The origin of out-of-range pelicans in Europe: wild bird dispersal or zoo escapes?
Ibis 150(3), Juli 2008:606–618, doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2008.00830.x
We tested whether spatial and annual patterns of occurrence of out-of-range Great White Pelecanus onocrotalus, Dalmatian Pelecanus crispus and Pink-backed Pelicans Pelecanus rufescens recorded in Europe between 1980 and 2004 supported a natural vagrancy theory. Candidate variables tested were those likely to influence dispersal and escape probability (distance to the usual breeding/wintering range, national captive stock), and wild breeding population sizes and their movements (size of breeding colonies, climate conditions on wintering grounds or during dispersal). Spatial vagrancy patterns supported the hypothesis of wild birds dispersing from their normal range, with decreasing national totals with increasing distance to the usual range for the three species. Annual out-of-range numbers of Great White Pelican were predicted by breeding colony size and breeding success in Greece, with a further effect of Sahel rainfall during the previous year. Annual numbers of Dalmatian Pelican were related to the North Atlantic Oscillation index and to breeding success in Greece. Finally, annual numbers of Pink-backed Pelican were predicted by summer Sahel rainfall, which is known to drive dispersal of the species northwards into the sub-Sahelian steppes during wet summers there. Hence, annual vagrancy patterns in Europe were well predicted for all three species by population size indices, reproductive success and/or climatic components, which presumably influence survival and/or dispersal. We therefore consider that vagrancy patterns were driven by wild birds, whereas escapes – even if potentially numerous – do not create sufficient ‘noise’ to hide these patterns.
Rails of the World.
A Monograph on the Family Rallidæ.
406 Seiten, 40 Farbtafeln, 17 Verbreitungskarten.
David R. Godine Publisher, Boston.
Among the least known and most elusive of any major bird species, rails manage to colonize remote islands, impenetrable jungles and desolate shorelines in almost all regions of the world. Particularly interesting is their enigmatic evolution; once having arrived at a suitable habitat, they often lose their power of sustained flight and, over the centuries, their instinct for migration. With the rapid disappearance of their habitats and their vulnerability to predation, this book serves the very important function of establishing scholarship on the rail family.
Breeding Biology of Vanellus chilensis (AVES: Charadriidae) in a Peri-urban Area of Southern Brazil.
Revista de Ciéncia Ambientais 13(3): (ISSN 1981-8858). http://dx.doi.org/10.18316/rca.v13i.6070
The neotropical species Vanellus chilensis, known as Southern Lapwing, is found in grassland environments, in rural and urban open areas. e species is considered a social Bird, which aggregates in pairs or small groups during the breeding period, in austral spring and summer. During the reproductive period, the cooperative breeding behavior is common among individuals of the species, when a non-breeding individual, called "helper", assists the breeding pair in parental care activities. We monitored a total of 11 social breeding unities of V. chilensis between august 2014 and january 2015 in the Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos campus, in São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul. We conducted nest observations, by evaluating the breeding success of individuals regarding eggs and chick's loss, with and without helpers' presence, as well as behavioral aspects. We recorded the laying of 65 eggs, of which 10.7% achieved breeding success, regarding the number of viable chicks. In this study, helpers' presence in the nests did not influence the breeding success of individuals, thus, dismissing the hypothesis that helpers' assistance improves breeding success of the species. Our findings contribute to the knowledge on the breeding biology of V. chilensis in peri-urban areas.
Improved systematics of lorikeets reflects their evolutionary history and frames conservation priorities.
Emu - Austral Ornithology 120 (3): 201–215. doi:10.1080/01584197.2020.1779596. S2CID 222094508.
A well-supported genus-level classification of any group of organisms underpins downstream understanding of its evolutionary biology and enhances the role of phylogenetic diversity in guiding its conservation and management. The lorikeets (Psittaciformes: Loriini) are parrots for which genus-level systematics (phylogenetic relationships and classification) has long been unstable and unsatisfactory. Instability has manifested through frequently changing compositions of some genera (e.g. Trichoglossus and Psitteuteles). Other genera (e.g. Charmosyna, Vini) have become so large that their phenotypic heterogeneity alone at least questions whether they are monophyletic assemblages that genera should comprise. Recent molecular phylogenetic and phenotypic studies have improved the framework with which to rationalise genus-level systematics in lorikeets but some trenchant uncertainty has remained. Here we utilise published genomic data and tetrahedral analysis of plumage colour to develop a full review of the genus-level classification of lorikeets. Using existing phylogenetic relationships and a newly estimated time-calibrated tree for lorikeets, we show where paraphyletic assemblages have misled the classification of genera. We assign six species to three new genera and six other species to four previously described generic names that have been in synonymy in recent literature. Our taxonomic revision brings a new perspective informing and guiding the conservation and management of the lorikeets and their evolutionary biology.
Structure of an African Red-Billed Hornbill (Tockus Erythrorhynchus Rufirostris and T. E. Damarensis) Hybrid Zone as Revealed by Morphology, Behavior, and Breeding Biology.
The Auk 121 (2): 565–586. https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/121.2.565
The distributions of southern African (Tockus erythrorhynchus rufirostris) and Damaraland (T. e. damarensis) Red-billed Hornbills overlap in northern Namibia. Allopatric populations of the taxa have diagnosable differences in habitat, morphology, vocalizations, and displays. We investigated the structure of the hybrid zone using data from morphology, behavior, and breeding biology. The morphological characteristics—eye color and facial plumage color—were summarized as hybrid index scores, which showed a significant positive regression against distance from southwest to northeast across the hybrid zone. Vocalizations also showed a positive relationship between the first principal component (extracted from 12 call variables) and distance across the hybrid zone. However, there appears to be introgression of a T. e. damarensis call into T. e. rufirostris, but not vice versa. In addition, female T. e. damarensis-male T. e. rufirostris breeding pairs occur more frequently than male T. e. damarensis-female T. e. rufirostris pairs. The asymmetrical call introgression may result either from asymmetry in mating or from genetic control of call inheritance. Finally, heterospecific pairs show lower fitness, in the form of reduced hatching success, even when female fitness attributes are included as covariates. Although we are uncertain whether the Red-billed Hornbill hybrid zone is stable, the apparent biological processes operating within it conform to predictions of both the “mosaic” and the “tension zone” models, because both habitat characteristics and a balance of dispersal and selection appear to determine its structure
A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes).
Zootaxa 3205: 26-40. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.3205.1.2
The last 20 years have seen a resurgence in systematic studies of parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes). Principally but not solely molecular in nature, this body of work has addressed the circumscription of higher level groupings within the Psittaciformes and relationships among them. Stability has now emerged on many formerly contentious matters at these levels. Accordingly, we consider it appropriate to underpin further work on parrot biology with a freshly revised classification at the taxonomic ranks spanned by family-group nomenclature, i.e., between superfamily and tribe. In light of the body of recent work, we advocate a framework of three superfamilies among parrots (Strigopoidea, Cacatuoidea and Psittacoidea) within which Linnaean taxonomy can accommodate present phylogenetic understanding by employing groupings at the ranks of family, subfamily and tribe. Just as importantly, we have addressed numerous issues of nomenclature towards stabilising the family-group names of parrots. We erect two new subfamily names, Coracopseinae Joseph, Toon, Schirtzinger, Wright & Schodde, subfam. nov. and Psittacellinae Joseph, Toon, Schirtzinger, Wright & Schodde, subfam. nov. We stress that rankings we have applied reflect the state of understanding of parrot phylogeny and how it can be summarized in a Linnaean system; comparisons with rankings in other groups are likely not appropriate nor relevant.
Guia de Aves del Chaco Seco paraguayo.
92 Seiten, Annildung und Verbreitungskarte zu jeder Art. Guyra Paraguay, Asunción. ISBN: 978-99967-653-4-6.
Esta Guía de campo contiene información sobre 125 especies de las aves más representativas del Chaco seco paraguayo. Esta compuesto por fichas por especies que incluyen fotografías, probabilidad de hallazgo, datos de su estado de conservación nacional e internacional, tipo de hábitat, ocurrencia, alimentación, distribución y comportamiento social. Fue elaborado por el equipo técnico de Guyra Paraguay, gracias a los fondos del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) a través del Programa PROCIENCIA con recursos del Fondo para la Excelencia de la Educación e Investigación – FEEI. Esta Guía se desarrolla entonces como producto del proyecto “Evaluación de la importancia de los Parques Nacionales del Chaco seco como refugio natural para las aves amenazadas y endémicas del Paraguay (14-INV-209)”, buscando fomentar el conocimiento, el estudio y conservación de las aves del Paraguay.
La Guía de Aves del Chaco seco paraguayo complementa 20 años de publicaciones de Guyra Paraguay, continuando con el objetivo de generar materiales científicos de consulta para dar a conocer y concientizar sobre la rica avifauna de nuestro país.
Behavioral evidence for song learning in the suboscine bellbirds (Procnias spp., Cotingidae)
The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 125 (1):1–14.
Why vocal learning has evolved in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds but not in other avian groups remains an unanswered question. The difficulty in providing an answer stems not only from the challenge of reconstructing the conditions that favored vocal learning among ancestors of these groups but also from our incomplete knowledge of extant birds. Here we provide multiple lines of evidence for a previously undocumented, evolutionarily independent origin of vocal learning among the suboscine passerines. Working with bellbirds (Procnias spp.), we show that (1) a captive-reared Bare-throated Bellbird (P. nudicollis) deprived of conspecific song not only developed abnormal conspecific songs but also learned the calls of a Chopi Blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) near which it was housed; (2) songs of Three-wattled Bellbirds (P. tricarunculata) occur in three geographically distinct dialects (from north to south: Nicaragua, Monteverde, and Talamanca); (3) Three-wattled Bellbirds at Monteverde, Costa Rica, are often bilingual, having learned the complete song repertoire of both the Monteverde and Talamanca dialects; (4) immature bellbirds have an extended period of song development, lasting the 6 years in which they are in subadult plumage; and (5) adult male Three-wattled Bellbirds continually relearn their songs, visiting each others’ song perches and adjusting their songs to track population-wide changes. Perhaps female preferences and strong sexual selection have favored vocal learning among bellbirds, and additional surveys for vocal learning among other lekking cotingas and other suboscines may reveal patterns that help determine the conditions that promote the evolution of vocal learning.
Der Graureiher in Geschichte und Gegenwart.
Fauna Focus Nr. 70: 1-12. Herausgeber Wildtier Schweiz, CH-8006 Zürich.
Erhältlich auf https://shop.wildtier.ch/de/home
Es wird ein Überblick über die Bedeutung und Einschätzung des Graureihers vom Mittelalter bis in die jüngste Zeit gegeben, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Bestandsentwicklung und Gesetzgebung in der Schweiz.
So nannte man unsere Vögel früher: eine Zusammenstellung von Trivial- und Kunstnamen heimischer Vogelarten.
V und 582 Seiten. Springer Verlag. Auch als eBook erhältlich. ISBN 978-3-662-59775-0.
Im vorliegenden Werk sind etwa 550 Vogelarten (Nichtsingvogel- und Singvogelarten) in alphabetischer Reihenfolge aufgeführt. Für sie konnten knapp 26.000 vogelspezifische Trivialnamen zusammengetragen werden. Diese Namen sind den Arten direkt zugeordnet worden. So konnten für den Pirol fast 250 Trivialnamen gefunden werden. Trivialnamen sind volkstümliche Namen oder solche, die aus einem besonderen Anliegen konstruiert worden sind, also künstliche Namen.
Für die Zuordnungen in diesem Buch ist es gelungen, einen großen Teil der alten und sehr alten Trivialnamen zu ermitteln. Die betreffende Literatur beginnt mit einer Quelle aus dem Jahr 1544: William Turner, Turner on Birds. Die auf Turner folgenden alten Trivialnamen sind in deutschsprachigen und lateinischen Werken sogenannter „Alter Autoren“ zu finden. Zu ihnen gehören Conrad Gessner, Kaspar Schwenckfeld, Johann Leonhard Frisch, Jakob Theodor Klein oder Johann Adam Freiherr von Pernau. Die als „Alte Autoren“ bezeichneten Naturforscher lebten im 16.–18. Jahrhundert.