Dienstag, 15 Februar 2022 18:01

GEISSMANN, T. (1995)

Gibbon Systematics and Species Identification.

International Zoo News 42(8): 467-501.


A study of wild and captive gibbons and museum specimens, and a survey of the literature suggests that gibbons (genus Hylobates) include at least 11, possibly 12 species, which form 4 distinct groups (subgenera Hylobates, Bunopithecus, Nomascus, and Symphalangus): These are the 44-chromosome gibbons (including the Hylobates lar group and H. klossii: 5 species); the hoolock ( H. hoolock, 1 species); the H. concolor group (3, possibly 4 species); and the siamang ( H. syndactylus, 1 species). A key for the identification of adult gibbons based on visual characteristics is presented, together with colour photographs and distribution maps of all recognised species (11). In addition, diagnostic vocal characteristics of all species are described and illustrated with sonagrams.


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Mittwoch, 28 Juli 2021 16:12

HICK, U. (1973)

Wir sind umgezogen.

Z. Kölner Zoo 16 (4): 127-145.


Der Beginn des Aufbaues der Kölner Lemuren-Sammlung fällt in das Frühjahr 1965. Die große Halle, die Verwaltungsgebäude und Insektarium verbindet, wurde als Provisorium für die Unterbringung der Tiere eingerichtet. Im Lauf von achteinhalb Jahren vergrößerte sich der Bestand erheblich. Zu den vom Aussterben bedrohten Lemuren kamen noch einige Exemplare der ebenfalls bedrohten Languren und Sakiaffen dazu. Durch den Bau des neuen "Lemurenhauses" konnten die Tiere die ehemalige "Lemurenstation" verlassen und das neue Haus beziehen. Die Sammlung besteht aus 123 Tieren in 26 Arten bzw. Unterarten. Jede Art bzw. Unterart wird in Foto und Text vorgestellt. Erfahrungen in der Haltung und Beobachtungen der Verhaltensweisen werden angefügt. Wir haben es uns zur Aufgabe gemacht, die bedrohten Madagaskar-Lemuren, wenn möglich, vor dem Artentod zu bewahren. Von unseren 95 Lemuren sind 46 im Kölner Zoo geboren und aufgewachsen.


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A Taxonomic Reassessment of Cacajao melanocephalus Humboldt (1811), with the Description of Two New Species.

International Journal of Primatology 29: 723–741.



The author of the last published systematic review of Cacajao recognized 2 subspecies of black-headed uakaris (black uakaris): Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus and C. m. ouakary. As a result of a series of black uakari surveys and collecting expeditions to several tributaries of the Rio Negro and of morphological and molecular analyses of museum specimens and specimens we collected during field expeditions, we reassess their taxonomy. We describe a newly discovered species of black uakari from the Rio Aracá, a left bank tributary of the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. We also show that ouakary is a junior synonym of melanocephalus and provide a new name and a new description for Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus in the Pico da Neblina region of Brazil and Venezuela. Based on genetic, morphological, and ecological evidence, we propose that there are 3 species of black uakaris. We named the Rio Aracá species Cacajao ayresi sp. nov. (Ayres uakari) in honor of the late José Márcio Ayres, a pioneer in uakari research and conservation. We named the Neblina black uakari Cacajao hosomi, after the Yanomami word for uakaris. The new taxonomic arrangement provided here implies that the conservation status of black uakaris needs to be reassessed.


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Confirmación de la presencia del mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya) (Mammalia, Primates, Atelidae) en el Uruguay.

Acta Zoológica Platense 1 (10). ISSN 0797-903.


Based on two films obtained in the vicinity of the Arroyo Yáco bar with the Cuareim river, Department of Artigas, and in Bajada de Pena, Route 30, Department of Rivera, Uruguay, the presence of the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) was confirmed.


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Mittwoch, 28 April 2021 15:58

RUPPELL, J. C. (2010)

Vocal Diversity and Taxonomy of Nomascus in Central Vietnam and Southern Laos.

International Journal of Primatology 31: 73–94.


Previous researchers suggested that gibbon song repertoire is genetically determined and song characteristics are useful for assessing systematic relationships. The southern white-cheeked crested gibbon is regarded as either a subspecies of Nomascus leucogenys or its own species (Nomascus siki). I studied vocal diversity among different wild populations of Nomascus in central Vietnam and southern Laos to assess their taxonomic relationships and to examine whether their vocal patterns correspond to forms previously described for Nomascus siki. I examined the songs of 7 Nomascus populations in Vietnam and Laos. I analyzed 192 song bouts from different gibbon groups including 173 phrases of 42 females and 192 phrases of 42 males. Linear discriminant analysis, classification trees, and multidimensional scaling revealed marked separation of groups in the northern and southern populations. Within the 2 geographic populations, there is little variability and the vocal characteristics exhibited no apparent cline. I conclude that the northern and southern geographic populations may represent 2 distinct taxa. I postulate that a taxonal boundary such as large rivers existing between southern Quang Binh province and northern Thua-Thien Hue province in Vietnam and northern Phou Xang He NBCA and southern Dong Phou Vieng NBCA in Laos has limited gene flow between the populations. Differing topographic features could also serve as a selective force for improved sound transmission in a highly territorial species, driving the divergence between the 2 populations.


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Phylogenetic relationships of Mesoamerican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi): Molecular evidence suggests the need for a revised taxonomy.

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 82: 484-494.


Mesoamerican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi sensu lato) are widely distributed from Mexico to northern Colombia. This group of primates includes many allopatric forms with morphologically distinct pelage color and patterning, but its taxonomy and phylogenetic history are poorly understood. We explored the genetic relationships among the different forms of Mesoamerican spider monkeys using mtDNA sequence data, and we offer a new hypothesis for the evolutionary history of the group. We collected up to ~800 bp of DNA sequence data from hypervariable region 1 (HV1) of the control region, or D-loop, of the mitochondrion for multiple putative subspecies of Ateles geoffroyi sensu lato. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian reconstructions, using Ateles paniscus as an outgroup, showed that (1) A. fusciceps and A. geoffroyi form two different monophyletic groups and (2) currently recognized subspecies of A. geoffroyi are not monophyletic. Within A. geoffroyi, our phylogenetic analysis revealed little concordance between any of the classifications proposed for this taxon and their phylogenetic relationships, therefore a new classification is needed for this group. Several possible clades with recent divergence times (1.7–0.8 Ma) were identified within Ateles geoffroyi sensu lato. Some previously recognized taxa were not separated by our data (e.g., A. g. vellerosus and A. g. yucatanensis), while one distinct clade had never been described as a different evolutionary unit based on pelage or geography (Ateles geoffroyi ssp. indet. from El Salvador). Based on well-supported phylogenetic relationships, our results challenge previous taxonomic arrangements for Mesoamerican spider monkeys. We suggest a revised arrangement based on our data and call for a thorough taxonomic revision of this group.


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Validation of Cercopithecus erythrogaster pococki as the name for the Nigerian white-throated guenon.

Mammalia 63 (3): 389-392.


Die Autoren validieren den Nemen Cercopithecus erythrogaster pococki für die nigerianische Unterart der Rotbauchmeerkatze. Der Name Cercopithecus pococki war von John Guy DOLLMAN im frühen 20. Jahrhundert eingeführt worden, allerdings ohne dass dieser die Form beschrieben hätte. 1927 wurde der Name publiziert, jedoch nicht in einer Form, dass er nach den taxonomischen Regeln "verfügbar" gewesen wäre. Dies wurde von den Autoren 1999 nachgeholt.


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A new locality in Paraguay for the Black-tailed Marmoset, Mico melanurus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) (Primates, Callitrichidae).

Check List 13, (3): 2142.


Mico melanurus is an endangered primate in Paraguay, with most Paraguayan records in the vicinity of Agua Dulce (Defensores del Chaco National Park). We report the first well-documented locality outside of the Agua Dulce/Linea 1 transect, representing the most northeastern record in Paraguay, as well as a new habitat for the species, transitional Pantanal-Cerrado. This note demonstrates the importance of monitoring areas which have been insufficiently studied for conservation purposes.


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Montag, 22 März 2021 10:59

ROULLET, D. (2014)

The European Captive Population of Crowned Sifaka: 25 Years of Management.

Primate Conservation, 2014(28):99-107. https://doi.org/10.1896/052.028.0118


A European Endangered Species Program (EEP) was set up for the crowned sifaka (Propithecus coronatus) in 2007, and the European captive population was identified as a conservation priority for the species during the first technical meeting on its conservation in 2011. In this article I trace the history of the European population over 25 years of management, and report on the main problems encountered during this time: the lack of females, high mortality rates of infants, and the management, of surplus males. I also present general information on the demography and genetics of the captive population, as well the principle findings of studies on the biology of the species in captivity, including, particularly, observations on reproduction: number and duration of estrus, inter-estrus interval, detection of estrus by the change in behavior of both sexes, data on fertility by age in both sexes, age at first estrus and first birth, gestation length, body weight at birth, and interbirth interval. Records of the breeding success of each female and for each pair are summarized: number of offspring, infant mortality rate, age at first birth, specific management of each female/pair, and interbirth interval. I discuss the contribution of the European holders, including the Parc Zoologique de Paris, to the conservation of the crowned sifaka through their strong involvement in in situ projects, among them a metapopulation project recently initiated by the EEP. In this project, the European captive population is included in a global management plan for the species, in particular to contribute to the management of the smallest wild populations living in isolated fragments of forest. The educational activities developed by the European holders and then by the EEP increase awareness and knowledge of the species and facilitate fundraising for the in situ projects supported.


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Habitat Degradation and Seasonality Affect Physiological Stress Levels of Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments.

PLoS ONE 9(9): e107698. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107698


The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.


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