Reprodution of the Cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus Mitchill, 1815 (Elasmobranchii, Rhinopteridae), in captivity and newborn care.
Braz. J. Biol. vol.68 no.4 São Carlos Nov. 2008
Since its opening in 1996, the Ubatuba Aquarium, located in Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil, has three specimens of the cownose ray, one male and two females, held in an 85000l tank. It is a semi-open system with biological and mechanical filtration, skimmer, and UV and ozone water sterilization. The tank is illuminated by metal halide lamps and for half the day by direct sunlight.
In September 2003, courtship behavior was observed, and only one quick copulation during the afternoon, with one clasper insertion followed by white liquid spreading out from the female cloacae. During courtship, mating and gestation period, average physical and chemical parameters values monitored in the water tank were: pH7.3, 0.25 ppm NH3, 0.25 ppm NO2, salinity 34 ppm and temperature 26 °C. Finally, after 13 months gestation, in November 1st 2004, at dawn, the female gave birth to a male offspring.
The pup was born with 38 cm disc width and weighing 3.75 kg.
Sustainable species management of the elasmobranch populations within European aquariums: a conservation challenge.
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 5(1) 2017: 172-181.
Elasmobranchs, including sharks and rays, are popular animals in public aquariums. Worldwide,
more than 700 million people visit zoos and aquariums annually, enabling elasmobranchs to become
an important ambassador for their natural habitats. We conducted a census within the European
Association of Zoos and Aquaria to gain a better overview of which species are present within European
collections. The census showed that 102 chondrichthyan species are found in European zoos and public
aquariums, accounting for 8.6% of all known species. Benthic species are the most common. Of the
captive population, 47.1% of species have reproduced in aquariums. Of the reproducing species, 87.8%
exhibit body sizes of 51 to 250 cm. Categorising the reproductive results by reproductive mode, the
most successful are oviparous and aplacental viviparous groups with uterine villi or trophonemata. A
regional collection plan, stating the level of organised breeding recommended within the region, has
been defined using the results of the census and the IUCN status. Currently, 42 species are managed
by a species coordinator, within the ex-situ European elasmobranch population, to ensure a genetically
healthy population, to increase reproductive output and to conduct husbandry research. Longterm
breeding efforts will help to reduce the demand on wild populations to supply the aquarium
population. Species coordinators will become the contact for in-situ conservation initiatives and
international conservation bodies like IUCN. This study discusses further the future challenges in the
captive management of chondrichthyan populations.
Sharks of the World.
406 Seiten, mit 128 Farbtafeln, 500 Strichzeichnungen und 500 Verbreitungskarten.
Princeton Universitry Press. ISBN-13: 9780691120720.
Everyone's heard of the Great Whites. But most people know little of the hundreds of other types of sharks that inhabit the world's oceans. Written by two of the world's leading authorities and superbly illustrated by wildlife artist Marc Dando, this is the first comprehensive field guide to all 440-plus shark species. Color plates illustrate all species, and detailed accounts include diagnostic line drawings and a distribution map for each species. Introductory chapters treat physiology, behavior, reproduction, ecology, diet, and sharks' interrelationships with humans.
- More than 125 original full-color illustrations for fast and accurate identification of each shark family
- Over 500 additional drawings illustrating physical features from different angles
- Clear identification information for each species with details of size, habitat, behavior, and biology
- Quick ID guide helpful for differentiating similar species
- Geographic distribution maps for each species
- For professional and amateur shark enthusiasts
Haie und Rochen. Arten - Lebensräume - Verhalten.
288 Seiten, zahlreiche Farbfotos.
Komet Verlag, Köln. ISBN 978-3-625-12097-1.
Wilde Tiere hautnah erleben: Mit atemberaubenden Farbaufnahmen der besten Tierfotografen und informativen Texten bietet dieses Buch einen umfassenden und reich bebilderten Überblick über die faszinierende Welt der Haie und Rochen.
Alles Wissenswerte über die bekanntesten und beeindruckenden Arten, ihre Lebensräume und ihr Verhalten – spannend und lehrreich zugleich!