Samstag, 13 März 2021 15:07

LIPPOLD, L. (1989)

Reproduction and survivorship in Douc langurs.

Int. Zoo Yearbook 28: 252-255.

Inhalt:

Es wird ein Überblick über die Haltung von Rotschenkel-Kleideraffen in europäischen und amerikanischen Zoos gegeben mit Angaben zu Geburten und Sterblichkeit sowie Gruppenzusammensetzung.

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Dienstag, 09 März 2021 12:26

PEGEL, M., THOR G. et al. (2000)

Rehwildprojekt Borgerhau: Untersuchungen zur Ökologie einer freilebenden Rehwildpopulation.

Wildforschung in Baden-Württemberg Band 5.

143 Seiten. Hrsg: Staatlichen Lehr-und Versuchsanstalt AulendorfWildforschungsstelle

Volltext: https://fortbildung-lazbw.lgl-bw.de/lazbw/webbasys/download/Shop/Rehwildbericht%20Borgerhau.pdf

Kitzrate und frühe Kitzsterblichkeit(Zitat aus Zusammenfassung)

Pro  im  Herbst  vorhandener  adulter  Geiß  wurden im Mittel 1,44 Kitze beobachtet. Diese Kitzrate  schwankte  witterungsbedingt in den einzelnen Jahren zwischen 0,93 und 1,63. Auf den gesamten Untersuchungszeitraum  bezogen wurden  am 1. September 14%  der Geißen  ohne Kitz festgestellt, 31%  hatten ein Kitz, 52% zwei Kitze und 3% drei Kitze. Die  frühe Kitzsterblichkeit (Geburt bis  1. September)  wurde nach  zwei Methoden  eingeschätzt (nach  ergleich zwischen potentieller und realisierter Kitzrate sowie nach der  Wiederbeobachtungsrate markierter Kitze). Es ergaben sich die Werte 24%  bzw. 22% als Mittel für den Untersuchungszeitraum. Markierte Kitze unterlagen keiner erhöhten Sterblichkeit.

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Sonntag, 18 November 2018 09:43

CLUBB, R. & MASON, G. J. (2007)

Natural behavioural biology as a risk factor in carnivore welfare: How analysing species differences could help zoos improve enclosures.

Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102 (3–4): 303-328

Abstract:

In captivity, some species often seem to thrive, while others are often prone to breeding problems, poor health, and repetitive stereotypic behaviour. Within carnivores, for instance, the brown bear, American mink and snow leopard typically adapt well to captivity and show few signs of poor welfare, while the clouded leopard and polar bear are generally hard to breed successfully and/or to prevent from performing abnormal behaviour. Understanding the fundamental source of such differences could enable reproductive success and behavioural normalcy to be improved in zoos and breeding centres, by increasing the appropriateness of the enclosure designs and environmental enrichments offered particular species, and by allowing these to be offered pre-emptively instead of reactively. Here, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of the variation in apparent welfare between captive carnivore species stems from specific aspects of natural behaviour. We tested pre-existing hypotheses that species-typical welfare is predicted by natural hunting behaviour, general activity levels, ranging, or territorial patrolling (all activities that are constrained in captivity), by collating data on median stereotypy levels and infant mortality for multiple captive species, and then regressing these against median values for the relevant aspects of natural behavioural biology (e.g. hunts per day, proportion of flesh in the diet, home-range size, etc.). Our results revealed that instead of relating to foraging (e.g. hunting), as often assumed, carnivore stereotypy levels are significantly predicted by natural ranging behaviour (e.g. home-range size and typical daily travel distances). Furthermore, naturally wide-ranging lifestyles also predicted relatively high captive infant mortality rates. These results suggest that enclosure designs and enrichments focussing on carnivores’ ranging tendencies (e.g. providing more space, multiple den sites, greater day-to-day environmental variability/novelty, and/or more control over exposure to aversive or rewarding stimuli) could be particularly effective means of improving welfare; and also, that targeting such enrichment programmes on wide-ranging species, before problems even emerge, might effectively pre-empt their development. Alternatively, species with relatively small ranges could instead be made the focus of future collections and breeding programmes, zoos phasing out wide-ranging carnivores in favour of those species inherently more suited to current or readily achievable enclosure sizes and enrichment regimes.

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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 14:16

DOLLINGER, P. (1971)

Tod durch Verhalten bei Zootieren.

Death through behaviour in zoo animals.

Vet. med. Diss. Zürich.
Juris Verlag Zürich. 229 Seiten, 26 Tabellen, 11 Grafiken, 15 Fotos

Tierpsychologische Abteilung des Zoologischen Instituts, Prof. Dr. H. Hediger, und
Veterinär-Pathologisches Institut, Prof. Dr. H. Stünzi, der Universität Zürich
Zoo Zürich

Zusammenfassung:

Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit dem von HEDIGER (1956) geschaffenen Begriffs des Todes durch Verhalten (TdV) bei Zootieren. Dieser Terminus wird erstmalig definiert, wobei zwischen direktem und indirektem TdV unterschieden wird (pp. 13-14).

Aus der Literatur werden Angaben über die Häufigkeit der traumatischen Todesursachen – welche sich weitgehend mit den direkt durch Verhalten verursachten Todesfällen decken – in verschiedenen Zoos und aus verschiedenen Pathologischen Instituten zusammengestellt (pp. 15-23).

Um sichere Anhaltspunkte über die Bedeutung des TdV zu erhalten, wurden die Todesfälle im Säugetier-, Vogel- und Reptilienbestand des Zürcher Zoos von 1954-1969 bearbeitet (pp.24-47). Dabei zeigte es sich, dass über die Frequenz des indirekten TdV retrospektiv nichts ausgesagt werden kann, dass jedoch der direkte TdV bei Säugetieren und Vögeln die wichtigste Todesursache darstellt (23.4 resp. 29.4 % der Todesfälle), während er bei Reptilien relativ unbedeutend ist.

Eine Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse aus dem Zürcher Zoo findet sich auf Seite 48.

Den breitesten Raum nimmt eine analytische Untersuchung über das Phänomen des TdV ein (pp. 49-152). Es wird ein Schema der am TdV beteiligten psychologischen, ökologischen, ethologischen und pathologischen Komponenten gegeben (p.49) und deren Beziehungen untereinander werden anhand einiger exemplarischer Beispiele dargestellt (pp. 49-53).

Anschliessend wird detailliert auf die einzelnen Komponenten eingegangen, wobei auf die auslösenden Faktoren (psychologische und ökologische Momente) besonderes Gewicht gelegt wird, da deren Kenntnis Voraussetzung und bester Ansatzpunkt für eine wirksame Prophylaxe des TdV ist (pp- 53-126).

Von den zum  Tod führenden Verhaltensweisen (pp. 127-144) werden Automutilation, Inanition und Kannibalismus sowie das Syndrom des Ausbrechens, Ausreissens und Entweichens näher untersucht.

Die den Tod bewirkenden Läsionen und Funktionsstörungen werden nur der Vollständigkeit halber gestreift (pp. 144-152) und schliesslich werden noch einige grundsätzliche Bemerkungen zur Prophylaxe des TdV gemacht (pp. 153-156).

Den Abschluss des Textteils bildet die umfangreiche Kasuisitik aus den Zoos von Zürich und Mulhouse (pp.157-196) und die Bibliographie (pp. 200-216).

Abstract:

The problem of “death through behaviour” (death caused by effects of behaviour) of zoo animals (HEDIGER,l 1956) is discussed in the present paper.

A definition of this term is provided recognising direct and indirect cause of death through behaviour (pp. 13-14).

Reports from various pathology-laboratories and zoos dealing with traumatic deaths which could be contributed to animal behaviour are reviewed (pp. 15-23).

In order to emphasize the importance of above phenomenon, deaths of mammals, birds and reptiles which occurred at Zurich zoo between 1954 and 1969 were analysed (pp.24-47). The frequency of deaths caused indirectly through behaviour could not be recognised. Behaviour as direct cause of death occurred most frequently in mammals and birds (23.4 and 29.4 % respectively), but was relatively unimportant in reptiles.
The results of the survey from Zurich zoo are summarized on page 48.

The phenomenon of death through behaviour is analysed (pp. 49-152). The psychological, ethological, ecological and pathological factors and their interrelations participating in the occurrence of deaths through behaviour are illustrated on a scheme with some practical examples (pp. 49-53).

All components are discussed each in detail with particular attention to the triggering factors (psychological and ecological moments) in order to gain knowledge and basis for prophylaxis (pp- 53-126).

Some behavioural pattern leading to death, such as automutilation, inanition, cannibalism and also the occurrence of break-outs, tearings and escapes are discussed (pp. 127-144).

The lesions and functional disturbances were only briefly noted (pp. 144-152) and general remarks are given on prophylaxis (pp. 153-156).

In the final chapter case histories are listed from the zoos of Zurich and Mulhouse/France (pp.157-196) and references of the literature are provided (pp. 200-216).

Datenblatt PDF

 

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Comparative analyses of longevity and senescence reveal variable survival benefits of living in zoos across mammals.

Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 36361 (2016)
doi:10.1038/srep36361. http://www.nature.com/articles/srep36361#supplementary-information

Abstract:

While it is commonly believed that animals live longer in zoos than in the wild, this assumption has rarely been tested. We compared four survival metrics (longevity, baseline mortality, onset of senescence and rate of senescence) between both sexes of free-ranging and zoo populations of more than 50 mammal species. We found that mammals from zoo populations generally lived longer than their wild counterparts (84% of species). The effect was most notable in species with a faster pace of life (i.e. a short life span, high reproductive rate and high mortality in the wild) because zoos evidently offer protection against a number of relevant conditions like predation, intraspecific competition and diseases. Species with a slower pace of life (i.e. a long life span, low reproduction rate and low mortality in the wild) benefit less from captivity in terms of longevity; in such species, there is probably less potential for a reduction in mortality. These findings provide a first general explanation about the different magnitude of zoo environment benefits among mammalian species, and thereby highlight the effort that is needed to improve captive conditions for slow-living species that are particularly susceptible to extinction in the wild.

tidiere-biblio

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Catastrophic die-off of globally threatened Arabian Oryx and Sand Gazelle in the fenced protected area of the arid central Saudi Arabia.

J. Threatened Taxa 2 (2): 577-684.

Abstract:

A large number of die-off of globally threatened Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx), and Arabian Sand Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica) were recorded from 1999 to 2008 in fenced Mahazat as-Sayd Protected Area (PA) in western-central Saudi Arabia. Mortalities of animals have been recorded during summer months when the rainfall is negligible or insignificant. Deaths were due to starvation because of reduced availability, accessibility and quality of food plants in the area.  In total, 560 oryxand 2815 sand gazelle deaths were recorded since the reintroduction projects began till the end of 2008.  Mortalities of animals were higher in 1999-2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008.  Grazing of oryxhabitat depends on rainfall and animals move over great distances in response to rain.  The fence around Mahazat as-Sayd PA prevents natural movements of animals, and artificially concentrates the ungulate populations into possibly unfavourable habitat. The sand gazelle is a highly gregarious and migratory species, moving long distances in search of good quality pastures. Populations of sand gazelle in Central Asia are also known to migrate over large distances, covering several hundred kilometers.  It is therefore likely that by preventing natural movements of sand gazelles and oryx, fencing may have reinforced the effects of stressful conditions such as drought.  To reduce the catastrophic effects, a Strategy and Action Plan was developed in August 2008 to manage oryx and gazelle within the reserve and with provision for food and water at the five camps in the reserve as emergency plan to minimize mortalities.

 

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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 14:13

TOORN, J.D. van der (2000)

A survival guide to survival rates.

16 Seiten

http://rosmarus.com/Download/Survival.pdf


Introduction

The survival of marine mammals in captivity is often the subject of heated discussions. Interestingly, these discussions usually focus on cetaceans. The discussions are often complicated by a general lack of understanding of the subject matter. This can result in incorrect representation of the available data and comparisons of unrelated parameters. The terminology involved is not straightforward and can be confusing (Fad, 1996). In this paper, I  will discuss the terminology involved, the calculations that must be do ne to derive survival rates and life expectancies and I will look at the presentation of the data and how that can influence the message. A few examples will be given.

 

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Bottlenose Dolphin Mortality Patterns in the Indian/Banana River System of Florida.

In S. Leatherwood and R. R. Reeves, eds.: The Bottlenose Dolphin, pp. 155-164,

Academic Press, London, San Diego.

 

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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 21:24

DOLLINGER, P. (1981a)

Parasitenbefall, Sterblichkeit und Todesursachen bei Rehen.

Verh.ber. Erkg. Zootiere 23, Halle: 161-173.

Zusammenfassung:

Der erste Teil der Arbeit befasst sich mit den Parasiten freilebender Rehe aus der Nordostschweiz. In Organen von rund 300 Rehen wurden 48 Parasitenarten nachgewiesen. Beim Labmagenparasitenbefall wurde eine saisonale Abhängigkeit, bei Lungenwurm- und Sarcocystisbefall eine Altersabhängigkeit festgestellt.

Im zweiten Teil werden Todesfälle bei Rehen in den Zoologischen Gärten von Basel, Bern und Zürich analysiert. Im Vordergrund standen die perinatale Sterblichkeit, Parasitosen, gastro-intestinale Erkrankungen und Infektionen. Die Ursachen für die Schwierigkeiten der Haltung des Rehes in Gefangenschaft werden diskutiert.

Artikel als PDF

 

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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 10:25

RAMSAY, M. A. & STIRLING, I. (1988)

Reproductive biology and ecology of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

J. Zool. Lond., 214: 601-634.


Abstract:

Data on age‐specific natality rates, litter size, interbirth interval, age of first reproduction, reproductive senescence, age of weaning and cub survival were determined for a free‐ranging population of polar bears inhabiting Hudson Bay, Canada, near the southern limit of the species range. Serum progesterone levels were also determined for females at different stages of their reproductive cycle to provide corroborative support for the reproductive parameters described. Animals were live captured using immobilizing drugs and each animal uniquely marked for future identification. First parturition occurred at four or five years of age and the age‐specific natality rate increased with age until approximately 20 years, after which it dropped markedly. At least 40% of adult females displayed two‐year interbirth intervals and 55% of cubs in their second year were independent of their mother. Mean size of cub litters in spring was 1.9 and 13% of litters had three or more cubs. The natality rate for 5–20‐year‐old females was estimated as 0.9, higher than that reported for any more northerly polar bear populations where two‐year interbirth intervals are rare, fewer than 5% of yearling cubs are weaned and triplet litters occur with less than 1% frequency. Cub mortality was initially high and declined with age. Although cubs in western Hudson Bay were weaned at a younger age and a lighter weight than their counterparts in more northern populations, cub mortality rates were similar. The reason for the marked differences in reproductive parameters in the western Hudson Bay population is not known. We speculate that sea‐ice conditions may be sufficiently different to allow weaned bears at a lighter body weight to hunt seals more successfully there than further north.

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