ZAKARIA, M. A. & NOR, S. M. (2019)
Population estimate of painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala) in three main breeding sites Peninsular Malaysia.
June 2019 AIP Conference Proceedings 2111(1): 060005. DOI:10.1063/1.5111267. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Science and Technology 2018.
The Painted Stork is an introduced species. The population started with 4 individuals being brought from Sri Lanka and handed over to Zoo Negara in 1965. It was allowed to fly freely within the Zoo Negara. However, in the last 10 years, this species has been actively spreading and can easily be seen in lakes and ponds around Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. Due to its high adaptation, survival and breeding capability, the presence of this species may threat the survival of local bird species such as Milky Stork. Thus, this study was conducted to i) determine the population growth pattern of this species in Peninsular Malaysia, and ii) to understand how population at Zoo Negara forming other colonies such as at Putrajaya Wetland and Shah Alam main lake. Secondary data were gathered from published and unpublished reports, and primary data were collected from interviews with local authorities and personal observation at the sites between 2015 and 2017. Historical data suggested that the Painted Stork at Zoo Negara begun to explore outside Zoo’s compound in 2004, and successfully created breeding colonies at Putrajaya Wetland and Shah Alam main lake in 2008. Between 2004 and 2008 Painted Storks may have travelled from Zoo Negara to Putrajaya Wetland and Shah Alam main lake for feeding before permanently residing at these two sites. Data also suggested that populations at the three study sites grew exponentially until 2017; y=7E-108e0.126 for Zoo Negara, y=2E-250e0.2887 for Putrajaya Wetland, and y=7E-204e0.2353 for Shah Alam. Average population increased was estimated at 10 to 13% per year at all sites. Assessing the breeding success of this species, it is predicted that this species may have impact on the survival of other local water bird species such as Herons and Storks. Thus, proper management of this introduced stork species is urgently needed.
ISMAIL, A., RAHMAN, F. (2016)
Current Status of the Milky Stork Re-introduction Programme in Malaysia and Its Challenges.
Trop Life Sci Res. 27(2): 13–24. doi: 10.21315/tlsr2016.27.2.2
This review discussed the current status of the Milky Stork Re-introduction Programme in Malaysia and the challenges it faced. Although it has continued for almost seven years, more challenges appeared as time elapsed mainly due to the arising conflicts between the implementation of conservation policy versus the development projects in Kuala Gula. Hence, the released population is struggling to adapt mainly due to the reduction of suitable habitat for nesting and disturbed foraging areas by the continuous anthropogenic activities. Furthermore, the lack of appropriate training among captive storks prior to being released also slows the adaptation of the birds in their new habitat. The increasing pattern of pollution in the area is also highlighted. Several suggestions were given to help improve the current re-introduction programme. These include improvements to the captive training method, improvement of the existing enclosure’s condition and environment, protection of remaining mangrove forest, creation of a buffer zone to mitigate the increasing pollution level in the area, close monitoring of the released population, and maintaining continuous support and awareness among the public. Considering the ongoing anthropogenic activities that may impair the status of Kuala Gula as an important bird sanctuary, emphasis should be given to achieve sustainable development throughout the area.
ISMAIL, A., RAHMAN, F., KIN, D. K. S., RAMLI, M. N. H. & NGAH, M. (2011)
Current Status of the Milky Stork Captive Breeding Program in Zoo Negara and its Importance to the Stork Population in Malaysia.
Tropical Natural History 11(1): 75-80.
The Malaysian government has the intention to increase the Milky Stork numbers and to this end several actions have been taken, such as a Milky Stork captive breeding and reintroduction program. With the support from both government and non-government agencies the first actual captive breeding and reintroduction program was done between 1998 and 2004 in Kuala Selangor Nature Park. The effort however had failed due to several problems and constraints. The program continues today in Kuala Gula, Perak. Before such initiative was taken, the captive breeding program in Zoo Negara was given less priority in solving the Milky Stork issue. After the first reintroduction in Kuala Selangor Zoo Negara focusses on the captive breeding for conservation purposes. This paper aims to analyse and report the Milky Stork breeding program in Zoo Negara and its success.
PAYNE, J., FRANCIS, C. M. & PHILLIPS, K. (1985)
A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo.
Illustriert von Karen Phillipps.
332 Seiten, 60 Farbtafeln, 46 Strichzeichnungen, 5 Landkarten.
The Sabah Society. ISBN 967-99947-1-6.
This guide book is aimed at naturalists, zoologists, specialists, scholars and public at large with a keen interest in identifying the mammals of Borneo. It describes every species of wild mammal presently known in Borneo and its offshore islands: 221 species of wild land mammals have been recorded, of which 92 species are bats. Also included in the book are descriptions of the more commonly encountered domestic animals which might be confused with wild ones, as well as a few species which have not definitely been recorded in Borneo but which are likely to be found in the area. Each mammal is beautifully illustrated in colour with brief notes on the species on the facing page. Concise and easy to use, A Field Guide to Mammals of Borneo is an indispensable aid to greater awareness of this important segment of the fauna in Borneo.
GARDNER; P. C., AMBU, K., BERNARD, H. & GOOSSENS, B. (2014)
The rare flat-headed cat and other felids in Tabin Wildlife Reserve, Sabah, Malaysia.
Cat News No. 61: 37-41. IUCN Cat Specialist Group. ISSN 1027-2992.
We present new observations of all five species of wild felid captured using large high-density camera trapping grids installed in Tabin Wildlife Reserve between the months March 2011-October 2012. This includes areas in the eastern part of the reserve that have never been surveyed before using the camera-trapping techniques. Camera trapping surveys within each grid were conducted for at least 12 weeks andran continuously over 24 hrs ensuring all individuals were captured. Our captures indicate secondary lowland dipterocarp forest is inhabited by all species of felid andevent data augment the little information available on the bay cat, marbled cat andflat-headed cat, the latter which was only previously recorded in Tabin on one occasion. Our capture of the flat-headed cat extends the known eastern range of this species.