Montag, 18 September 2023 07:37


Feeding habits of Scorpaena notata (Scorpaenidae) from eastern Adriatic Sea.

Cybium 2021, 45(3): 217-224 .



The feeding habits of the small red scorpionfish, Scorpaena notata Rafinesque, 1810 from the eastern Adriatic Sea, were investigated with respect to fish size, season, and sampling location. Stomach contents of 798 specimens, of 6.0-20.5 cm total length (TL), collected by commercial bottom trawls from January to December 2013, were analysed. The percentage of empty stomachs varied significantly with season (from 36.6% maximum in winter to 14.5% in spring). Prey items belonged to four major taxonomic groups: Molluscs (Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Cephalopoda), Polychaetes, Crustaceans (Stomatopoda, Decapoda Natantia, Decapoda Reptantia, Mysidacea, Isopoda and Amphipoda), Teleosteans and Algae remains. Reptantia decapods were the most important prey (%IRI = 72) followed by Natantia decapods (%IRI = 18) while the other prey groups were only occasionally ingested. The small red scorpionfish is thus a crustacean feeder, preying mainly on decapods. Fish size was the most important factor influencing diet composition. Small individuals (< 11 cm TL) fed primarily on small crustaceans (amphipods, mysids and isopods), whereas large-sized specimens consumed larger prey, such as decapods (reptant and natant) and teleosts. Diet composition showed little seasonal variation; reptant decapods were the most important prey in all seasons. There was high dietary similarity between sampling locations.


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Samstag, 16 September 2023 14:38

KINGSTON, D. I. (1978)

Skiffia francesae, a New Species of Goodeid Fish from Western Mexico.

Copeia 1978 (3): 503–508. doi:10.2307/1443618. JSTOR 1443618.


A new species of Skiffia from the Río Teuchitlán on the Pacific slope of western México is based on both preserved and live material. It is regarded as most closely related to Skiffia multipunctata, as determined by meristic and morphometric data. It differs in shape and form of head and lips, size of orbit and head, diploid number of chromosomes and male coloration.


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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References.
Electronic version accessed 14.09.2023.

Diese vom Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability der California Academy of Sciences unterhaltene Datenbank ist die taxonomische Standardreferenz für Fische und eine Grundlage für die breiter angelegte Datenbank FISH BASE.

fricke-biblio; eschmeyer-biblio

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Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes.

Evolutionary Biology 17: Article number: 162 (2017)




Fish classifications, as those of most other taxonomic groups, are being transformed drastically as new molecular phylogenies provide support for natural groups that were unanticipated by previous studies. A brief review of the main criteria used by ichthyologists to define their classifications during the last 50 years, however, reveals slow progress towards using an explicit phylogenetic framework. Instead, the trend has been to rely, in varying degrees, on deep-rooted anatomical concepts and authority, often mixing taxa with explicit phylogenetic support with arbitrary groupings. Two leading sources in ichthyology frequently used for fish classifications (JS Nelson’s volumes of Fishes of the World and W. Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes) fail to adopt a global phylogenetic framework despite much recent progress made towards the resolution of the fish Tree of Life. The first explicit phylogenetic classification of bony fishes was published in 2013, based on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny ( We here update the first version of that classification by incorporating the most recent phylogenetic results.


The updated classification presented here is based on phylogenies inferred using molecular and genomic data for nearly 2000 fishes. A total of 72 orders (and 79 suborders) are recognized in this version, compared with 66 orders in version 1. The phylogeny resolves placement of 410 families, or ~80% of the total of 514 families of bony fishes currently recognized. The ordinal status of 30 percomorph families included in this study, however, remains uncertain (incertae sedis in the series Carangaria, Ovalentaria, or Eupercaria). Comments to support taxonomic decisions and comparisons with conflicting taxonomic groups proposed by others are presented. We also highlight cases were morphological support exist for the groups being classified.


This version of the phylogenetic classification of bony fishes is substantially improved, providing resolution for more taxa than previous versions, based on more densely sampled phylogenetic trees. The classification presented in this study represents, unlike any other, the most up-to-date hypothesis of the Tree of Life of fishes.


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Coastal Fishes of the Western Indian Ocean.

1st edition. South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, a National Research Facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF-SAIAB). ISBN    1998950409, 9781998950409

Volltext Bd. 5


Coastal Fishes of the Western Indian Ocean follows the fine tradition of producing multi-authored, illustrated volumes on fish diversity pioneered by Margaret Smith and Phil Heemstra with Smiths’ Sea Fishes. It is the culmination of the work of more than 100 authors, photographers and illustrators from 20 countries, over 25 years. The book is divided into five volumes and its primary purpose is to aid in identifying about 3 500 species of fishes that occur in the coastal waters (to about 200 m) of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). The latter covers the Red Sea, Persian/Arabian Gulf, to Kanyakumari, India, in the east; west to Cape Point, South Africa; and south to St Paul and Amsterdam Islands at 38° S.


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Montag, 04 September 2023 13:34

GONçALVES, J. M. S. & ERZINI, K. (2008)

The reproductive biology of the two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris) from the SW Coast of Portugal.

Journal of Applied Ichthyology 16(3): 110-116. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0426.2000.00232.x



The study of the reproduction of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoff.) as part of a base-line study of the fishery resources of the south-west coast of Portugal, was based on the analysis of the spawning season, gonad maturation, size at maturity, fecundity and hermaphroditism. The spawning season is relatively long, from December to March, with peaks in January and February. No significant differences were found either in the sex ratio (M : F = 1.01) over the year or by size. The size at first maturity (L50) for all sexes and undetermined individuals combined was 18.33 cm total length (TL), with no significant differences between males and females. The estimated L50 is considerably greater than the minimum legal size in Portugal of 15.0 cm. Mean absolute fecundity (Fa) was 131 127 oocytes, ranging from 31 523 to 250 608. The relationship between absolute fecundity and total length (TL) (Fa = 25 398 TL – 484 426) and somatic weight (SW) (Fa = 878.8SW – 71 416) was of the linear type. The mean number of oocytes per gram of somatic weight was 526, ranging from 194 to 887. The reproductive strategy of this species is characterized by a rudimentary hermaphroditism with possible protandry, as evidenced by the existence of individuals in sexual transition.


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Samstag, 25 März 2023 11:30

GESSNER, C. & FORRER, K. (1563)


Das ist ein kurtze / doch vollkomme beschreybung aller Fischen so in dem Meer und süssen wasseren / Seen / Flüssen oder anderen Bächen jr wonung habend / sampt jrer waren conterfactur zů nutz und gůtem allen Artzeten / Maleren /Weydleüten und Köchen / gestelt: insondern aber denen so ein lust haben zů erfaren und betrachten Gottes wunderbare werck in seinen geschöpfften. Erstlich in Latin durch den hochgeleerten und natürlicher künsten wolerfarenen heeren D. Cůnrat Geßner beschriben: yetz neüwlich aber durch D. Cůnrat Forer zů grösserem nutz allen liebhaberen der künsten in das Teütsch gebracht.

Getruckt zuo Zürych bey Christoffel Froschower, im Jar als man zalt 1563

Zentralbibliothek Zürich,  / Public Domain


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Spawning behavior of garden eels, Gorgasia preclara and Heteroconger hassi (Heterocongrinae), observed in captivity.

Marine Behaviour and Physiology 48(5). DOI:10.1080/10236244.2015.1064213


The behavior and reproductive ecology of typically nocturnal marine eels is poorly known but garden eels (Congridae, Heterocongrinae) are familiar tropical marine eels. They live in colonies and protrude their bodies from burrows during the daytime to feed on zooplankton. Apparent daytime courtship/spawning-like behavior has been observed within the colonies but actual spawning and fertilized egg production has not been confirmed. This study describes observations of splendid garden eels (Gorgasia preclara) and spotted garden eels (Heteroconger hassi) spawning in low light at night and producing fertilized eggs in a large multispecies public-display tank in the Sumida Aquarium. Video recordings of 5 of 17 detected spawning or egg or sperm release events documented the spawning behavior of G. preclara, and positively buoyant fertilized eggs of both species were collected. Their spawning behavior while protruding from widely spaced burrows confirms that garden eels likely spawn within their colonies with their pelagic eggs drifting away with currents.


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On the occurrence of three non-native cichlid species including the first record of a feral population of Pelmatolapia (Tilapia) mariae (Boulenger, 1899) in Europe.

Royal Society Open Science 4(5). Published:21 June 2017.


Thermally influenced freshwater systems provide suitable conditions for non-native species of tropical and subtropical origin to survive and form proliferating populations beyond their native ranges. In Germany, non-native convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) and tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) have established populations in the Gillbach, a small stream that receives warm water discharge from a local power plant. Here, we report on the discovery of spotted tilapia (Pelmatolapia mariae) in the Gillbach, the first record of a reproducing population of this species in Europe. It has been hypothesized that Oreochromis sp. in the Gillbach are descendants of aquaculture escapees and our mtDNA analysis found both O. mossambicus and O. niloticus maternal lineages, which are commonly used for hybrids in aquaculture. Convict cichlids and spotted tilapia were most probably introduced into the Gillbach by aquarium hobbyists. Despite their high invasiveness worldwide, we argue that all three cichlid species are unlikely to spread and persist permanently beyond the thermally influenced range of the Gillbach river system. However, convict cichlids from the Gillbach are known to host both native and non-native fish parasites and thus, non-native cichlids may constitute threats to the native fish fauna. We therefore strongly recommend continuous monitoring of the Gillbach and similar systems.


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Donnerstag, 24 November 2022 16:57

ALLEN, G. & RANDALL, J. (2002)

A review of the leucogaster species complex of the Indo-Pacific pomacentrid genus Amblyglyphidodon, with descriptions of two new species.

aqua, J. Ichthyol. Aquat. Biol. 5(4):139-152.


Bisher wurde angenommen, dass der indo-pazifische Pomacentride Amblyglyphidodon leucogaster aus verschiedenen, geografischen Farbvarianten bestesteht. Die vorliegende Untersuchung deutet jedoch auf einen aus vier Arten bestehenden Komplex hin: A. leucogaster (Bleeker) aus dem westlichen Pazifik und ostlichen Randgebiet des indischen Ozeans; A. orbicularis (Hombron u. Jacquinot) von Samoa, Fiji und Neu Kaledonien und zwei hier neu beschriebene Arten - A. indicus vom Roten Meer und Indischenr Ozean und A. melanopterus von Tonga. Die einzelnen Arten des leucogaster-Komplexes unterscheiden sich hautsachlich durch Kombinationen von Farbmustern und Anzahl der Kiemenreusen. Ein Bestimmungsschlussel fur Amblyglyphidodon-Arten liegt bei.


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