Ethnic and Cultural Diversity amongst Yak Herding Communities in the Asian Highlands.
Sustainability 2020,12: 956-981.; doi:10.3390/su12030957
Yak (Bos grunniens L.) herding plays an important role in the domestic economy throughout much of the Asian highlands. Yak represents a major mammal species of the rangelands found across the Asian highlands from Russia and Kyrgyzstan in the west to the Hengduan Mountains of China in the east. Yak also has great cultural significance to the people of the Asian highlands and is closely interlinked to the traditions, cultures, and rituals of the herding communities. However, increasing issues like poverty, environmental degradation, and climate change have changed the traditional practices of pastoralism, isolating and fragmenting herders and the pastures they have been using for many years. Local cultures of people rooted in the practice of yak herding are disappearing.Therefore, it is very important to document the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of yak herding.The broad aim of this paper was to provide a brief overview on the geographical distribution of yakin the Asian highlands and to provide in-depth information on yak-herding ethnic communities, the sociocultural aspect associated with yak herding, and challenges and emerging opportunities for yakherding in the Asian highlands. Altogether, 31 ethnic groups in 10 different countries of Asia andtheir cultures are documented herein. Yak was found to be utilized for many different household purposes, and to have cultural and religious aspects. Unfortunately, yak rearing and related traditionshave been losing their charm in recent years due to modernization and several other environmental issues. Lastly, we suggest that there is an urgent need to take action to minimize the challenges faced by yak-herding mountain communities to conserve the traditional pastoral system and associatedcultures of these ethnic communities.
RAMSTAD, K.M., NELSON, N.J., PAINE, G., BEECH, D., PAUL, A., PAUL, P., ALLENDORF, F.W. & DAUGHERTY, C. H. (2007)
Species and Cultural Conservation in New Zealand: Maori Traditional Ecological Knowledge of Tuatara.
Conservation Biology 21 (2): 455-464. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00620.x
Traditional ecological knowledge can be highly informative and integrated with complementary scientific knowledge to improve species management. This is especially true for abundant species with which indigenous peoples have frequent interactions (e.g., through harvest), but has been studied less frequently in isolated or declining species. We examined Maori traditional ecological knowledge of tuatara (Sphenodon spp., reptiles that resemble lizards but are the last living representatives of the order Sphenodontia) through semidirected interviews of elders of Te Atiawa, Ngati Koata, and Ngati Wai Iwi (similar to tribes), the guardians of several islands currently inhabited by tuatara. Maori are indigenous to New Zealand, having settled 800 to 1000 years ago. Tuatara are endemic to New Zealand, have declined in numbers since human settlement, and are now restricted to 37 offshore islands. The detail and volume of tuatara traditional ecological knowledge were less than that recorded in studies of more abundant or accessible species. In addition, traditional knowledge of the cultural significance of tuatara was more common and detailed among the elders than traditional knowledge of tuatara biology or ecology. The traditional knowledge collected, however, provided the first evidence of seven former sites of tuatara occupation, suggested five additional sites tuatara may currently occupy, contained novel hypotheses for scientific testing, and described tuatara cultural roles that have not been reported previously. We conclude that, in at least some cases, traditional ecological knowledge may persist as species decline and may serve as a valuable source of ecological information for conservation.
Papageien einst und jetzt - geschichtliche und kulturgeschichtliche Hintergründe der Papageienkunde.
Sonderband der Reihe: Enzyklopädie der Papageien und Sittiche
160 Seiten, 109 Farbfotos und andere Abbildungen.
Horst Müller Verlag, Walsrode. ISBN 3-923269-22.6.
404 Seiten mit s/w-Fotos
Verlag Paul Haupt, Bern
Versuch einer Naturgeschichte des Hamsters.
Verlag Johann Christian Dieterich, Göttingen und Gotha.
Digitalisierte Ausgabe: http://reader.digitale-sammlungen.de/de/fs1/object/display/bsb10309025_00019.html
Bambi. Eine Lebensgeschichte aus dem Walde.
Verlag Ullstein, Berlin.
Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung.
Achte, vollständig durchgearbeitete und vermehrte Auflage.
B. G. Teubner Druck und Verlag. Leipzig und Berlin.
Elephantographia curiosa sive elephantis descriptio multis selectis observationis physicis, medicis et incundis historiis referta.
284 Seiten Johann Heinrich Grosch,. Erfurt.
The first part of the work is devoted to fossil remains of elephants, the anatomy of elephants, their lives and habits, and the differences between Indian and African elephants. Much of this section concerns elephant teeth and tusks, their properties, use in art, etc. The second part deals with elephants' moral virtues and attributes, such as sympathy, gratitude, intelligence, courage, etc. The third part is devoted to the use of elephants in war, hunting, construction, etc.The frontispiece was designed by T.J. Hildebrandt and engraved by Jakob Petri, an Erfurt engraver; the plates are signed by the latter only. They depict a variety of scenes involving elephants, some being depictions of historical events, others showing elephants in their natural habitats engaged in various activities, such as feeding, washing, etc. The folding plate depicts elephant anatomy, with skeleton, skull, internal organs, dissected trunk, etc.
Die ersten Schweizer - Urzeit und Frühgeschichte Helvetiens von den Eiszeitjägern bis zum Ende der Römerherrschaft.
339 Seiten, zahlreiche Abbildungen, graphische Darstellungen, Karten
Scherz Velag, Bern und München. ISBN: 3502165386.