Survival on the ark: life‐history trends in captive parrots.
Animal Conservation 15(1): 28-43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2011.00477.x
Members of the order Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are among the most long‐lived and endangered avian species. Comprehensive data on lifespan and breeding are critical to setting conservation priorities, parameterizing population viability models, and managing captive and wild populations. To meet these needs, we analyzed 83 212 life‐history records of captive birds from the International Species Information System (ISIS) and calculated lifespan and breeding parameters for 260 species of parrots (71% of extant species). Species varied widely in lifespan, with larger species generally living longer than smaller ones. The highest maximum lifespan recorded was 92 years in Cacatua moluccensis, but only 11 other species had a maximum lifespan over 50 years. Our data indicate that while some captive individuals are capable of reaching extraordinary ages, median lifespans are generally shorter than widely assumed, albeit with some increase seen in birds presently held in zoos. Species that lived longer and bred later in life tended to be more threatened according to IUCN classifications. We documented several individuals of multiple species that were able to breed for more than two decades, but the majority of clades examined had much shorter active reproduction periods. Post‐breeding periods were surprisingly long and in many cases surpassed the duration of active breeding. Our results demonstrate the value of the ISIS database to estimate life‐history data for an at‐risk taxon that is difficult to study in the wild, and provide life‐history data that is crucial for predictive modeling of future species endangerment and proactively management of captive populations of parrots.
Hohes Alter bei einem Mittelamerikanischen Tapir, Tapirus bairdii (Gill, 1865).
Der Zoologische Garten 80 (6): 370.
Zur Lebensdauer einiger Sperlingsvögel (Passeriformes) im Tierpark Berlin.
MILU Berlin 13 (3): 402-412.
Es werden die Lebensdaten für 34 Sperlingsvogel-Arten mitgeteilt.
Age-estimation of the Christmas Tree Worm Spirobranchus giganteus (Polychaeta, Serpulidae) Living Buried in the Coral Skeleton from the Coral-growth Band of the Host Coral.
Fisheries Science 62(3), 400-403.
The tubicolous polychaete, Spirobranchus giganteus lives buried in coral skeletons. Its age and longevity were estimated indirectly from the annual coral-growth rings of the host coral counted on soft X-rays radiographs. Since the polychaete tube grows 0.2 to 1 mm per year in orifice diameter, some had lived more than 10 years, and a few had lived more than 40 years. The application of soft X-rays for age determination of coral associated polychaete is useful for determining the correct age.
Longevity records for Psittaciformes in captivity.
Int. Zoo Yb. 37:299-316.
ISSN 0074-9664. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1090.2000.tb00735.x
Psittaciformes are generally believed to be long-lived birds and are frequently said to reach ages of 100 years old or more. In reality, however, life spans rarely exceed 50 years of age, although a few reliable records exist of parrots aged up to 65–70 years. Cockatoos appear to have the highest longevities and the longest reproductive life spans. Larger psittacines are generally longer-lived than smaller ones, although there seem to be some exceptions to this trend and quite remarkable differences in longevity between some similar-sized parrot genera. Some particularly interesting longevity histories, information on maximum breeding ages and trends in longevity are discussed.
Bemerkenswert hohe Lebensalter einiger Säugetiere und Vögel im Zoologischen Gartens Wuppertal.
Der Zoologische Garten (N.F.) 63 (4): 264-267. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena. ISSN: 0044-5169
Neuer Altersrekord beim Rotbauchtamarin (Saguinus labiatus).
Zool. Garten N.F. 78 (5-6): 320.
Estimating bottlenose dolphin population parameters from individual identification and capture-release techniques.
In P. S. Hammond, S. A. Mizroch and G. P. Donovan, eds.: Individual recognition of cetaceans: use of photo-identification and other techniques to estimate population parameters, pp. 407-415.
International Whaling Commission, Cambridge.
A survival guide to survival rates.
The survival of marine mammals in captivity is often the subject of heated discussions. Interestingly, these discussions usually focus on cetaceans. The discussions are often complicated by a general lack of understanding of the subject matter. This can result in incorrect representation of the available data and comparisons of unrelated parameters. The terminology involved is not straightforward and can be confusing (Fad, 1996). In this paper, I will discuss the terminology involved, the calculations that must be do ne to derive survival rates and life expectancies and I will look at the presentation of the data and how that can influence the message. A few examples will be given.