molecular]. Our analyses revealed little variation and large overlaps in each trait among putative subspecies, and molecular data showed extremely low diversity because of a severe Late Pleistocene population decline. Our results support recognition of only two subspecies: the Sunda tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, and the continental tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, which consists of two (northern and southern) management units. Conservation management programs, such as captive breeding, reintroduction initiatives, or trans-boundary projects, rely on a durable, consistent characterization of subspecies as taxonomic units, defined by robust multiple lines of scientific evidence rather than single traits or ad hoc descriptions of one or few specimens. Our multiple-trait data set supports a fundamental rethinking of the conventional tiger taxonomy paradigm, which will have profound implications for the management of in situ and ex situ tiger populations and boost conservation efforts by facilitating a pragmatic approach to tiger conservation management worldwide.


Freigegeben in W
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