Sonntag, 09 April 2023 15:00

VAN BALEN, S. & COLLAR, N. (2021)

The Vanishing Act: A History and Natural History of the Javan Pied Starling Gracupica jalla.

Ardea, 109(1):41-54 (2021).


The Javan Pied Starling Gracupica jalla, a recent taxonomic split from Asian Pied Starling G. contra, has disappeared almost entirely unnoticed from its native range in Java and Bali, Indonesia; in a circumstance unique in bird conservation, the only known populations are held in bird shops. To provide an evidence base for any future endeavour to re-establish a population in the wild, we reviewed all published information on the species relevant to its conservation, supplemented by specimen label data, unpublished field notes, diaries and manuscripts. A population in eastern Sumatra (nine localities reported, including Bangka) had obscure origins. The species was widespread in Java (168 localities) and Bali (13 localities), and was described as one of the commonest birds in open, i.e. non-forest, lowland country (records up to 1600 m), having a high tolerance of disturbed habitats, especially agricultural areas, with often large roosts inside city limits. It fed mainly on terrestrial invertebrates and fruits, often consuming plant pests and frequently probing dung. It bred all year but chiefly in response to rains, with apparent peaks in January and May in West Java and April in East Java, building conspicuous untidy nests high in trees and laying mostly 3 (2–4) eggs. The cagebird trade is blamed for the massive decline that abruptly became apparent in the late 1990s and early 2000s, but the use of pesticides in Java and Bali's agricultural environment seems likely to have played an unseen role. Searches are needed to find any remnant populations, along with the creation of a programme of captive breeding and research to identify potential areas for reintroduction.

van balen-biblio

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Diet and Activity of the Bear Cuscus, Ailurops ursinus, in North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

J. Mammalogy 80 (3): 905-912.


We studied the daily time budget and feeding activity of the bear cuscus, Ailurops ursinus, in the Tangkoko-Duasudara Nature Reserve, North Sulawesei, Indonesia. Bear cuscuses spent 63.4% of their time resting, and feeding accounted for only 5.6% of their activities. Bear cuscuses fed on 31 species of plants, including 26 identified trees and lianas from 17 fasmilies and 5 unidentified mitletoes. Dietary preference was influenced by availability of young leaves, and bear cuscueses maximized the amount of young leaves in the diet.


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Montag, 27 Dezember 2021 11:00

BASTIAN, A. & BASTIAN, H.-V. (2020)

Vor 15 Jahren in der Natur ausgestorben: Ist der Balistar heute gerettet ?

Der Falke - Journal für Vogelbeobachter 67(3): 20-25.

Volltext: Herunterladen von


Für die meisten ist Bali der Inbegriff einer Touristeninsel und nur für wenige Vogelenthusiasten eine bevorzugte Destination in Indonesien. Zwar ist die Avifauna für Europäer auch hier bunt und spektakulär, aber – für indonesische Verhältnisse – finden sich auf Bali beispielsweise kaum Endemiten. Hier gibt es nur eine endemische Vogelart, ja sogar nur eine endemische Wirbeltierart – den Balistar. Diese charismatische Vogelart hat aber eine ganz besondere Geschichte. Vor 110 Jahren entdeckt, war die Art vor gar nicht so langer Zeit quasi ausgestorben. Man streitet sich und wird es nie abschließend beantworten können, ob noch ein paar wenige Exemplare in ihrem natürlichen Lebensraum im West Bali Nationalpark überlebten oder nicht.


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Donnerstag, 21 Februar 2019 13:56


Populationsgröße, Verhalten und Arterhaltung des Bawean-Hirsches - Eine Studie des Projekt BEKI (Bawean Endemics Conservation Initiative).

ZGAP-Mitteilungen 33(1): 28-30


Der Artikel informiert über den Bestand, das Verhalten der wilden Tiere, die Bedrohungsfaktoren sowie das Ex-situ-Management und gibt einen Ausblick auf zukünftige Artenschutzinitiatven.



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Montag, 12 Februar 2018 11:50

TAN Heok Hui & KOTTELAT, M. (2009)

The fishes of the Batang Hari drainage, Sumatra, with description of six new species.

Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 13-69, 44 figs., 6 tabs., March 2009
© 2009 by Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, Germany – ISSN 0936-9902


Fish surveys were conducted between 1994 and 2003 in the Batang Hari drainage, Sumatra. The fish fauna of the drainage now includes a total of 297 species of which 48 are new records (45 of them new records for Sumatra). Six new species are described in the families Cyprinidae (Crossocheilus obscurus, Osteochilus kerinciensis, Pectenocypris micromysticetus), Nemacheilidae  (Nemacheilus  papillos)  and  Cobitidae (Pangio atactos, P. bitaimac). Crossocheilus pseudobagroides, Diplocheilichthys, D. jentinkii, Osteochilus scapularis, O. vittatoides, Leptobarbus rubripinna and Rasbora hosii are revalidated. Lectotypes are designated for Labeo oblongus and Rasbora hosii. The identity of Osteochilus enneaporos, Nemacheilus longipinnis and Monotrete leiurus are  discussed. A  brief overview of M. leiurus suggests that M. bergii and M. ocellaris are valid species.

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Samstag, 08 Juli 2017 17:44

BENNETT, D. (2015)

International Trade in the Blue Tree Monitor Lizard Varanus macraei.

Biawak, 9(2), pp. 50-57
© 2015 by International Varanid Interest Group


Using Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) trade statistics derived from the CITES Trade Database (UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK), published literature and anecdotal information from the internet, the wildlife trade in Varanus macraei is described. The lizard is a high value pet commodity and although it is traded in relatively small numbers, virtually all trade appears to be of animals harvested directly from the wild population on Batanta Island, Indonesia. Export data suggests an extraction rate of over 6.6 individuals per km² over a decade, with a total value of between US $1-2 million. Trade to some countries including Russia, Taiwan and Ukraine is underestimated or omitted by import data. Overall trade in the species is increasing and prices have remained high despite captive breeding events in Europe and the United States, with captive bred animals representing less than 1% of worldwide trade. 

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Dienstag, 25 April 2017 14:01

HAGEN, C., PLATT, S.G. & INNIS, C.J. (2009)

Leucocephalon yuwonoi (McCord, Iverson, and Boeadi 1995) – Sulawesi forest turtle, kura-kura Sulawesi.

In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 039.1–039.7, doi:10.3854/crm.5.039.yuwonoi.v1.2009,


The Sulawesi forest turtle, Leucocephalon yuwonoi (Family Geoemydidae), is one of the world’s most enigmatic and poorly known turtles; there are few observations from the wild and its life history remains virtually unstudied. The species is a moderate-sized (carapace length to 278 mm), semi-aquatic omnivorous turtle, that lays one or occasionally two large eggs in each clutch. First purchased from local people in Gorontalo in northern Sulawesi during the late 1980s, large numbers appeared in the commercial turtle trade to China in the early 1990s, and the species was formally described in 1995. The species is endemic to the island of Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes), Indonesia, and believed restricted to the Central, Gorontalo, and North Sulawesi provinces. Owing to its limited geographic distribution and low fecundity, as well as extensive and unsustainable exploitation for the food and pet trade and substantial habitat loss, we regard L. yuwonoi as a species of grave international conservation concern. Unresolved husbandry problems make captive propagation problematic.

Distribution. – Indonesia. Endemic to Sulawesi, where it occurs in the northwestern portions of the island.

Synonymy. – Geoemyda yuwonoi McCord, Iverson, and Boeadi 1995, Heosemys yuwonoi, Leucocephalon yuwonoi.

Subspecies. – None recognized.

Status. – IUCN 2009 Red List: Critically Endangered (CR A1cd+2cd,C1) (assessed 2000); CITES: Appendix II.

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A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo.

Illustriert von Karen Phillipps.
332 Seiten, 60 Farbtafeln, 46 Strichzeichnungen, 5 Landkarten.
The Sabah Society. ISBN 967-99947-1-6.


This guide book is aimed at naturalists, zoologists, specialists, scholars and public at large with a keen interest in identifying the mammals of Borneo. It describes every species of wild mammal presently known in Borneo and its offshore islands: 221 species of wild land mammals have been recorded, of which 92 species are bats. Also included in the book are descriptions of the more commonly encountered domestic animals which might be confused with wild ones, as well as a few species which have not definitely been recorded in Borneo but which are likely to be found in the area. Each mammal is beautifully illustrated in colour with brief notes on the species on the facing page. Concise and easy to use, A Field Guide to Mammals of Borneo is an indispensable aid to greater awareness of this important segment of the fauna in Borneo.



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Conservation of the Sunda gharial Tomistoma schlegelii in Lake Mesangat, Indonesia.

International Zoo Yearbook 49: 137–149. ISSN 0074-9644.DOI: 10.1111/izy.12068.


Although featured in many international zoo collections for decades, little was known about the natural history of Sunda gharial Tomistoma schlegelii until recently. Zoos rarely keep large individuals and breeding success has been low. As late as 1998, even though most conservationists regarded the conservation status of the species as Endangered, the reality was that over most of the range the actual status of the Sunda gharial was Data Deficient. Beginning with surveys of the species by international and local scientists in Indonesian Sumatra and, later, in Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, supported by the International Union for Conservation of Nature/Species Survival Commission Crocodile Specialist Group, more details on the broad distribution of this crocodilian came to light. Ironically, rediscovery of a large and healthy population of T. schlegelii in East Kalimantan arose from an oil-palm company accessing the area to develop a site called Danau Mesangat. Subsequently through a cooperation agreement with the oil-palm company's conservation department and a local foundation, a group of dedicated zoos in Europe and America, and the Tomistoma Task Force set up by the Crocodile Specialist Group, provided funding for three consecutive years of field studies by a research group. These studies investigated the ecology of T. schlegelii and of a sympatric population of the Critically Endangered Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis. The role of the zoos, including their role in the development of the research programme, is described. Accounts are given of the characteristics of the Mesangat habitat, some new details about the distribution and abundance of Sunda gharial and Siamese crocodiles in the habitat, and information about reproduction in T. schlegelii. In summary, an overview of threats and suggestions for conservation actions needed at the Mesangat site are provided.

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Evolutionary history and conservation significance of the Javan leopard Panthera pardus melas.

Journal of Zoology. Version of Record online: 3 MAY 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12348 (zu diesem Zeitpunkt gedruckte Version noch nicht verfügbar)


The leopard Panthera pardus is widely distributed across Africa and Asia; however, there is a gap in its natural distribution in Southeast Asia, where it occurs on the mainland and on Java but not on the interjacent island of Sumatra. Several scenarios have been proposed to explain this distribution gap. Here, we complemented an existing dataset of 68 leopard mtDNA sequences from Africa and Asia with mtDNA sequences (NADH5 +  ctrl, 724 bp) from 19 Javan leopards, and hindcasted leopard distribution to the Pleistocene to gain further insights into the evolutionary history of the Javan leopard. Our data confirmed that Javan leopards are evolutionarily distinct from other Asian leopards, and that they have been present on Java since the Middle Pleistocene. Species distribution projections suggest that Java was likely colonized via a Malaya-Java land bridge that by-passed Sumatra, as suitable conditions for leopards during Pleistocene glacial periods were restricted to northern and western Sumatra. As fossil evidence supports the presence of leopards on Sumatra at the beginning of the Late Pleistocene, our projections are consistent with a scenario involving the extinction of leopards on Sumatra as a consequence of the Toba super volcanic eruption (~74 kya). The impact of this eruption was minor on Java, suggesting that leopards managed to survive here. Currently, only a few hundred leopards still live in the wild and only about 50 are managed in captivity. Therefore, this unique and distinctive subspecies requires urgent, concerted conservation efforts, integrating in situ and ex situ conservation management activities in a One Plan Approach to species conservation management.



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