Japanese Ornamental Koi Carp: Origin, Variation and Genetics.
In: PIETSCH, C. & HIRSCH, P. (eds., 2015) Biology and Ecology of Carp. Kapitel 2: 27-53. DOI:10.1201/b18547-4.
The ornamental form of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., provides a rich source of investigation for science and commercial possibilities alike. For researchers, however, there is also the challenge of cultural and language barriers that add a dimension of the mystic. On the other hand, many koi hobbyists and professionals are not familiar with published scientific information on koi genetics. This chapter intends to better equip all kinds of readers with an understanding of the origin, variationand genetics of koi.This chapter was written collectively by a koi professional and writer, who has run a large koi farm and authored several books on koi keeping (De Kock and Watt 2006), and a fish geneticist, who has studied inheritance of different traits in koi for 20 years.
Phylogeny and polyploidy: Resolving the classification of cyprinine fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 85 (April 2015): 97-116.
Cyprininae is the largest subfamily (>1300 species) of the family Cyprinidae and contains more polyploid species (∼400) than any other group of fishes. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the Cyprininae based on extensive taxon, geographical, and genomic sampling of the taxa, using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes to address the phylogenetic challenges posed by polyploidy. Four datasets were analyzed in this study: two mitochondrial gene datasets (465 and 791 taxa, 5604 bp), a mitogenome dataset (85 taxa, 14,771 bp), and a cloned nuclear RAG1 dataset (97 taxa, 1497 bp). Based on resulting trees, the subfamily Cyprininae was subdivided into 11 tribes: Probarbini (new; Probarbus + Catlocarpio), Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 (Labeo & allies), Torini Karaman, 1971 (Tor, Labeobarbus & allies), Smiliogastrini Bleeker, 1863 (Puntius, Enteromius & allies), Poropuntiini (Poropuntius & allies), Cyprinini Rafinesque, 1815 (Cyprinus & allies), Acrossocheilini (new; Acrossocheilus & allies), Spinibarbini (new; Spinibarbus), Schizothoracini McClelland, 1842 (Schizothorax & allies), Schizopygopsini Mirza, 1991 (Schizopygopsis & allies), and Barbini Bleeker, 1859 (Barbus & allies). Phylogenetic relationships within each tribe were discussed. Two or three distinct RAG1 lineages were identified for each of the following tribes Torini, Cyprinini, Spinibarbini, and Barbini, indicating their hybrid origin. The hexaploid African Labeobarbus & allies and Western Asian Capoeta are likely derived from two independent hybridization events between their respective maternal tetraploid ancestors and Cyprinion.