A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes).

Zootaxa 3205: 26-40. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.3205.1.2


The last 20 years have seen a resurgence in systematic studies of parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes). Principally but not solely molecular in nature, this body of work has addressed the circumscription of higher level groupings within the Psittaciformes and relationships among them. Stability has now emerged on many formerly contentious matters at these levels. Accordingly, we consider it appropriate to underpin further work on parrot biology with a freshly revised classification at the taxonomic ranks spanned by family-group nomenclature, i.e., between superfamily and tribe. In light of the body of recent work, we advocate a framework of three superfamilies among parrots (Strigopoidea, Cacatuoidea and Psittacoidea) within which Linnaean taxonomy can accommodate present phylogenetic understanding by employing groupings at the ranks of family, subfamily and tribe. Just as importantly, we have addressed numerous issues of nomenclature towards stabilising the family-group names of parrots. We erect two new subfamily names, Coracopseinae Joseph, Toon, Schirtzinger, Wright & Schodde, subfam. nov. and Psittacellinae Joseph, Toon, Schirtzinger, Wright & Schodde, subfam. nov. We stress that rankings we have applied reflect the state of understanding of parrot phylogeny and how it can be summarized in a Linnaean system; comparisons with rankings in other groups are likely not appropriate nor relevant.

psittaciformes taxo
Vorgeschlagene Taxonomie nach JOSEPH et al. (2012)


Freigegeben in J

Global phylogeography of the genus Capreolus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), a Palaearctic meso-mammal.

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013. 13 Seiten, 3 Abb., DOI: 10.1111/zoj.12091.


Areas of sympatry and hybridization of closely related species can be difficult to assess through morphological differences alone. Species which coexist and are similar morphologically may be distinguished only with molecular techniques. The roe deer (Capreolus spp.) is a meso-mammal having a Palaearctic distribution, with two closely related species: the European C. capreolus and the Siberian C. pygargus. We analysed mtDNA sequences from 245 individuals, sampled through all the entire range of the genus, to investigate the distribution of genetic lineages and outline phylogeographical patterns. We found that: (1) a C. pygargus lineage occurs in Poland and Lithuania, much farther west than the area which so far was believed its westernmost limit; (2) no haplotype of this C. pygargus lineage matches any found in East Europe and Asia – this should rule out human introductions and may indicate Pleistocene–Holocene migrations from the east; (3) no geographical structuring of C. pygargus lineages occurs, questioning the existence of putative subspecies; (4) several genetic lineages of C. capreolus can be recognized, consistent with the existence of two subspecies, respectively in central–southern Italy and southern Spain. Coalescence times suggest that intraspecific variation in C. capreolus and C. pygargus developed approximately 100–10 kya. The extant mitochondrial lineages pre-dated the Last Glacial Maximum. Capreolus pygargus must have moved westward to Central Europe, where at least one genetic lineage still survives, coexisting with C. capreolus.


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Samstag, 23 Oktober 2021 10:16

LEHMANN von, E. (1988)

Bemerkungen zu zwei Rehschädeln aus dem Elburs-Gebirge, Iran.

Bonn. zool. Beitr. 39 (2/3): 229—235.


Zwei Rehschädel aus dem Elburs-Gebirge, die 1986 als Jagdtrophäen vorgelegt wurden, ragen erheblich in der Größe aus den Kleinrehen dieses Gebietes heraus. Sie stimmen mit Rehgeweihen der kleinsten Unterart des Sibirischen Rehes {Capreolus pygargus caucasicus) des nordwestlichen Kaukasusgebietes überein; ebenso mit der Originalbeschreibung (Dinnik 1910) und einigen Abbildungen. Es wird das Auftauchen großer Rehe in Populationen kleinwüchsiger Rehe diskutiert.


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Samstag, 23 Oktober 2021 09:18

MASSETTI, M. (2000)

Note on an Near-Eastern relic population of roe deer Capreolus capreolus (L., 1758) (Mammalia, Artiodactyla).

Biogeographica XXI: 619-623. DOI 10.21426/B6110104.


Roe deer from south-eastern Anatolia, Upper Mesopotamia and the northern Levant are referred to the Kurdish subspecies, Capreolus capreolus coxi (Cheesman and Hinton, 1923). This paper confirms the presence of roe deer in the mountainous territories along the extant border between south-eastern Turkey and north-western Syria.


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Montag, 04 Oktober 2021 11:53

MORITZ, T. & BRITZ, R. (2019)

Revision of the extant Polypteridae (Actinopterygii: Cladistia).

Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. July 2019: 1-96. DOI:10.23788/IEF-1094


The species-level taxonomy of all extant members of the family Polypteridae is revised. Two genera are recognised: Polypterus and the monotypic Erpetoichthys. Thirteen species of Polypterus are regarded as valid: P. bichir (type species), P. ansorgii, P. congicus, P. delhezi, P. endlicherii, P. mokelembembe, P. ornatipinnis, P. palmas, P. polli, P. retropinnis, P. senegalus, P. teugelsi and P. weeksii. Polypterus lapradei and P. bichir katangae are considered junior synonyms of P. bichir. Polypterus senegalus meridionalis is synonymized with P. senegalus, and P. buettikoferi and P. retropinnis lowei are regarded as junior synonyms of P. palmas. Lectotypes of P. ansorgii, P. congicus and P. delhezi are designated. Distribution maps for each species are compiled and a key for all species of Polypteridae is provided.


Freigegeben in M
Donnerstag, 23 September 2021 09:35


Ancient origin and evolution of the Indian wolf: Evidence from mitochondrial DNA typing of wolves from Trans-Himalayan region and Peninsular India.

Genome Biology 4(6). DOI:10.1186/gb-2003-4-6-p6


The two wolf types found in India are represented by two isolated populations and believed to be two sub-species of Canis lupus. One of these wolf, locally called Himalayan wolf (HW) or Tibetan wolf, is found only in the upper Trans-Himalayan region from Himachal Pradesh to Leh in Kasmir and is considered to be C. lupus chanco. The other relatively larger population is of Indian Gray wolf (GW) that is found in the peninsular India and considered to be C. lupus pallipes. Both these wolves are accorded endangered species status under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act. In 1998 for the first time in India, we initiated molecular characterization studies to understand their genetic structure and taxonomic status. Since then, we have analyzed the genetic variability in 18 of the total of 21 HW samples available in Zoological parks along with representative samples of GW, wild dogs and jackals. Our study of mitochondrial DNA diversity across three different taxonomically informative domains i.e., cytochrome-B gene, 16S rDNA and hypervariable d-loop control region revealed HW to be genetically distinct from the GW as well as from all other wolves of the world, including C. lupus chanco from China. Most importantly, d-loop haplotypic diversity revealed both HW and GW from India to be significantly diverse from other wolf populations globally and showed that these represent the most ancient lineages among them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Indian wolves as two independent lineages in a clade distinct and basal to the clade of all wolves from outside of India. Conservative estimate of evolutionary time-span suggests more than one million years of separation and independent evolution of HW and GW. We hypothesize that Indian wolves represent a post-jackal pre-wolf ancestral radiation that migrated to India about 1-2 mya and underwent independent evolution without contamination from other wolf like canids. The study thus, suggests that Indian subcontinent had been one major center of origin and diversification of the wolf and related canids. Further, the significant degree of genetic differentiation of HW from GW and of these two from other wolves, suggest the interesting possibility of them to be new wolf species/subspecies in evolution that may need to be described possibly as C. himalayaensis and C. indica (or as C. lupus himalyaensis and C. lupus indica), respectively. Thus for the first time, the study reveals new ancient wolf lineages in India and also highlights the need to revisit the origin, evolution and dispersion of wolf populations in Asia and elsewhere. Simultaneously, it increases the conservation importance of Indian wolves warranting urgent measures for their effective protection and management, especially of the small HW population that at present is not even recognized in the canid Red List.


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Freitag, 17 September 2021 15:51

MENDOZA, J. & FRANCKE, O. (1997)

Systematic revision of Brachypelma red-kneed tarantulas (Araneae:Theraphosidae), and the use of DNA barcodes to assist in the identification and conservation of CITES-listed species.

Invertebrate Systematics 31(2):157-179. DOI:10.1071/IS16023


Mexican red-kneed tarantulas of the genus Brachypelma are regarded as some of the most desirable invertebrate pets, and although bred in captivity, they continue to be smuggled out of the wild in large numbers. Species are often difficult to identify based solely on morphology, therefore prompt and accurate identification is required for adequate protection. Thus, we explored the applicability of using COI-based DNA barcoding as a complementary identification tool. Brachypelma smithi (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) and Brachypelma hamorii Tesmongt, Cleton & Verdez, 1997 are redescribed, and their morphological differences defined. Brachypelma annitha is proposed as a new synonym of B. smithi. The current distribution of red-kneed tarantulas shows that the Balsas River basin may act as a geographical barrier. Morphological and molecular evidence are concordant and together provide robust hypotheses for delimiting Mexican red-kneed tarantula species. DNA barcoding of these tarantulas is further shown to be useful for species-level identification and for potentially preventing black market trade in these spiders. As a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) listing does not protect habitat, or control wildlife management or human interactions with organisms, it is important to support environmental conservation activities to provide an alternative income for local communities and to avoid damage to wildlife populations.


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Generic Revision in the Holarctic Ground Squirrel Genus Spermophilus.

Journal of Mammalogy 90 (2), 14 April 2009, Pages 270–305, https://doi.org/10.1644/07-MAMM-A-309.1


The substantial body of research on Holarctic ground squirrels amassed over the past century documents considerable variability in morphological, cytogenetic, ecological, and behavioral attributes in the genus Spermophilus F. Cuvier, 1825. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the traditionally recognized genera Marmota Blumenbach, 1779 (marmots), Cynomys Rafinesque, 1817 (prairie dogs), and Ammospermophilus Merriam, 1892 (antelope ground squirrels) render Spermophilus paraphyletic, potentially suggesting that multiple generic-level lineages should be credited within Spermophilus. Herein, we recognize 8 genera formerly subsumed in Spermophilus, each of which is morphologically diagnosable, craniometrically distinctive, and recovered as a monophyletic clade in phylogenetic analyses utilizing the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. Generic-level names are available for each of these ground squirrel assemblages, most of which are exclusively or predominantly North American in distribution (Notocitellus A. H. Howell, 1938; Otospermophilus Brandt, 1844; Callospermophilus Merriam, 1897; Ictidomys J. A. Allen, 1877; Poliocitellus A. H. Howell, 1938; Xerospermophilus Merriam, 1892; and Urocitellus Obolenskij, 1927). Only Spermophilus sensu stricto is restricted to Eurasia. Generic subdivision of Spermophilus more aptly illuminates the taxonomic relationships, ecomorphological disparity, and biogeographic history of Holarctic ground squirrels.


Freigegeben in H
Donnerstag, 05 August 2021 08:00


Multivariate species boundaries and conservation of harlequin poison frogs.

Molecular Ecology 27 (17): 3432-3451.


In this study, we present an iterative method for delimiting species under the general lineage concept (GLC) based on the multivariate clustering of morphological, ecological and genetic data. Our rationale is that distinct multivariate groups correspond to evolutionarily independent metapopulation lineages because they reflect the common signal of different secondary defining properties (environmental and genetic distinctiveness, phenotypic diagnosability, etc.) that imply the existence of barriers preventing or limiting gene exchange. We applied this method to study a group of endangered poison frogs, the Oophaga histrionica complex. In our study case, we used next-generation targeted amplicon sequencing to obtain a robust genetic data set that we combined with patterns of morphological and ecological features. Our analyses revealed the existence of at least five different species in the histrionica complex (three, new to science), some of them, occurring in small isolated populations outside any protected areas. The lineage delimitation proposed here has important conservation implications as it revealed that some of the Oophaga species should be considered among the most vulnerable of the Neotropical frogs. More broadly, our study exemplifies how multiple-amplicon and multivariate statistical techniques can be integrated to successfully identify species and their boundaries.


Freigegeben in P

A Taxonomic Reassessment of Cacajao melanocephalus Humboldt (1811), with the Description of Two New Species.

International Journal of Primatology 29: 723–741.



The author of the last published systematic review of Cacajao recognized 2 subspecies of black-headed uakaris (black uakaris): Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus and C. m. ouakary. As a result of a series of black uakari surveys and collecting expeditions to several tributaries of the Rio Negro and of morphological and molecular analyses of museum specimens and specimens we collected during field expeditions, we reassess their taxonomy. We describe a newly discovered species of black uakari from the Rio Aracá, a left bank tributary of the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. We also show that ouakary is a junior synonym of melanocephalus and provide a new name and a new description for Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus in the Pico da Neblina region of Brazil and Venezuela. Based on genetic, morphological, and ecological evidence, we propose that there are 3 species of black uakaris. We named the Rio Aracá species Cacajao ayresi sp. nov. (Ayres uakari) in honor of the late José Márcio Ayres, a pioneer in uakari research and conservation. We named the Neblina black uakari Cacajao hosomi, after the Yanomami word for uakaris. The new taxonomic arrangement provided here implies that the conservation status of black uakaris needs to be reassessed.


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