A molecular phylogeny of the Australian monitor lizards (Squamata:Varanidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

Australian Journal of Zoology. 54: 253–269.

Volltext: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248902243_A_molecular_phylogeny_of_the_Australian_monitor_lizards_Squamata_Varanidae_inferred_from_mitochondrial_DNA_sequences


To date no complete phylogeny of all of the currently recognised Indo-Australian varanid species and subspecies has been published. This paper presents a comprehensive mitochondrial gene phylogeny of these lizards. A portion of the mitochondrial genome comprising part of the ND4 gene and three adjacent tRNA genes (hereafter referred to as ND4) was analysed alone and, for a subset of the taxa, combined with previously published mitochondrial data. Similar tree topologies were produced by both datasets although combining the data helped resolve some of the unresolved or weakly supported nodes in the ND4 analyses. The monophyly of the Indo-Australian group was strongly supported in all analyses. This group comprised three major lineages: the gouldii group, the Odatria group and the varius group. Mitochondrial ND4 nucleotide sequences were successfully amplified from all of the Indo-Australian monitor species and subspecies currently recognised and, as such, is the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the Australian monitor lizards published. Analysis of the tempo of diversification and evolution of preferred habitat use identified six episodes of increased net speciation rate, with two closely adjacent episodes showing the highest rates of diversification and correlating with the appearance of all preferred habitat types. The comprehensive molecular phylogenetic framework will also be useful for the identification of varanid species and traded products derived from monitors and, as such, has important applications for wildlife management and conservation.


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Sonntag, 13 März 2022 09:00

RYMANN, R. (2009)

Husbandry Guidelines for PERENTIE.

71 Seiten. Australasian Association of Zoo Keepring

Volltext: https://aszk.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Reptiles.-Perentie-2010RR.pdf


The Perentie is classed as dangerous and can cause serious harm or death. Two trained
keepers must be present at all times when entering this exhibit. National Parks and Wildlife Services (NPWS) list the Perentie as a Class 2 species (Species code number Z2267), indicating that the species is either rare, difficult to keep and/or potentially dangerous venomous species may be kept only under a Class 2 licence. All applicants for a Class 2 licence must be over the age of 18 years with at least 2 years experience keeping reptiles.

NB: Bei dem Dokument handelt es sich um einen  nicht fertiggestellten Entwurf.


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Sonntag, 13 März 2022 08:42

BREDL, J. & HORN, H.-G. (1987)

Über die Nachzucht des australischen Riesenwarans Varanus giganteus (Gray, 1845) (Sauria: Varanidae)

Salamandra 23 (2/3): 90-96.


Beobachtungen bei der erstmals beschriebenen Nachzucht von Varanus giganteus werden mitgeteilt. Aus einem Gelege von 11 Eiern, von denen eines bei der Bergung des Geleges zerstört wurde, schlüpften 6 Jungtiere, ein Tier verstarb unmittelbar nach dem Schlupf. Beim Schlupf wiesen die Jungtiere eine durchschnittliche Gesamtänge von 375,3 mm und ein Durchschnittsgewicht von 40 g auf; die Zeitigungsdauer betrug durchschnittlich 231,5 Tage bei 30-32°C in Sphagnum un d85 % relativer Luftfeuchte.



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Donnerstag, 10 März 2022 15:42

ALFONSO, Y. A. (2017)

Oviductal egg development in the curly tailed lizard Leiocephalus carinatus aquarius.

Revista Cubana de Ciencias Biológicas 5 (2): 1-4.


Leiocephalus carinatus (saw-scaled curly-tailed lizard) has thirteen currently recognized subspecies that occur throughout Cuban Archipelago, Cayman Islands, Swan Islands, Bahama Islands and introduced in Florida. It’s a diurnal species that inhabits xerophilic vegetation, mogote complex, coastal and subcoastal microphyllous forest, semidesert thorny crubwoodland, associated with urban habitats (nearby to the coastal zones and rocky ground in the beach) and abandoned walls and concrete blocks.
Reproduction periods for L. carinatus are continuous and increasing in some months. Sexual maturity in males reach between 78.6-81.2 mm SVL and females 70.2-73.0 mm SVL. Eggs dimensions and deposition were previously reported for some subspecies, and only for two subspecies (L. c. armouri, L. c. carinatus) has been reported data related with ovarian follicles and oviductal eggs to determine the ovarian cycle and clutch characteristics. Here we report a synchronized development of oviductal eggs in the curly-tailed lizard Leiocephalus carinatus aquarius.


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Donnerstag, 10 März 2022 10:46

SMITH, H. T. & ENGEMAN, R. M. (2003)

A Review if the Range, Distribution, and Ecology of the Invasive Northern Curly-tailed Lizard in Florida.

Florida Park Service - 2003 "Parknership" Technical Report: 1-5.

Volltext: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1212&context=icwdm_usdanwrc


We examined the distribution and ecology of the exotic northern curly-tailed lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus armouri) in Florida. Published literature and especially unpublished documents and data were reviewed and synthesized. Our findings suggest that both the range and distribution of the Florida population have expanded at a rapid rate during the last 60 years. Ecological effects o r this species on Florida's native lizards and other fauna have not been quantified and require thorough evaluation.


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Recent Invaders in Small Mediterranean Islands: Wild Boars Impact Snakes in Port-Cros National Park.

Diversity 2021, 13, 498. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13100498.


Mediterranean islands host unique ecosystems that are particularly vulnerable to invasive species. However, knowledge regarding the precise impact of invasive species on local biodiversity remains limited for many of these systems. Here we report on the negative impacts of invasive wild boars (Sus scrofa) on native snakes on islands in the Mediterranean basin. Capture-mark-recapture was initiated in 2012 on two snake species (Montpellier snake, Malpolon monspessulanus and Ladder snake, Zamenis scalaris) across two islands of Port-Cros National Park. Several wild boars, an invasive species, reached the islands in 2007. They remained confined to small areas of the islands for several years. In Port-Cros, the numbers of wild boars suddenly increased in 2015, and rapidly colonized the whole island damaging vast land surfaces. In Porquerolles, wild boars did not proliferate. This offered an opportunity to examine the impact of wild boar outbreak with a Before-After Control-Impact design (BACI). Snake counts and mark-recapture modeling showed that demographic traits were stable before 2016 for both snake species on both islands. As well as abundance, recruitment, and population growth rate of Montpellier snakes significantly declined where wild boars proliferated but remained constant on the island where they did not. Wild boars probably impacted snake numbers through habitat destruction and direct killing. The rapid decline of snakes (apex predators) and intensive uprooting that strongly damage ground dwelling species (plants, animals) suggest that wild boars represent a serious threat to island biodiversity. As elsewhere around the world, these invasive ungulates proliferate in the Mediterranean basin, they are proficient swimmers and exhibit a remarkably high invasive potential. We recommend vigilance and fast eradication to prevent population outburst; even a few a localized non-proliferating individuals contain the latent potential for devastating outbreaks.


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Control of the ladder snake (Rhinechis scalaris) on Formentera using experimental live-traps.

In: C.R. Veitch, M.N. Clout, A.R. Martin, J.C. Russell and C.J. West (eds.) (2019). Island invasives: scaling
up to meet the challenge, pp. 332–336. Occasional Paper SSC no. 62. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.


The ladder snake (Rhinechis scalaris ) is a recent alien invasive species found on Formentera (83 km2), in the Balearic Archipelago (4,492 km2). It has been introduced in the last decade as cargo stowaway hidden within ornamental olive trees from the Iberian Peninsula, causing negative impacts on native fauna. This paper describes the methodology used to reduce the ladder snake population as a first attempt since it was detected in 2006. For this purpose, an experimental live-trap was designed by the wildlife management team of the Consorci per a la Recuperació de la Fauna de les Illes Balears (COFIB) during the 2016 campaign. As a result, 314 R. scalaris were trapped in an area of 472 ha, achieving an efficiency of up to 0.167 captures per trap and night, and 0.040 captures per unit effort on average. This outcome encourages the use of the live-trap as a cost-effective method for reducing the snake population in Formentera. Nonetheless, this method should be considered a starting point toward R. scalaris control.


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Dienstag, 08 März 2022 16:00

CALMONTE, T. & FERRI, V. (1987).

Un serpente nuovo per la Fauna italiana: il Colubro scalare, Elaphe scalaris (Schinz, 1822).

Atti Soc.ital.Sci.nat., Museo civ. Stor. Nat. Milano, 128 (3-4): 314-316.


First time found in Italy the Ladder Snake, Elaphe scalaris (Schinz, 1822) (Reptilia, Colubridae). A specimen of Ladder Snake, Elaphe scalaris, was recently found near Ventimiglia, Imperia. This is the first record for this species in Italy.


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Sonntag, 20 Februar 2022 11:34

JOGER, U., & BÖHME, W. (2006)

Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas - Schlangen (Serpentes) III: Viperidae.

420 Seiten. AULA-Verlag. 978-3-89104-617-3 (ISBN)


Der dritte Teil des Schlangenbandes hat die Vipern zum Thema, die einzige Familie in Europa, deren Gift dem Menschen gefährlich werden kann. Der Aufbau der Artkapitel entspricht dem in Band 3/ I und 3/ II A. Insgesamt werden 13 Arten besprochen:
Agkistrodon halys (Halysgrubenotter) – Macrovipera lebetina (Levanteotter) – Macrovipera schweizeri (Kykladenviper) – Vipera ammodytes (Sandotter) – Vipera aspis (Aspisviper, Juraviper) – Vipera berus (Kreuzotter) – Vipera dinnicki (Westkaukasische Otter) – Vipera kaznakovi (Kaukasus-Otter) – Vipera latastii (Stülpnasenotter) – Vipera nikolskii (Nikolskij`s Viper) – Vipera seoanei (Nordiberische Kreuzotter) – Vipera ursinii (Wiesenotter) – Vipera xanthina (Bergotter).


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A new subspecies of Ottoman viper, Montivipera xanthina (Gray, 1849), (Squamata: Viperidae) from Geyik Mountains, Mediterranean Turkey.

Ecologica Montenegrina 22: 214-225.

Volltext: https://www.biotaxa.org/em/article/view/em.2019.22.17/56943


A new Ottoman viper subspecies, M. xanthina varoli n. subsp., is described from the higher altitudes of Gündoğmuş (Antalya). The new  subspecies differs from  the  other M. xanthina populations by pholidosis;  higher number of intercanthals and lowernumber of subcaudalia. Also, the whiteness between windings or spots on dorsum pattern were observed in new subspecies, similar to the southern populations. Furthermore, the spots on the ventrals became denser in the mid-body and forms darker colorizationat the end of body of the males and the tail tips are yellowish-orange or light orange on both sexes.


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© Peter Dollinger, Zoo Office Bern hyperworx