PICÓL, G., FERNÁNDEZ, M. J., MORENO, J. E. & COLOMAR (2019)
Control of the ladder snake (Rhinechis scalaris) on Formentera using experimental live-traps.
In: C.R. Veitch, M.N. Clout, A.R. Martin, J.C. Russell and C.J. West (eds.) (2019). Island invasives: scaling
up to meet the challenge, pp. 332–336. Occasional Paper SSC no. 62. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
The ladder snake (Rhinechis scalaris ) is a recent alien invasive species found on Formentera (83 km2), in the Balearic Archipelago (4,492 km2). It has been introduced in the last decade as cargo stowaway hidden within ornamental olive trees from the Iberian Peninsula, causing negative impacts on native fauna. This paper describes the methodology used to reduce the ladder snake population as a first attempt since it was detected in 2006. For this purpose, an experimental live-trap was designed by the wildlife management team of the Consorci per a la Recuperació de la Fauna de les Illes Balears (COFIB) during the 2016 campaign. As a result, 314 R. scalaris were trapped in an area of 472 ha, achieving an efficiency of up to 0.167 captures per trap and night, and 0.040 captures per unit effort on average. This outcome encourages the use of the live-trap as a cost-effective method for reducing the snake population in Formentera. Nonetheless, this method should be considered a starting point toward R. scalaris control.
VARGAS, A. et al. (2008)
The Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus Conservation Breeding Program
Int. Zoo Yb.(2008)42:190–198
The Iberian Lynx Conservation Breeding Program follows a multidisciplinary approach, integrated within the National Strategy for the Conservation of the Iberian lynx, which is carried out in cooperation with national, regional and international institutions. The main goals ofthe ex situ conservation programme are to:
- maintain agenetically and demographically managed captive population;
- create new Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus free-ranging populations through re-introduction.
To achieve the first goal, the Conservation Breeding Program aims to maintain 85% of the genetic diversity presently found in the wild for the next 30 years. This requires developing and maintaining 60–70 Iberian lynx as breeding stock. Growth projections indicate that the ex situ programme should achieve such a population target by the year 2010. Once this goal is reached, re-introduction efforts could begin. Thus, currentex situ efforts focus on producing psychologically and physically sound captive-born individuals. To achieve this goal, we use management and research techniques that rely on multidisciplinary input and knowledge generated on species’ life history, behaviour, nutrition, veterinary and health aspects, genetics, reproductive physiology, endocrinology and ecology. Particularly important is adapting our husbandry schemes based on research data to promote natural behaviours in captivity (hunting, territoriality, social interactions) and a stress-free environment that is conducive to natural reproduction.
CASSINELLO, J., SERRANO, E., CALABUIG, G. et al. (2004)
Range expansion of an exotic ungulate (Ammotragus lervia) in southern Spain: ecological and conservation concerns.
Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 851. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BIOC.0000014461.69034.78
Evidence of aoudad Ammotragus lervia expansion in the southeastern quarter of the Iberian Peninsula is provided based on recent field surveys. Aoudad has become common in a limited region of the southeast of Spain since its introduction as a game species in Sierra Espuña Natural Park in 1970. Its adaptability enabled it to colonise nearby areas in a short period. Apart from this source of expansion, the increasing number of aoudads in Spanish private game reserves provided other centres of dispersion. In addition, aoudads were introduced on La Palma Island (Canary Islands), becoming a serious threat to endemic flora. Of great conservation concern is the species' potential as a competitor against native ungulates inhabiting the peninsula. Surveys conducted in southern Spain documented rapid colonization of new areas and established viable populations, consisting of adult males and females and the unequivocal presence of nursery groups, in the provinces of Alicante, Almería, Granada and Murcia. Also, aoudads have spread throughout the north and centre of La Palma. There are two main conservational concerns: the necessity of conducting detailed and reliable surveys in all potential regions where the species might expand, and the urgent need of changing current game policies in order to establish reliable controls on big game reserves to prevent animals from escaping.
CAMIÑA CARDENAL, A. (2011)
Gänsegeier in Mitteleuropa.
Der Falke 58 (Sonderheft): 46-48.
Bis in die 1990er Jahre waren Gänsegeier in Mitteleuropa eher eine Ausnahmeerscheinung. Die Beobachtungshäuﬁgkeit lag zwischen den Jahren 1800 und 2005 für Deutsch-land bei durchschnittlich 0,86 Beobachtungen pro Jahr. Seit dem Jahr 2006 ist dieser Wert auf 25,1 Gänsegeier pro Jahr angestiegen. Mehr Vogelbeobachter und bessere Ausrüstung haben sicher zu diesem Anstieg beigetragen, es gibt aber auch andere Gründe. Immer wieder wird dafür die Zunahme des Geierbestandes in Frankreich und vor allem in Spanien, verbunden mit Nahrungsengpässen angeführt. Im Artikel wird das Vorkommen von Geiern in Mitteleuropa interpretiert.