Montag, 22 Februar 2021 14:43

KRAAIJ, E. & TER MAAT, P. (2011)

Old World Monkeys in Mixed Species Exhibits - Factors influencing the success of old world monkeys in mixed species exhibits.

Thesis number: 594000, Van Hall Larenstein University for Applied Sciences. 38 Seiten.


In zoos there is a lack of space for old world monkeys as enclosures become bigger and more naturalistic, because of the advances in enclosure design. A potential solution is housing old world monkey species in mixed species exhibits. The main question to research this potential is: Which of the TAG recommended captive old world monkey species are successfully kept in mixed species exhibits and which factors influence this success? Information to answer this question was gathered by means of a literature research and a questionnaire sent to European zoos keeping old world monkeys in mixed species exhibits. Every situation was reported as successful or not and then factor spossibly influencing this success were determined. These were determined by looking at how often they were applied and then at the success and failure percentage with application and non‐application. Possible factors were niche occupation, habitat, social structure, species ratio, age class, breeding, size of the enclosure, escape routes, visual barriers, separation period and method of introduction. Finally intervention was researched on how and when it should be applied. In total 71 mixed situations were gathered. These consist of 131 combinations (every animal mixed with a TROWM counted separately, even though in the same exhibit). There are 17 combinations of TROWMs with TROWMs, 51 combinations of TROWMs with non‐recommended (OW) Ms and 63 combinations of TROWMs with other animal species. Of the 71 mixed situations found, 60 are successful. The factorssize of the enclosure, escape routes, spe cies temperament and individual personality show to have an effect on the success of the mixed situation. Of these escape routes was determined by its high percentage of success when applied and a high failure percentage when not applied. The factors sufficient space, individual personality and species temperament are most often mentioned by the zoos as being important to the outcome of a mixed situation. Niche occupation, habitat, age class and breeding have no effect on the success of a mixed exhibit and social structure, visual barriers and species ratio could not be determined to have an effect on the outcome of a mixed situation.Separation periods and introduction methods are applied in nearly all cases but both in successful and unsuccessful ones. These factors are probably used as a way of preventing conflicts, but could not be proven to actually do this. Application of intervention was only reported by two institutions. Intervention was applied when aggression or stress occurred. For resolving aggression a firehose was used and for resolving stress the species were temporarily separated. 19 of the 24 TAG recommended old world monkey species have a higher success than failure percentage in mixed species exhibits.4 others were not mixed at all and of only one the failure percentage was higher than its success percentage. Together with the overall high success percentage of the mixed situations, mixed species xhibits seem a valuable solution to the space issues of this taxon.


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Mittwoch, 10 Februar 2021 09:30

VASEY, N. (2000)

Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: I. Interspecific patterns.

American Journal of Physical Anthropology 112 (3): 411-431<411::AID-AJPA10>3.0.CO;2-R


Niche separation was documented in a year‐long study of Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Feeding trees were measured, and diet, forest height, and forest site were recorded at 5‐min time points on focal animals. For time point data, multivariate and bivariate analysis of frequencies was employed to examine how niche dimensions vary between species according to sex, season, and reproductive stage. V. v. rubra feeds in larger trees than E. f. albifrons. V. v. rubra has a diet consisting mainly of fruit, whereas E. f. albifrons has a more varied diet. V. v. rubra ranges mainly above 15 m in tree crowns, whereas E. f. albifrons ranges mainly below 15 m in a wide array of forest sites. Both species are largely frugivorous, but they harvest fruit in different‐sized trees, in different quantities, and in different forest strata. Niche partitioning varies in tandem with seasonal shifts in climate and food availability and with reproductive stages. Seasonal shifts in forest site and forest height use are largely attributed to species‐specific tactics for behavioral thermoregulation and predator avoidance. The diet of E. f. albifrons is diverse whether examined by season or reproductive stage. However, females of both species diversify their diets with more low‐fiber protein than males during gestation, lactation, and the hot seasons. This pattern is most pronounced for V. v. rubra females and may be directly attributed to high energetic investment in reproduction. These results suggest that niche partitioning may be driven more by the energetic requirements of reproductive females than males.


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Sonntag, 08 April 2018 07:22


Grundriss der vergleichenden Verhaltensforschung.

2. überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. 563 Seiten. Mit zahlreiuchen Strichzeichnungen und s/w-Photos.
Piper Verlag Gmbh

Das Buch bildet den Abschluss der tierethologischen Forschungen von EIBL-EIBESFELDT, der sich später der Humanethologie zuwandte. Es befasst sich mit der Genetik, stammesgeschichtlichen Entwicklung und Ontogenese von Verhaltensweisen, den Mechanismen des Lernens, der Beziehung von Ökologie und Verhalten, Beziehung zu Artgenossen, Orientierung im Raum und der zeitlichen Ordnung im Verhalten.

EIBL-EIBESFELDT beschrieb als erster die Putzsymbiosen von Riffbarschen, das Turnierverhalten der Meerechsen und das Schwarmverhalten bei Fischen sowie das Verhalten einiger Arten, wie des Putzerlippfisches (Labroides dimidiatus), des Putzer-Nachahmers Aspidontus taeniatus. Ferner erforschte er u.a. Zeremonien der Balz und Brutablösung der Fregattvögel und flugunfähigen Kormorane.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 09:26

PERL, B. (2012)

Interspezifisches Verhalten zwischen Rotkappenfruchttauben (Ptilinopus pulchellus) und anderen tropischen Kleinvögeln in Gemeinschaftshaltung: Wie stark sind die Einflüsse auf trophischer, räumlicher und reproduktiver Ebene?

Interspecific behaviour between Beautiful Fruit-doves (Ptilinopus pulchellus) and other softbills in mixed aviaries: How severe are the impacts on the trophic, spatial and reproductive level? 


94 Seiten.

Zoologisches Institut Universität zu Köln.
Betreuung: T. Ziegler, B. Marcordes
Kölner Zoo


Ex-situ breeding programmes that are aimed at augmenting natural populations are important means to conserve species. Therefore, studies that give some indication of the animals’ behaviour may lay the foundation for possible future breed-and-release programmes that can only be properly applied to species whose ecological and behavioural requirements are sufficiently known, i.e. for which husbandry practices are well established.
This study focuses on the impact of other softbills on the trophic, spatial and reproductive behaviour of Beautiful Fruit-doves (Ptilinopus pulchellus). Based on the relatively low ex-situ breeding success of this species it is assumed that there is a relation between the behavior of P. pulchellus and the presence of other birds – particularly other dove species – within the same aviary. For the purpose of this investigation data were collected on three adult couples and a single adult female of Beautiful Fruit-doves under four different husbandry conditions at Cologne Zoo.
The results of this study support the assumption of behavioural differences among differently housed individuals, although not all presuppositions could be accepted without reservation. Thus, the observed differences in behaviour patterns were not strictly due to the presence of other birds within the respective aviary. Regarding the trophic level, the assumption of a lower energetic requirement in separately kept P. pulchellus was validated, whereas the supposition of differences in frequencies and duration of ingestion periods among individuals was refuted. In addition, an analysis of the spatial level confirmed a rather distinct spatial distance between co-housed species. On the contrary, the investigation of general, sociopositive and attentive behaviour patterns only revealed significant differences regarding the birds’ locomotive behaviour. Against all expectations, the separately kept Beautiful Fruitdoves did not display the highest frequencies of locomotive behaviour, but merely the longest durations of movements. However, the respective manners of movement clearly indicated different behaviour patterns among focal animals. Whereas co-housed individuals were rather covering short distances, separately kept birds used the whole enclosure while moving, on average, for longer periods. Lastly, the investigation of the reproductive level revealed no clear proof of the impact of other species on the breeding success of P. pulchellus which might have been due to the short observation period.

In conclusion, the impacts of other softbills on the behaviour of Beautiful Fruit-doves might be less severe as previously assumed, although long-term studies are indispensable to verify these findings. However, information available for this species is still extremely sketchy. Thus, the here obtained results provide a good basis for the development of new strategies to improve the husbandry conditions of Ptilinopus pulchellus and possibly other related species for which conservation actions are needed.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 08:04

HENNIG, A. (2014)

Interaktionen in einer Gemeinschaftstierhaltung am Beispiel des Savannengeheges im Opel-Zoo Kronberg.

Interactions in a mixed species exhibit by example of the Savannah enclosure in the Opel-Zoo Kronberg.


72 Seiten

Didaktik der Biowissenschaften, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
Leitung: Prof. Dr. Paul Dierkes
Opel-Zoo Kronberg


Ziel der Studie ist es, das Verhalten der Tiere in der Gemeinschaftstierhaltung des Savannengeheges untereinander zu beschreiben und zu vergleichen. Es wurde jeweils ein weibliches und ein männliches Fokustier der drei Tierarten Giraffe, Gnu und Zebra gewählt. Die beobachteten Verhaltensweisen wurden in Kategorien eingeteilt, welchen Aktivitätsstufen von +1 für aktive  -1 für passive und 0 für neutrale Verhaltensweisen zugeordnet wurden. So konnten Interaktionsmatrizen und Soziogramme für die Tiere der Savannenanlage im Opel-Zoo erstellt werden. Die Arbeit konnte zeigen, dass Interaktionen zwischen Tieren aller Arten stattfinden. Die Individuen zeigen unterschiedliche Aktivitätsraten, diese lassen sich aber nicht zu Tierarten zuordnen. Im Weiteren wurden favorisierte Interaktionspartner der Fokustiere festgestellt, sowohl innerartlich als auch zwischenartlich.


The aim of the study is to describe the behaviour of animals in communal enclosures of the Savannah enclosure amongst themselves and to compare between species. Both a female and a male focus animal were chosen for three species of giraffe, wildebeest and zebra. The observed behaviours were divided into categories, which were assigned activity levels of + 1 for active, -1 for passive and 0 for neutral behaviour. Interaction matrices and sociograms were created for the animals in the savannah enclosure in the Opel-Zoo. This work showed, that interactions took place between animals of all species. Individuals showed different activity rates, but this could not be differentiated by species. It was determined that focus animals had preferred interaction partners, both within and outside their species group.


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