Donnerstag, 01 Oktober 2020 15:01


Vorläufige Liste der Schlangen des Tai-Nationalparks / Elfenbeinküste und angrenzender Gebiete.

SALAMANDRA 36(1): 25-38


Wir stellen die Schlangenfauna des Tai-Nationalparks (TNP) mit Angabe weiterer biologischer Daten vor. Insgesamt sind nun 39 Schlangenarten aus dem TNP bekannt. Im Primär-Regenwald wurden 22 und in offeneren Habitaten beziehungsweise am Waldrand 17 Schlangenarten gefunden. 15 Arten waren arborikol, 19 lebten am Boden und fünf unterirdisch. Wir gehen davon aus, daß die bisherigen Nachweise etwa zwei Drittel der für diesen letzten großen Regenwald Westafrikas zu erwartenden Arten ausmachen.


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Dienstag, 29 September 2020 16:24

ROELKE, C. E. & SMITH, E. N. (2010)

Herpetofauna, Parc National des Volcans, North Province, Republic of Rwanda.

Check List 6 (4): 525-531. Jan. 2010. DOI: 10.15560/6.4.525


Herein is presented a list of the reptiles and anurans from the Parc National des Volcans (PNV)(01°43’ S, 29°52’ W), an area in the west and north provinces of the Republic of Rwanda in the Albertine Rift region of Africa.  Fieldwork was conducted between two and six days per week from June through August 2007 and 2008. We also conducted literature searches of all historical expeditions within the park for species records. Seventeen species of reptiles and anurans are recorded from the PNV. Nine of the species were anurans, distributed in five families: Arthroleptidae (3), Bufonidae (1), Hyperoliidae (3), Phrynobatrachidae (1), and Pipidae (1). Eight species of reptiles were recorded from five families: Chamaeleonidae (1), Lacertidae (2), Scincidae (2), Colubridae (2), and Viperidae (1). Eight of the seventeen species found in the PNV are endemic to the Albertine Rift.


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Limitations of Climatic Data for Inferring Species Boundaries: Insights from Speckled Rattlesnakes.

PLoS ONE 10(6): e0131435. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.013143


Phenotypes, DNA, and measures of ecological differences are widely used in species delimitation. Although rarely defined in such studies, ecological divergence is almost always approximated using multivariate climatic data associated with sets of specimens (i.e., the “climatic niche”); the justification for this approach is that species-specific climatic envelopes act as surrogates for physiological tolerances. Using identical statistical procedures, we evaluated the usefulness and validity of the climate-as-proxy assumption by comparing performance of genetic (nDNA SNPs and mitochondrial DNA), phenotypic, and climatic data for objective species delimitation in the speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii) complex. Ordination and clustering patterns were largely congruent among intrinsic (heritable) traits (nDNA, mtDNA, phenotype), and discordance is explained by biological processes(e.g., ontogeny, hybridization). In contrast, climatic data did not produce biologically meaningful clusters that were congruent with any intrinsic dataset, but rather corresponded to regional differences in atmospheric circulation and climate, indicating an absence of inherent taxonomic signal in these data. Surrogating climate for physiological tolerances adds artificial weight to evidence of species boundaries, as these data are irrelevant for that purpose. Based on the evidence from congruent clustering of intrinsic datasets, we recommend that three subspecies of C.mitchellii be recognized as species: C.angelensis,C.mitchellii, and C.Pyrrhus.


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Evolution of rattlesnakes (Viperidae; Crotalus) in the warm deserts of western North America shaped by Neogene vicariance and Quaternary climate change.

Molecular Ecology (2006) 15, 3353 – 3374. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03007.x


During Pleistocene, the Laurentide ice sheet rearranged and diversified biotic distributionsin  eastern  North  America,  yet  had  minimal  physical  impact  in  western  North  Americawhere  lineage  diversification  is  instead  hypothesized  to  result  from  climatic  changes.  If Pleistocene climatic fluctuations impacted desert species, the latter would reflect patterns of restricted gene flow concomitant with indications of demographic bottlenecks. Accordingly, molecular evidence for refugia should be present within these distributions and for subsequent range expansions as conditions improved. We sought answers to these questions by evaluating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from four species of rattle-snakes [Crotalus mitchellii (speckled rattlesnake), Crotalus cerastes (sidewinder), Crotalus tigris (tiger rattlesnake), Crotalus ruber (red  diamond  rattlesnake)] with distributions restricted to desert regions of southwestern North  America. We inferred relationships using  parsimony  and  maximum likelihood, tested  intraspecific  clades  for  population expansions, applied an isolation-with-migration model to determine bi-directional migration rates (m) among  regions, and inferred divergence times for species and clades by applying a semiparametric penalized likelihood approach to our molecular data. Evidence for significant range expansion was present in two of eight  regions in  two  species (Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus, C. tigris region north). Two species (C. cerastes, C. mitchellii) showed a distribution concomitant with northward displacement of Baja California from mainland México, followed by vicariant separation into subclades. Effects of Pleistoceneclimate  fluctuations were found in the distributions of all four species. Three regional diversification patterns were  identified: (i) shallow genetic diversity that resulted  from Pleistocene climatic events (C. tigris, C. ruber); (ii)  deep Pleistocene divisions indicating allopatric segregation of subclades within refugia (C. mitchellii, C. cerastes); and (iii) line-age diversifications that extended to Pliocene or Late Miocene (C. mitchellii, C. cerastes). Clade-diversifying and clade-constraining effects impacted the four species of rattlesnakes unequally.  We found relatively high levels of molecular  diversification in the two most broadly distributed species (C. mitchellii, C. cerastes), and lower levels of genetic diversification in the two species (C. tigris, C. ruber) whose ranges are relatively more restricted. Furthermore, in several cases, the distributions of subspecies were not congruent with our molecular information. We suggest  regional conservation perspectives for southwestern deserts cannot rely upon subspecies as biodiversity surrogates, but must instead employ a molecular and deep historical perspective as a primary mechanism to frame biodiversity reserves within this region.


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A preliminary analysis of phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of the dangerously venomous Carpet Vipers, Echis (Squamata, Serpentes, Viperidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

Amphibia-Reptilia 30(2):273-282. DOI: 10.1163/156853809788201090.


Phylogenetic analysis of 1117 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequences (731 bp of cytochrome b and 386 bp of 16S rRNA) indicate that Echis consists of four main clades: E. ocellatus, and the E. coloratus, E. pyramidum, and E. carinatus groups. In the E. coloratus group, E. coloratus itself shows substantial genetic divergence from E. omanensis, corroborating their separate species status. In the E. pyramidum clade, E. pyramidum from Egypt and E. leucogaster from West Africa are genetically very similar, even though samples are separated by 4000 km. South Arabian populations of the E. pyramidum group are much better differentiated from these and two species may be present, animals from Dhofar, southern Oman probably being referable to E. khosatzkii. In the E. carinatus group, specimens of E. carinatus sochureki and E. multisquamatus are very similar in their DNA. The phylogeny indicates that the split between the main groups of Echis was followed by separation of African and Arabian members of the E. pyramidum group, and of E. coloratus and E. omanensis. The last disjunction probably took place at the lowlands that run southwest of the North Oman mountains, which are likely to have been intermittently covered by marine incursions; they also separate the E. pyramidum and E. carinatus groups and several sister taxa of other reptiles. The E. carinatus group may have spread quite recently from North Oman into its very extensive southwest Asian range, and there appears to have been similar expansion of E. pyramidum (including E. leucogaster) in North Africa. Both these events are likely to be associated with the marked climatic changes of the Pleistocene or late Pliocene. Similar dramatic expansions have also recently occurred in three snake species in Iberia.


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Dienstag, 14 Juli 2020 07:42

SHINE, R. (1989)

Constraints, Allometry, and Adaptation: Food Habits and Reproductive Biology of Australian Brownsnakes (Pseudonaja: Elapidae).

Herpetologica. 45 (2): 195–207.

305 006 042 007 pseudonaja textilis artikel


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Montag, 13 Juli 2020 09:01

FISCHER, J.G. (1885)

Herpetologische Bemerkungen.

Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 2: 82-121.


Es werden 19 Arten von Schlangen und Echsen beschrieben. Teilweise handelt es sich um Erstbeschreibungen.


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Samstag, 11 Juli 2020 14:16

BÖHME, W. (1977)

Eine neue Art der Gattung Bitis (SERPENTES VIPERIDAE) aus Äthiopien.

Monitore Zoologico Italiano. Supplemento, 9:1,59-68, DOI: 10.1080/03749444.1977.10736843.


Aus dem bewaldeten Bergland SW-Athiopiens wird Bitis parviocula n.sp. beschrieben, eine große, B. nasicornis (Schaw, 1802), B. gabonica (Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854) und B. arietans (Merrem, 1820) nahestehende Art. Ihre Merkmale werden hinsichtlich ihrer phylogenetischen Beziehungen und einer wahrscheinlich unterirdischen Lebensweise diskutiert.


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Dienstag, 07 Juli 2020 07:32

ZHOU, Z. & JIANG, Z. (2004)

International Trade Status and Crisis for Snake Species in China.

Conservation Biology 18 (5): 1386-1394


In recent years, the purchase of snakes for leather, food, and traditional medicine has increased in China, which has greatly reduced certain snake populations. Trade records show that since the 1990s, with respect to some species of snakes, China is changing from a net export country to a net import country. We analyzed data on international trade in snake species, concentrating, in particular, on trade dynamics and species composition. The overall number of snakes exported appears to have decreased in the last 10 years. However, the number of snakes imported during this period has increased steadily. Many species of snakes that are traded in significant numbers are endangered or threatened species. To conserve snakes in China, we recommended that the Chinese government and the international conservation community take the following actions: enhance legislation and list several species in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) appendices; register all snake farms in China; carry out population and market surveys; monitor the dynamics of trade; encourage biological research; encourage change in food habits; and enhance cooperation between Hong Kong and mainland China.


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Samstag, 04 Juli 2020 16:34

KUCH, U. & YUWONO, F. B. (2002)

First record of Brown Snakes Pseudonaja cf. textilis (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854) from  Papua, Indonesia (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae).

HERPETOZOA 15 (1/2): 75-78.


Braunschlangen {Pseudonaja) sind in Australien weit verbreitet und stellen dort eine der medizinisch bedeutsamsten Schlangengattungen dar. Auf der Insel Neuguinea wurden Braunschlangen erstmals 1953 entdeckt. Heute sind sie dort aus einem kleinen Gebiet im Südosten Papua-Neuguineas (Central Province, Milne Bay Province und Oro Province) bekannt. Dieses disjunkte Vorkommen wurde mit einer möglichen unbeabsichtigten Einschleppung während des Zweiten Weltkrieges erklärt. Wir berichten über den Erstnachweis von Braunschlangen - Pseudonaja cf. textilis (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854) - aus der Gegend um Merauke imSüdosten von Papua (Indonesien), ca. 800 km westlich der bisher bekannten Fundorte. Die Schlangen wurden dort erstmals 1993 gefunden und seitdem regelmäßig gefangen. Mit gegenwärtiger Kenntnis betrachten wir Braunschlangen auf der Insel Neuguinea daher als autochthonen Bestandteil der Fauna und nicht als das Resultat einer kürzlich erfolgten Verschleppung australischer Tiere.


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