Confirmación de la presencia del mono aullador negro (Alouatta caraya) (Mammalia, Primates, Atelidae) en el Uruguay.
Acta Zoológica Platense 1 (10). ISSN 0797-903.
Based on two films obtained in the vicinity of the Arroyo Yáco bar with the Cuareim river, Department of Artigas, and in Bajada de Pena, Route 30, Department of Rivera, Uruguay, the presence of the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) was confirmed.
Vocal Diversity and Taxonomy of Nomascus in Central Vietnam and Southern Laos.
International Journal of Primatology 31: 73–94.
Previous researchers suggested that gibbon song repertoire is genetically determined and song characteristics are useful for assessing systematic relationships. The southern white-cheeked crested gibbon is regarded as either a subspecies of Nomascus leucogenys or its own species (Nomascus siki). I studied vocal diversity among different wild populations of Nomascus in central Vietnam and southern Laos to assess their taxonomic relationships and to examine whether their vocal patterns correspond to forms previously described for Nomascus siki. I examined the songs of 7 Nomascus populations in Vietnam and Laos. I analyzed 192 song bouts from different gibbon groups including 173 phrases of 42 females and 192 phrases of 42 males. Linear discriminant analysis, classification trees, and multidimensional scaling revealed marked separation of groups in the northern and southern populations. Within the 2 geographic populations, there is little variability and the vocal characteristics exhibited no apparent cline. I conclude that the northern and southern geographic populations may represent 2 distinct taxa. I postulate that a taxonal boundary such as large rivers existing between southern Quang Binh province and northern Thua-Thien Hue province in Vietnam and northern Phou Xang He NBCA and southern Dong Phou Vieng NBCA in Laos has limited gene flow between the populations. Differing topographic features could also serve as a selective force for improved sound transmission in a highly territorial species, driving the divergence between the 2 populations.
Phylogenetic relationships of Mesoamerican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi): Molecular evidence suggests the need for a revised taxonomy.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 82: 484-494.
Mesoamerican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi sensu lato) are widely distributed from Mexico to northern Colombia. This group of primates includes many allopatric forms with morphologically distinct pelage color and patterning, but its taxonomy and phylogenetic history are poorly understood. We explored the genetic relationships among the different forms of Mesoamerican spider monkeys using mtDNA sequence data, and we offer a new hypothesis for the evolutionary history of the group. We collected up to ~800 bp of DNA sequence data from hypervariable region 1 (HV1) of the control region, or D-loop, of the mitochondrion for multiple putative subspecies of Ateles geoffroyi sensu lato. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian reconstructions, using Ateles paniscus as an outgroup, showed that (1) A. fusciceps and A. geoffroyi form two different monophyletic groups and (2) currently recognized subspecies of A. geoffroyi are not monophyletic. Within A. geoffroyi, our phylogenetic analysis revealed little concordance between any of the classiﬁcations proposed for this taxon and their phylogenetic relationships, therefore a new classiﬁcation is needed for this group. Several possible clades with recent divergence times (1.7–0.8 Ma) were identiﬁed within Ateles geoffroyi sensu lato. Some previously recognized taxa were not separated by our data (e.g., A. g. vellerosus and A. g. yucatanensis), while one distinct clade had never been described as a different evolutionary unit based on pelage or geography (Ateles geoffroyi ssp. indet. from El Salvador). Based on well-supported phylogenetic relationships, our results challenge previous taxonomic arrangements for Mesoamerican spider monkeys. We suggest a revised arrangement based on our data and call for a thorough taxonomic revision of this group.
Validation of Cercopithecus erythrogaster pococki as the name for the Nigerian white-throated guenon.
Mammalia 63 (3): 389-392.
Die Autoren validieren den Nemen Cercopithecus erythrogaster pococki für die nigerianische Unterart der Rotbauchmeerkatze. Der Name Cercopithecus pococki war von John Guy DOLLMAN im frühen 20. Jahrhundert eingeführt worden, allerdings ohne dass dieser die Form beschrieben hätte. 1927 wurde der Name publiziert, jedoch nicht in einer Form, dass er nach den taxonomischen Regeln "verfügbar" gewesen wäre. Dies wurde von den Autoren 1999 nachgeholt.
A new locality in Paraguay for the Black-tailed Marmoset, Mico melanurus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) (Primates, Callitrichidae).
Check List 13, (3): 2142.
Mico melanurus is an endangered primate in Paraguay, with most Paraguayan records in the vicinity of Agua Dulce (Defensores del Chaco National Park). We report the first well-documented locality outside of the Agua Dulce/Linea 1 transect, representing the most northeastern record in Paraguay, as well as a new habitat for the species, transitional Pantanal-Cerrado. This note demonstrates the importance of monitoring areas which have been insufficiently studied for conservation purposes.
The European Captive Population of Crowned Sifaka: 25 Years of Management.
Primate Conservation, 2014(28):99-107. https://doi.org/10.1896/052.028.0118
A European Endangered Species Program (EEP) was set up for the crowned sifaka (Propithecus coronatus) in 2007, and the European captive population was identified as a conservation priority for the species during the first technical meeting on its conservation in 2011. In this article I trace the history of the European population over 25 years of management, and report on the main problems encountered during this time: the lack of females, high mortality rates of infants, and the management, of surplus males. I also present general information on the demography and genetics of the captive population, as well the principle findings of studies on the biology of the species in captivity, including, particularly, observations on reproduction: number and duration of estrus, inter-estrus interval, detection of estrus by the change in behavior of both sexes, data on fertility by age in both sexes, age at first estrus and first birth, gestation length, body weight at birth, and interbirth interval. Records of the breeding success of each female and for each pair are summarized: number of offspring, infant mortality rate, age at first birth, specific management of each female/pair, and interbirth interval. I discuss the contribution of the European holders, including the Parc Zoologique de Paris, to the conservation of the crowned sifaka through their strong involvement in in situ projects, among them a metapopulation project recently initiated by the EEP. In this project, the European captive population is included in a global management plan for the species, in particular to contribute to the management of the smallest wild populations living in isolated fragments of forest. The educational activities developed by the European holders and then by the EEP increase awareness and knowledge of the species and facilitate fundraising for the in situ projects supported.
Habitat Degradation and Seasonality Affect Physiological Stress Levels of Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments.
PLoS ONE 9(9): e107698. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107698
The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.
L'écologie de la mone de Campbell (Cercopithecus campbelli lowei) en Côte d'Ivoire.
La Terre et la Vie 1969/2: 135-163.
Lowe's guenon (Cercopithecus campbelli lowei) is still one of the commonest monkeys of the Ivory Coast. It is found in all forest types, from old mature rain forest to secondary growth. Although these monkeys spend most of their time in the middle and lower layers of the forest, they occasionally visit the canopy or descend to the ground. The various types of locomotion are described and illustrated. Most of the detailed information obtained on the ecology and behaviour of the Lowe's guenon is based upon observations made from 1967 to 1969 on a wild troop living on the grounds of the Swiss Research Center, at Adiopodoumé. The history of this group has been recorded since 1964. Comparative observations were made on various wild troops in western Ivory Coast, and on 2 free ranging pets at the Lamto field station in 1967. The home range of the Adiopodoumé troop is small, covering about 3 hectares. The monkeys use the same sleeping trees for long pcriods of time and regularly visit fruit trees and places where they are given bananas. There is no rigid daily time schedule, and most of the home range is visited every day. The wild troop does not allow adult foreign conspecifics to settle on its territory, but a one year old male infant was accepted in February 1969. The staple food of the Lowe's guenon consists of fruits, flowers and leaves. Thirty two species of food plants are recorded. The monkeys are also very fond of insects, which they activcly hunt both in trces and on the ground. Insect hunting is selective, some unpalatable species being deliberately rejected. Water is licked from leaves and branches, or scooped out of tree holes. Breeding is seasonal, all infants bcing born between midNovember and mid-January, at the very end of the long rains and the beginning of the dry season. Thus the females appear ta conceive during the annual peak in rainfall and during the annual decline in temperature. The social structure of the troop is described. Although it includes more males than females, the Adiopodoumé troop is a «one male group», centered around the adult male. He acts as a leader and spends a great deal of time watching. The «warning bark» is his prerogative. Unlike mature females who readily act as «aunts», the adult male does not show interest in infants, even newborn ones, and juveniles. However he allows them to play close to him. Subadult males are bolder and more inquisitive than any other troop member. Juveniles and infants are very active players. No overt and rigid social hierarchy exists within the troop, although in certain circumstances younger individuals give way ta older ones. Early in 1969 a splitting of the group was observed. It took place progressively and quietly. In February, two males, 4 and 3 years old, and one 4 year old female, began to separatc from the rest of the troop during the day, returning to the traditional sleeping trees at night. They left the troop's home-range for good around the lst of March. Lowe's guenon often associates with other species of Cercopithecus (C. petaurista mainly) and Colobines (Colobus polykomos and C. badius). These mixed troops are more than chance aggregations of different species on the same food trees. In Lamto, the two free ranging male Cercopithecus campbelli lowei reacted immediately to the distress calls of a young female C. petaurista living with them, and would come to her rescue if she was in danger. Interactions with other Vertebrates are described. Reactions to soaring birds of prey are not stereotyped: in Adiopodoumé, the monkeys were not afraid of the common black kites, whereas an approaching buzzard sent them «diving» into thick foliage. Play interactions were observed with roosting hornbills, and even a pet mongoose. Breeding periodicity, which permits an eventual use of seasonal food surpluses, and the ability to descend to the ground and cross open spaces, might « pre-adapt » this forest monkey to life in wooded savannas. These two characteristics certainlv help one to understand the wide range of Lowe's guenon and its ability to live in the forest-savanna boundary.
Management and behaviour of Francois' langur Presbytis francoisi francoisi at the Zoological Society of San Diego.
International Zoo Yearbook 31: 184-191.
Der Artikel enthält eine Übersicht über die Unterarten des Tonkin-Schwarzlangurs, berichtet über die Haltungsgeschichte der Art in San Diego, sowie über ihre Unterbringung, Gruppenstruktur, Fütterung, Zucht, Jugendentwicklung und Todesursachen.
Habitat preference of the Preuss's guenon (Cercopithecus preussi), on Bioko island, Equatorial Guinea.
Human Evolution: 19, Artikelnummer: 239 (2004)
The Press's guenon (Cercopithecus preussi) is considered to be one of the most threatened African primates. There is little information on the ecology and status of this primate on Bioko island, where it is found in the form of an endemic subspecies. The Press's, guenon shows preference for the Schefflera forest and the mountain habitat on Bioko island. As on the mainland they also have semitterrestrial habits and are found usually at the understorey of the forest. Competitive exclusion between this guenon and other guenon species could be an explanation of these ecological preferences. Habitat use and vertical stratification of the activity in the forest canopy seem to reduce competition with other sympatric primate species that inhabit on the island. Habitat destruction, and isolation in a reduced habitat, show to be the major threats for the survival of this primate on Bioko island.