Tracing the first steps of American sturgeon pioneers in Europe.

BMC Evolutionary Biology 8:221. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-8-221.

Abstract:

Background: A Baltic population of Atlantic sturgeon was founded ~1,200 years ago by migrants from North America, but after centuries of persistence, the population was extirpated in the 1960s, mainly as a result of over-harvest and habitat alterations. As there are four genetically distinct groups of Atlantic sturgeon inhabiting North American rivers today, we investigated the genetic provenance of the historic Baltic population by ancient DNA analyses using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.


Results: The phylogeographic signal obtained from multilocus microsatellite DNA genotypes and mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes, when compared to existing baseline datasets from extant populations, allowed for the identification of the region-of-origin of the North American Atlantic sturgeon founders. Moreover, statistical and simulation analyses of the multilocus genotypes allowed for the calculation of the effective number of individuals that originally founded the European population of Atlantic sturgeon. Our findings suggest that the Baltic population of A. oxyrinchus descended from a relatively small number of founders originating from the northern extent of the species' range in North America.


Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the most northerly distributed North American A. oxyrinchus colonized the Baltic Sea ~1,200 years ago, suggesting that Canadian specimens should be the primary source of broodstock used for restoration in Baltic rivers. This study illustrates the great potential of patterns obtained from ancient DNA to identify population-of-origin to investigate historic genotype structure of extinct populations.

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Sonntag, 21 Januar 2018 09:11

LOMBARDO, F. (1995)

A review of the genus Popa Stål 1856 (Insecta Mantodea).

Tropical Zoology 8: 257-267.

Summary:

It is suggested that Mantis undata Fabricius 1793 does not belong to the genus Popa Stål 1856 as believed until now, but to the Indian genus Ambivia Stål1877 (n. comb.). The systematic position of the species of Popa is re-examined and a single species, Popa spurca Stål 1856 ( = P. undata auct. nec Fabricius) is recognised. The species is differentiated into two subspecies, one being Popa spurca spurca Stål 1856 ( = P. stuhlmanni Rehn 1914, P. batesi Sauss. & Zehnt. 1895) (n. syn.) widespread throughout all Africa south of the Sahara, except in the east which is populated by the other subspecies, P. spurca crassa (Giglio-Tos 1917).

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Mittwoch, 17 Januar 2018 15:58

CONLE, O. V. & HENNEMANN, F. H. (2005)

Studies on neotropical Phasmatodea I: A remarkable new species of Peruphasma  Conle & Hennemann, 2002 from Northern Peru (Phasmatodea: Pseudophasmatidae: Pseudophasmatinae).

Zootaxa 1068: 59–68. ISSN: 1175-5334 (online edition)

Abstract:

Peruphasma schultei n. sp, a remarkable new phasmid from the Cordillera del Condor in Northern Peru is described and illustrated from both sexes and the eggs. It is the first species of Peruphasma Conle & Hennemann, 2002 known to have rudimentary tegmina and alae. The original specimens were  collected by Dipl. Biol. Rainer Schulte (INIBICO  NGO, Tarapoto, Peru) to whom it is dedicated. Brief information on its biology and breeding are provided as well. Peruphasma picturata  (Redtenbacher, 1906) is re-transferred to
Autolyca Stål, 1875 and the type-locality “Chile” is shown to be wrong.

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Sonntag, 14 Januar 2018 15:18

LILLIG, M. (2015)

Zur Zoogeographie westpaläarktischer Tenebrionidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

Phil.II Diss Universität Basel
368 Seiten.

Zusammenfassung:

Die Tenebrionidae gehören mit mehr als 20.000 beschriebenen Arten zu den großen Käferfamilien. In den Bereichen Taxonomie, Faunistik, Biogeographie und Ökologie werden sie seit mehr als 250 Jahren erforscht.

Die Geschichte der Erforschung der Tenebrionidae wird von Carl von LINNÉ, der als erster Naturforscher Vertreter dieser Familie beschrieben hat, bis zu den heutigen Bearbeitern dargestellt. Im 18. Jahrhundert beschränkten sich die Coleopterologen auf kurze, nach heutigem Maßstab in der Regel unzureichende Beschreibungen. Im 19. Jahrhundert wurden die Informationen zu den Arten meist umfangreicher, erste Monographien, Bestimmungstabellen und Kataloge wurden veröffentlicht. Die Spezialisierung der Coleopterologen, die sich mit der Taxonomie beschäftigten, auf eine oder auf wenige Familien begann zwar im 19. Jahrhundert, setzte sich aber verstärkt im 20. Jahrhundert fort. Jetzt traten auch die ersten Tenebrionidologinnen in Erscheinung. Neue Teilgebiete wurden erschlossen: Einige Forscher bearbeiteten Larven der Tenebrionidae, andere die Systematik. Es kam zu gravierenden Änderungen in der Zusammensetzung der Familie. Zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts hielt die Molekulargenetik Einzug in die Bearbeitung der Tenebrionidae.

Nach dieser langen Zeit könnte die Erforschung der Familie weitgehend abgeschlossen sein. Daher werden vier Hypothesen aufgestellt:

Hypothese 1: Es sind inzwischen nahezu alle Arten bekannt. Dies sollte vor allem auf die westliche Paläarktis zutreffen, da aus diesem Gebiet die meisten Coleopterologen stammen.
Hypothese 2: Die Faunistik der Tenebrionidae ist weit fortgeschritten. Aus den meisten Staaten und Regionen der westlichen Paläarktis liegen Faunenlisten mit zusätzlichen Informationen zu den Arten vor.
Hypothese 3: Die beschriebenen Arten lassen sich mit Hilfe der Beschreibungen und/oder Bestimmungstabellen auch ohne Vergleich mit dem Holo-, Lecto- oder Neotypus voneinander eindeutig unterscheiden. Neue Revisionen sind nicht mehr notwendig. Dies gilt zumindest für die Westpaläarktis.
Hypothese 4: Die Ausbreitungsgeschichte der Tenebrionidae ist zumindest für die Arten der westlichen Paläarktis bekannt.

Anhand eigener taxonomischer, faunistischer und biogeographischer Untersuchungen zu Tenebrionidae der Westpaläarktis, die vollständig oder in Ausschnitten in diese Arbeit eingebunden sind, und mit Hilfe von Publikationen von Kollegen werden die Hypothesen geprüft.
Zunächst werden Einzelbeschreibungen von Arten, einer Untergattung und einer Gattung aus dem Nahen Osten vorgestellt: zwei Arten der Gattung Erodius aus Syrien und Oman, eine neue Gattung und Art aus dem Sinai und Jordanien, eine arboricole Art aus Israel, Libanon und von den Golan-Höhen sowie eine neue Untergattung und Art aus dem Sinai und dem Negev. Beispiele weiterer in den letzten Jahren publizierter Neubeschreibungen belegen, daß selbst in der gut bearbeiteten Westpaläarktis noch immer neue Arten zu entdecken sind.

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Samstag, 06 Januar 2018 16:51

SOTELO, G., MORÁN, P. & POSADA, D. (2008)

Genetic Identification of the Northeastern Atlantic Spiny Spider Crab as Maja brachydactyla.

Journal of Crustacean Biology, Volume 28, Issue 1, 1 January 2008, Pages 76–81, https://doi.org/10.1651/07-2875R.1

Abstract:

The northeastern Atlantic spiny spider crab occurs from the British Islands to Senegal, where it is an important fishery resource. From morphological characters this crab has recently been proposed as a distinct species, Maja brachydactyla, although for commercial purposes it is still considered the same species as its Mediterranean congener M. squinado. We have studied variation at two mitochondrial genes in several crab populations from the Atlantic (putatively M. brachydactyla) and Mediterranean (M. squinado and M. crispata) basins, in order to clarify the taxonomic status of this crab in the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that each of these three taxa forms a distinct and well-defined clade. While the divergence within each taxon was 0% for 16S and 0-0.3% for COI, divergence between taxa was 0.6-2.5% for 16S and 5.3-8.7% for COI; values that are in the range of the differences observed between other crustacean species. These results confirm the genetic distinctiveness of each taxa and support their designation as different species. Therefore, the Atlantic spider crab should be referred as M. brachydactyla, a fact that should be taken into account for conservation and commercial purposes.

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Samstag, 06 Januar 2018 15:26

LOWRY, J. K. & DEMPSEY, K. (2006)

The giant deep-sea scavenger genus Bathynomus (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cirolanidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.

Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle 193: 163-192.

Abstract:

Based on new material from the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, the deep-sea scavenging genus Bathynomus is revised. Six species are
redescribed: Bathynomus affinis Richardson, 1910 (range extended to the Arafura and Timor Seas), B. decemspinosus Shih, 1972, B.
doederleini Ortman, 1894 (range extended to San Bernardino Strait, Philippine Islands), B. immanis Bruce, 1986 (range extended to
Astrolabe Bay, Bismarck Sea), B. kapala Griffin, 1975 (range extended to off the Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea) and B. pelor Bruce, 1986. Bathynomus propinquus Richardson, 1910 is considered to be a nomen dubium. Six new species are described: B. brucei n. sp. from off the Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea; B. bruscai n. sp. from off the Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea and Astrolabe Bay, Bismarck Sea; B. crosnieri n. sp. from off Madagascar, western Indian Ocean; B. keablei n. sp. from off the Malabar Coast, Arabian Sea; B. kensleyi n. sp. from the South China Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Coral Sea; B. richeri n. sp. from off NewCaledonia, plus Bathynomus sp. from the Gulf of Aden. Bathynomus giganteus A. Milne Edwards, 1879 is reported for the first time from the east coast of the United States. Two distinct groups occur in Bathynomus, a lineage of giant species which mature at about 150 mm length and a lineage of supergiant species which can grow to 500 mm in length. The greatest diversity of Bathynomus occurs between latitudes 20°N and 20°S on the Indian-Australian plate. Outlying species occur on plates in the western North Pacific and the western Atlantic.

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Samstag, 06 Januar 2018 10:42

OKUNO, J. & TAKEDA, M. (1992)

Distinction between Two Hinge-beaked Shrimps Rhynchocinetes durbanensis Gordon and R. uritai Kubo (Family Rhynchocinetidae).

Revue Française d'Aquariologie et Herpétologie 19: 85–90.

Abstract:

Rhynchocinetes durbanensis Gordon reliably known only from South Africa is reported on the basis of specimens from the Philippines. This species has been sometimes recorded under the incorrect identification as R. uritai Kubo, to which the general color pattern is strongly similar, but some morphological characters and detailed color pattern are different from those of R. uritai from Japanese waters.

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Systematics of the Damon variegatus group of African whip spiders (Chelicerata: Amblypygi): Evidence from behaviour, morphology and DNA.

Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 5 (2005): 203–236.


Abstract:

The African whip spider, Damon variegatus, exhibits a broad, discontinuous distribution from the Congo, through western Tanzania and Zimbabwe, to South Africa and Namibia. Variation in size, number of antenniform leg segments, and colouration, taken together with a discontinuous distribution, suggest that allopatric populations of D. variegatus may be reproductively isolated, and more than one species may be involved. Furthermore, many morphological characters of D. variegatus appear to be plesiomorphic if compared to closely related species, suggesting that D. variegatus might be paraphyletic, regardless of whether it is a single panmictic species or a group of partly or entirely reproductively isolated populations. This contribution attempts to determine whether D. variegatus is monophyletic and comprises more than one species, by investigating three sources of evidence: behaviour, morphology and DNA. Mating behaviour is observed and mate-recognition trials conducted between males and females from several populations of D. variegatus and related species of Damon. The morphology of spermatophores obtained during these matings is studied and a matrix of somatic and genitalic characters produced. These morphological data are analysed separately and in combination with DNA sequences from loci of three genes in the nuclear genome (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and Histone H3) and three genes in the mitochondrial genome (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I). Neither the comparative behavioural evidence gathered nor the spermatophore morphology conclusively suggest that D. variegatus comprises more than one species. However, the molecular data, analysed separately and in combination with the morphological data, reveal that D. variegatus is monophyletic and that the population of D. variegatus to the west of the Kalahari sand system (Namibia and southern Angola) is specifically distinct from those to the east. This new species is described as Damon sylviae, the diagnosis of D. variegatus s. str. is revised, and a key to the species of the D. variegatus group is provided.

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A new species of Diadema  (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Diadematidae) from the eastern Atlantic Ocean and a neotype designation of Diadema antillarum (Philippi, 1845).

Zootaxa 3636 (1): 144–170. www.mapress.com/zootaxa/
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3636.1.6

Abstract:

Diadema africanum sp. nov. Rodríguez et al. 2013 occurs in the eastern Atlantic Ocean at depths of 1–80 meters off Madeira Islands, Salvage Islands, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands, Sâo Tome Islands and at the continental coast off Senegal and Ghana. This species was previously considered an eastern Atlantic population of D. antillarum. Genetic distances between the holotype of D. africanum and the neotype of D. antillarum herein designated, measured 3.34% in Cytochrome oxidase I, 3.80% in ATPase-8 and 2.31% in ATPase-6. Such divergence is similar to that already highlighted between other accepted species of Diadema. Morphometric analysis of test, spine and pedicellarial characters also separated D. africanum from D. antillarum and eveals that this new species is morphologically similar to D. antillarum ascensionis  from the mid  Atlantic. The  tridentate  pedicellariae, which have been shown to have diagnostic characters which discriminate among species of Diadema, occur as both broad and narrow valved forms in D. antillarum from the western Atlantic. In D.  africanum  the  tridentate  pedicellariae occur only as a single form which is characterized by moderately broad and curved valves, with an expanded distal gripping region. his form of tridentate pedicellaria is very similar to that of D. antillarum ascensionis from the central Atlantic, with only slight variations in valve serration and valve curvature differentiating the two forms.

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Dienstag, 19 Dezember 2017 16:32

HEYER, W. R. (1969)

Studies on Frogs of the Genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia , Leptodactylidae). V. Taxonomic Notes on L. latasinus, rhodonotus, romani and wuchereri.

Herpetologica 25 (1): 1-8. April 1969.

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