Genetics and taxonomy of Chilean smooth-shelled mussels, Mytilus spp. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae).

Comptes Rendus Biologies 335 (1): 51-61.



It has been previously established that native smooth-shelled mussels in southern South America possess close evolutionary affinities with Northern-Hemisphere Mytilus edulis L. 1758 (McDonald et al. (1991) [5]). This result has since been challenged by authors claiming that Chilean mussels should be considered a local subspecies of M. galloprovincialis Lmk. 1819. Moreover, morphological, physiological, ecotoxicological and molecular genetic studies on Chilean smooth-shelled mussels still frequently refer to ‘M. chilensis’ Hupé 1854, even though the previous discovery of alien M. galloprovincialis and considerable heterogeneity in shell morphology among samples collected along the Chilean shores raise concerns that different Mytilus spp. species might have been included under ‘M. chilensis’. Here we reviewed the molecular and morphological data available on smooth-shelled mussels from Chile in an attempt to clarify both their genetic composition and their taxonomic status. Using multivariate analysis on sample × allozyme-frequency matrices, we confirmed the widespread occurrence of the Southern-Hemisphere form of M. edulis along the shores from the North Patagonia region of Chile to the southern tip of the South American continent. The populations sampled in southern central Chile showed some evidence of slight introgression from Southern-Hemisphere M. galloprovincialis. Morphological characterization of a sample from Dichato in southern central Chile was consistent with its previous genetic identification as Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. The occurrence of Southern-Hemisphere M. galloprovincialis in Punta Arenas at the southern tip of the South American continent was also reported. Southern-Hemisphere M. edulis, including native Chilean smooth-shelled Mytilus, should be assigned subspecific rank and named M. edulis platensis d’Orbigny 1846.


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Dienstag, 16 Mai 2023 09:41


Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae), die Muschelblume, im Gebiet der unteren Erft (Nordrhein-Westfalen): Ausbreitungstendenz und Problempotenzial.

Veröff. Bochumer Bot. Ver. 5(1): 1-6.


2008 konnte erstmals in der Erft ein überwinterndes Vorkommen von Pistia stratiotes beobachtet werden, dass sich seitdem immer weiter ausbreitet, in der Erft und in angrenzenden Gewässern dichte Massenbestände ausbildet und die Gewässeroberfläche teilweise vollständig bedeckt. Die Bestände blühen reichlich von Juni bis in den November hinein und bilden viele Samen aus, die eine hohe Keimungsrate aufweisen. Aufgrund der bereits bestehenden Problematik der Beschattung ganzer Nebengewässer und Seitenarme und des durch die Verdriftung von Pflanzen und Samen in den Rhein bestehenden hohen Ausbreitungspotenzials der Art für den Rhein und angrenzende Gewässer erscheint ein Management der Art notwendig.


The Water Lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae) in the lower Erft region in North-Rhine Westphalia: Dispersal ability and ecosystem impact.

In 2008, an overwintering population of Pistia stratiotes has been observed for the first time in the river Erft in North-Rhine Westphalia. The species spreads quickly and forms dense monospecific populations within the stream network. The flowering period starts in June and ends in November, producing numerous and highly viable seeds. Due to the already existing problems caused by shade effects of dense Pistia populations as well as the high number of downstream drifting plants and seeds, particularly into the river Rhine, management strategies are needed in order to minimize the negative impact of this species on these river ecosystems.


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Rapid assessment for a new invasive species threat: the case of the Gambian giant pouched rat in Florida.

Wildlife Research 33: 439–448.



The Gambian giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) is a large rodent that has established a breeding population in the Florida Keys. Should it successfully disperse to mainland Florida, it could continue spreading through much of North America where significant negative ecological and agricultural consequences could result. We rapidly developed the information for implementing an efficient and successful eradication program before dispersal to the mainland occurs. This included development of monitoring and indexing methods and their application to define the animal’s range, the development of baits attractive to Gambian giant pouched rats, efficacy testing of toxicants, and development of bait-delivery devices that exclude native animals. Gambian giant pouched rats appeared confined to the western two-thirds of Grassy Key, but have dispersed across a soil-filled causeway west to Crawl Key. We identified preferred habitat characteristics and potential dispersal pathways. We developed photographic and tracking tile methods for detecting and indexing Gambian giant pouched rats, both of which work well in the face of high densities of non-target species. We identified a commercial anticoagulant bait and we developed a zinc phosphide (an acute toxicant) bait matrix that were well accepted and effective for controlling Gambian giant pouched rats. We also developed a bait station for delivering toxic bait to Gambian giant pouched rats without risk to native species. We consider that the criteria are met for a successful eradication to commence.


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Donnerstag, 12 Januar 2023 14:32

WITMER, G. W. & HALL, P. (2011)

Attempting to eradicate invasive Gambian giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) in the United States: lessons learned.

In: VEITCH, C. R., CLOUT, M. N. & Towns, D. R. (eds.). Island invasives: eradication and management: 131-134. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Volltext (PDF)


Gambian giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) are native to Africa, but they are popular pets in the United States. They caused a monkeypox outbreak in the Midwestern United States in 2003 in which 72 people were infected. A free-ranging population became established on the 400 ha Grassy Key in the Florida Keys, apparently after a release by a pet breeder. This rodent species is known to cause extensive crop damage in Africa and if it reaches the mainland US, many impacts, especially to the agriculture industry of Florida, can be expected. An apparently successful inter-agency eradication effort has run for just over three years. We discuss the strategy that has been employed and some of the difficulties encountered, especially our inability to ensure that every animal could be put at risk, which is one of the prime pre-requisites for successful eradication. We also discuss some of the recent research with rodenticides and attractants, using captive Gambian rats, that may help with future control and eradication efforts.


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Buffalo in the Northern Territory.

21 Seiten. Technical Bulletin of the  Conservation Commission of the Niorthern Territory.


An aerial survey was conducted to obtain an estimate of the numbers of buffalo throughout their range in the Northern Territory and to determine their distributional pattern at the time of the survey. These data were required to form the basis for future management decisions.

The total of 282,870 head was higher than previous estimates. Higher densities were all associated with the coastal floodplain systems. Major concentrations were found in the Wagait, Marrakai and Kapaiga strata. No lage concentrations occurred more than about 100 km inland from the coast.


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Sonntag, 08 Januar 2023 10:45

SAALFELD, K. (2014)

Feral buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): distribution and abundance in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory.

21 Seiten, NT Govt.

Volltext (PDF)


Populations of feral buffalo Bubulas bubalis in Arnhem Land provide both an economic opportunity and a source of significant environmental damage. There has been no consistent management of feral buffalo in the Northern Territory since the Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign (BTEC) of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Local control programs have been undertaken in response to concern about buffalo impacts, but these programs have not been coordinated or integrated at the regional level. The development of a strategic management program for feral buffalo in Arnhem Land requires adequate baseline data on the distribution and abundance of buffalo across the region.

From 9 June to 23 June 2014, an aerial survey was conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of feral buffalo (and other large feral vertebrates) in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. The total survey area of 91,658 km2 was surveyed at a sampling intensity of 3.6%. Species counted were buffalo, cattle, donkey, horse and pig. Buffalo counts were corrected for perception (observer) bias, but uncorrected for availability (habitat) bias.

The corrected population estimate for feral buffalo in Arnhem Land was 97,923 ± 9,327, a density of 1.07 ± 0.10 buffalo per km2. This estimate has a precision of 9%, which is considered good for such broad-scale aerial survey. Population estimates for other feral species were not calculated as sightings were too few for estimation with an acceptable level of precision.

The 2014 survey recorded relatively high buffalo densities in a number of areas:

  • a large area to the north-west of Bulman and south-east of the Arnhem Land Plateau;
  • the floodplains of the Blyth and Cadell Rivers;
  • the coastal floodplains between the Blyth and Glyde River mouths;
  • the floodplains and wetlands to the south-west of Buckingham Bay;
  • the floodplains and wetlands north of the Roper River, downstream from Ngukurr;
  • the south-west corner of the survey area.

Previous (1985 and 1998) surveys also recorded high buffalo densities in the Bulman area, but these surveys showed moderate to low buffalo density throughout the rest of Arnhem


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Sonntag, 18 Dezember 2022 11:19

LÉGER, F. & RUETTE, S. (2005)

Le Chien viverrin en France.

faune sauvage n° 269/novembre 2005: 5-13.


Le Chien viverrin, petit carnivore de la famille des canidés, est présent en France mais ne nous est pas familier pour autant (lire l’encadré 1).Il est vrai qu’il s’agit d’une nouvelle acquisition pour la faune européenne et que son aire de répartition originelle se limitait à l’Asie orientale.Comme pour d’autres espèces exogènes, son histoire récente a été celle d’une introduction suivie d’une rapide extension sur notre continent. Le présent article fait le point des quelque 70 mentions du Chien viverrin enregistrées depuis une trentaine d’années sur notre territoire...

Volltext (PDF)


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Sonntag, 18 Dezember 2022 10:48

BAUER, K. (1983)

Der Marderhund Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray, 1834) in Österreich - erste gesicherte Nachweise (Mammalia austriaca 9).

Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. Serie B für Botanik und Zoologie 87:131-136.


Die Meldungen über Marderhund-Beobachtungen in Österreich werden listen-und kartenmäßig zusammengefaßt und das erste zur Untersuchung gelangende Belegstück dokumentiert.


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Sonntag, 18 Dezember 2022 10:44

AUBRECHT, G. (1995)

Waschbär (Procyon lotor) und Marderhund (Nyctereutes procyonoides) - zwei faunenfremde Tierarten erobern Österreich.

Stapfia 37, zugleich Kataloge des OÖ. Landesmuseums N.F. 84 (1995), 225-236.


Der ursprünglich nordamerikanische Waschbär ist seit 1974 von Westen her nach Österreich vorgedrungen und der ostasiatische Marderhund, der von Osten her einwandert, lässt sich in Österreich schon seit den 1950er Jahren nachweisen. Unterscheidungsmerkmale und die Ausbreitungsgeschichte dieser beiden Arten werden kurz beschrieben. Mit den Ergebnissen einer Umfrage bei den österreichischen
Landesjagdverbänden, Literaturhinweisen und Auskünften von Fachkollegen wird die aktuelle Situation seit 1984 diskutiert. Waschbären sind in Vorarlberg, Salzburg, Oberösterreich, Niederösterreich und neuerdings auch in der Steiermark nachgewiesen. Hinweise in Tirol dürften auf lokal entkommene Tiere zurückzuführen sein. Der sehr vereinzelt schon seit den 1950er Jahren in Österreich nachgewiesene Marderhund, wird in den 1970er Jahren und seit Ende der 1980er Jahre häufiger festgestellt. Er kommt im Burgenland, in Niederösterreich, Oberösterreich und Salzburg vor. Eine Dynamik der Ausbreitung und des Populationswachstums ist bei beiden Arten zu beobachten, die Bestände haben sich bisher nicht stabilisiert.


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European Code of Conduct om Zoological Gardens and Aquaria and Invasive Alien Species.

$40 Seiten, illustriert. Europarat, Straßburg.


3.1. The history of zoological gardens and aquaria
3.2. Zoological gardens and aquaria as pathways for IAS
3.2.1. IAS originating from zoological gardens and aquaria
3.3. The multifaceted role of zoological gardens and aquaria in conservation
1. Adopt effective preventative measures to avoid unintentional introduction and spread of IAS
2. Take into account the risks of IAS introductions in all wildlife and habitat management projects
3. Proactively engage in awareness raising and outreach activities focusing on IAS and their impacts
4. Adopt best practice for supporting early warning and rapid response system for IAS
5. Be aware of all relevant regulations concerning zoological gardens



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