Keeping red pandas in captivity - Hållande av röd panda i fångenskap.
Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för husdjurens miljö och hälsa, Etologi- och Djurskyddsprogrammet, Skara: Studentarbete 197. 32 Seiten. ISSN 1652-280X.
The result demonstrates that zoos that keep the red panda not necessarily follow the husbandry and management guidelines for captive red pandas. The result shows that the keeping and management of red pandas in captivity can be improved. Enclosures are small indicating that enclosure size for pandas is not prioritized by zoos. Enclosures in some zoos are even smaller than the minimum recommendations of 80 m2. Almost half the zoos have visitors around big parts of the enclosure despite the recommendation of restricted visitors’ access to two sides of the enclosure. The result shows that carnivores are placed in nearby enclosures, despite the recommendation of at least 50 m. distance. Bamboo is not fed every day in all zoos and some zoos give it only rarely despite the recommendations of 200 g bamboo to each panda, every day. The results show that many zoos offer less nest boxes then recommend. The same survey or a complemented version could be sent to all keepers of the red panda to get results from all regions were the panda is kept. The survey could benefit from some additional questions and some modifications. The following improvements could be made. Instead of asking for the mean summer temperature it would be a good idea to ask for the maximum summer temperature. That way we can see all zoos that should be aware of the risk of high temperatures and consider cooling systems. Instead of asking how large part of the enclosure that is climbable it would be better to ask for the number of climbable structures. This would give better data for comparison. To complement the question of interiors we could ask how many logs, shrubs and rocks are available and how they are distributed. We could also ask if the water sources in the enclosures are used and in what way. This could help us determine if all zoos should have water sources in the enclosure. Another question that could be asked is if enrichments are used, what kind of enrichments that are used, and how often they are available. Future studies could investigate the cause of hair loss in captive pandas. If it is related to stress, the results could indicate that there are deficiencies in the captive environment, and in that case that has to be investigated further. Future field studies where camera traps could be placed near water sources could investigate in what way water is important for red pandas.
Orang Utan EEP - Best practice Guidelines
148 Seiten, Abbildungen, Tabellen.
Barcelona Zoo für die Great Ape Taxon Advisory Group (GATAG)
Aus der Einleitung:
In spring 2016, (unofficial) EAZA Quick Population Assessments (QPA) were provided by the EAZA specialists for demography and genetics for both populations. According to both analysis, the average annual birth rates in the last years were 7 births per year in in the Borneans and 5 births per year in the Sumatrans, while an average of 9 births per year for the Borneans and 8 births per year for the Sumatrans are expected to be necessary to maintain population size. Based on these informations, one would expect population sizes to slightly decrease in the coming years. This clearly indicates to be very careful in using methods for contraception. Simultaneously, the problems to place (temporarily) surplus male individuals in a timely manner are evident.
In April 2018, a workshop will be held in Karlsruhe Zoo to develop an EAZA Long-term Management Plan (LTMP) for the orang utan species. At the same time, the EEP coordinator and his team will have published the 35th edition (2017) of the orang utan studbook.
We are now working since a considerable couple of years to develop and to define “Best Practice Guidelines” (BPG) for the orang utans in the EEP. Now, we are able to present this first edition that is devided into three main sections (biology & field data, management in zoos and references & appendices). Of particular importance are chapters for Enclosure Design, Feeding, Social Structure, Breeding, Behavioural Enrichment, Handling & Identification, Veterinary Aspects and Research. I would like to express my deep appreciation to all contributors for their enormous time effort and work they have put into compiling these guidelines. Hopefully, this will enhance the managing and care of orang utans in participating zoos in the future.
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines - Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).
175 Seiten. Veröffentlicht duch Barcelona Zoo, Januar 2017.
Right from the very beginning it has been the concern of EAZA and the EEPs to encourage and promote the highest possible standards for husbandry of zoo and aquarium animals. For this reason, quite early on, EAZA developed the “Minimum Standards for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria”. These standards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which the members of EAZA feel themselves committed. Above and beyond this, some countries have defined regulatory minimum standards for the keeping of individual species regarding the size and furnishings of enclosures etc., which, according to the opinion of authors, should definitely be fulfilled before allowing such animals to be kept within the area of the jurisdiction of those countries. These minimum standards are intended to determine the borderline of acceptable animal welfare. It is not permitted to fall short of these standards. How difficult it is to determine the standards, however, can be seen in the fact that minimum standards vary from country to country. Above and beyond this, specialists of the EEPs and TAGs have undertaken the considerable task of laying down guidelines for keeping individual animal species. Whilst some aspects of husbandry reported in the guidelines will define minimum standards, in general, these guidelines are not to be understood as minimum requirements; they represent best practice. As such the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for keeping animals intend rather to describe the desirable design of enclosures and prerequisites for animal keeping that are, according to the present state of knowledge, considered as being optimal for each species. They intend above all to indicate how enclosures should be designed and what conditions should be fulfilled for the optimal care of individual species.
This document reflects our current knowledge about general biology and keeping requirements to provide adequate levels of wellbeing for Gorillas, the biggest size great ape species, in captive environments. While providing information about
different aspects that should be taken into account when managing gorillas in captivity to ensure a healthy and selfsustainig population, helping to de development of a global “ex situ conservation” program, also provides information about the situation of the species in the wild and “in situ conservation” projects supporting field conservation work in host countries to which all the zoo institutions keeping gorillas are encouraged to support following the IUCN strategy of One Plan Approach.
Section 1., Biology and Field Data, reflects our current knowledge of species in the natural environment using the most recent taxonomic information. The philosophy behind this is that ex situ conservation can be used more effectively as a conservation tool if it is part of an integrated approach to species conservation (IUCN, 2014). The potential need for a conservation role of an EAZA ex situ population has therefore been decided in consultation with in situ specialists.
This section provides wide and actual information about the species in its natural habitat.
Section 2., Management in Zoos, covers housing and exhibition, nutrition, food presentation and enrichment, social structure and behaviour. There is also useful information on the formation of breeding groups and bachelor groups. Control of breeding is an essential component of successful managed programmes and comprehensive information to assist zoo veterinarians to decide on the most appropriate contraception method for their animals is provided. Managed programmes also rely on the movement of animals between zoos and advice on handling and transport is provided. It is essential that gorillas are provided with complex environments and there is detailed practical information on environmental enrichment. One indispensable method of feeding enrichment is the use of browse and information on suitable plants species is provided. A comprehensive veterinary section provides information on current knowledge on all aspects of medical care. Our knowledge can only increase through appropriate research and the final section covers ongoing and recommended research topics.
Voller Text: https://www.eaza.net/assets/Uploads/CCC/2017-BPG-Gorilla-approved.pdf
EAZA Mangabey Best Practice Guidelines - Cercocebus spp., Lophocebus spp. and Rungwecebus spp.
112 Seiten. Abbildungen. Parc Zoològic de Barcelona n & GaiaZOO, Kerkrade.
The current document details knowledge regarding the biology, management and keeping of the polyphyletic group of mangabeys (Cercocebus spp., Lophocebus spp. and Rungwecebus spp.) from the field and within zoos. As will become clear, per species there is information lacking regarding many aspects of their biology and ecology. Hence, the document is set up in such a way that, where appropriate, information can be interpreted from other mangabey species.
Section 1: Biology and Field data
This section covers an extensive overview of current knowledge regarding the taxonomic classification, morphology, natural distribution, conservation status, nutrition, behaviour and more of all the relevant species and subspecies.
Section 2: Management in Zoos and Aquariums
This section details Best Practice of management and keeping of mangabey species in zoos. Including topics on enclosure design, specifically focussed on appropriate barriers and enclosure complexity. Furthermore it includes nformation on optimal feeding practices, use of enrichment, social management and veterinary practices. Throughout are examples of current practice presented. Here it should be emphasized that these guidelines should be seen as a living document as knowledge will only increase through xperience and research.
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines De Brazza Monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus)
1. Auflage. 37 Seiten, Abbildungen.
EAZA Executive Office, Amsterdam.
These guidelines are composed of two sections. The first provides and overview of biology, ecology and behaviour in the wild summarising published information referenced at the end of the document. The second section provides information on management in captivity. This section was written using published information and from the findings of a questionnaire survey and the input of the species committee.
In addition to the standard enclosure and husbandry information particular focus has been made on managing social groups and introductions which can be challenging. One of the objectives of the EEP is to manage multiple female groups and retain youngsters until they have experience of reproductive and maternal behaviours. This has been supported by the inclusion of detailed case studies. Although the husbandry and management section is written for the De Brazza much of the information is relevant for other guenon species. An important role for the De Brazza Monkey EEP is for zoos to gain experience of managing guenons before obtaining more endangered guenon species.
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines - Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii).
24 Seiten, Abbildunge, Tabellen.
"The EEP recommends to keep Asiatic golden cats in an outdoor enclosure of minimum 150 m² and a minimum height of 2,5 m. To keep more than one Asiatic golden cat, a second enclosure is necessary to separate individuals for longer periods. Both enclosures should be connected by fine‐meshed wire with two sliding doors, so that cats can change enclosures by rotation. More to the dimensions of an enclosure, its furnishing is important. If the Asiatic golden cat has enough possibilities to climb, hide or rest, the number of square meters is secondary."
Eulemur (Eulemur spp.) Care Manual
112 Seiten, Illustrationen, Tabellen
Association of Zoos and Aquariumss. Silver Spring MD.
Volltext (PDF): https://www.speakcdn.com/assets/2332/eulemur_care_manual.pdf
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).
1. Auflage. 42 Seiten, 3 Abbildungen..
Herausgeber: European Association of Zoosand Aquaria & Rotterdam Zoo
The first official version of the husbandry andmanagement guidelines for zoo red pandas was published in the fifth edition of the red panda studbook in 1988. The guidelines had been compiled over the previous yearsand were refined at the first red panda conference which was held in Rotterdamin 1987. Information and ideas from many peoplewere compiled into these guidelines. And during the course of the panda conservation workshop held in Front Royal in 1991, the red panda husbandry and management guidelines was updated. Nevertheless, since these meetings there has been a lot of research into red panda diets, pathology, behaviour etc. AZA published the Red Panda Care Manual in 2011. Because none of the publications had a focus on European standards, it was necessary to come up with the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for the Red Panda.
Husbandry Manual for the Greater One-horned or Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis LINNÉ, 1758).
94 Seiten. Zoo Basel.
To date two husbandry guidelines for Rhinoceroses have been published, the Husbandry Guidelines for Rhinoceroses, edited by Reinhard Göltenboth et al., published in the EEP Yearbook 1994-95 and the AZA Rhinoceros Husbandry Resource Manual, edited by Michael Fouraker & Tarren Wagener (1996). Both guidelines cover all five living rhino species. The Indian or Greater one-horned rhino, however, is in many aspects somewhat atypical. As the International Studbook Keepers and the EEP Species Coordinators we felt the need to have a more specific manual at hand. Using the two general guidelines as a basis, we compiled this mono-specific husbandry manual for the Indian rhino.
The Basel Zoo has been continuously keeping Indian rhinos for almost half a century. So far 27 calves have been born in Basel, including the first captive-born Indian rhino worldwide (male Rudra, 1956). The experiences of a wide variety of collaborators, former and current, of the Basel Zoo, with very different points of view have been summarized in this paper - keepers, technicians, researchers, veterinarians, curators and directors. Further important input came from many other European and American zoos currently keeping Indian rhinos.
These guidelines emphasize the practical aspects of keeping Indian rhinos. In animals with as slow a reproduction as the Indian rhinos, it is often impossible to give recommendations based on statistically sound data. Many observations have been made only a couple of times over a keeper's professional life. Nonetheless, they can give us hints about how to improve our understanding of these beautiful creatures. However, intuition, common sense and good nerves are as important as quantifiable facts if you want to keep Indian rhinos successfully.
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)
85 Seiten, mit Abbildungen, Verbreitungskartten und Tabellen.
1st edition. EAZA Amsterdam.
Right from the very beginning it has been the concern of EAZA and the EEPs to encourage and promote the highest possible standards for husbandry of zoo and aquarium animals. For this reason, quite early on, EAZA developed the “Minimum Standards for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria”. These standards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which the members of EAZA feel themselves committed. Above and beyond this, some countries have defined regulatory minimum standards for the keeping of individual species regarding the size and furnishings of enclosures etc., which, according to the opinion of authors, should definitely be fulfilled before allowing such animals to be kept within the area of the jurisdiction of those countries. These minimum standards are intended to determine the borderline of acceptable animal welfare. It is not permitted to fall short of these standards. How difficult it is to determine the standards, however, can be seen in the fact that minimum standards vary from country to country.
Above and beyond this, specialists of the EEPs and TAGs have undertaken the considerable task of laying down guidelines for keeping individual animal species. Whilst some aspects of husbandry reported in the guidelines will define minimum standards, in general, these guidelines are not to be understood as minimum equirements; they represent best practice. As such the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for keeping animals intend rather to describe the desirable design of nclosures and prerequisites for animal keeping that are, according to the present state of knowledge, considered as being optimal for each species. They intend above all to indicate how nclosures should be designed and what conditions should be fulfilled for the optimal care of individual species.
These Best Practice Guidelines were based on "concept husbandry guidelines for Black rhino (Diceros bicornis)" which were produced by Valentijn Assenberg and Thijs van den Houten for the final thesis of their Animal Management course at the Van Hall Larenstein Institute. The data to form the concept husbandry guidelines was collected by a literature study and a questionnaire. The literature was chosen from a number of sources. A full referencelist can be found at the end of this document.
The questionnaire was partly based on the AZA husbandry manual and partly on the EAZA husbandry guidelines for the greater one-horned rhino. The AZA husbandry manual was published in 1996 and covers all five rhino species and is made with the help of the International Rhino Foundation. The EAZA husbandry guidelines for the Greater one-horned rhino were published in 2002 by Basel Zoo.