Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 09:59

BRANDL, P. (2014)

European studbook and breeding lesser galagos (genus Galago) at Prague Zoo.

GAZELLA 41: 31-53.



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Oriental white ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus (Latham, 1790) at Opel-Zoo Kronberg – Experiences, observations and data since 1982.

Zool. Gart. N.F. 84 (2015), 3-4: 107-116. ISSN 0044-5169


In 1982 Opel-Zoo Kronberg started keeping Oriental white ibis in central European climate. Since then at least 61 ibis hatched, the total 30-day-mortality was 25% (N = 15). As far as known changes in diet over time and their effects are listed as well as dates of hatching since 1994. Unknown behavior such as allogrooming in young non-siblings, overlapping brood and feeding on willow leafs is described, as well as wing-claws in juvenile Oriental white ibis. In addition we added information from literature to give an overview of this particular ibis species. Oriental white ibis is listed as near threatened since 2004.



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Freitag, 29 Mai 2015 09:53


Angst bei Tieren - ein zoologisches und ein forensisches Problem.

Dtsch. tierärztl. Wschr. 100: 322-327.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 09:02

STADLER, A. & AURICH, J. (2015)

Captive Management of the Chilean Pudu (Pudu pudu Molina 1782).

Deer Specialist Group Newsletter 27 (April 2015): 67-73-
ISSN 2312-4644


The Southern Pudu has long been classified as Vulnerable by Red List™, however  some  successful breeding programs are ongoing for this species. Since the introduction of the International Studbook and the  European  conservation  breeding  program  for Pudu  pudu, a  stable  population  with  more  than  100 individuals  has  been  kept  at  zoos  in  Europe,  North  and  South  America.  Not  a  lot  is  known  about  this small deer and we will update soma data on the captive management of this species, including general husbandry, diet and reproduction. The new data is mostly very similar to that published by Schürer and Sliwa (2002) apart from the average life-span which has increased over the years.



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Preliminary findings of behavioral patterns in captive alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) and prospects for future conservation.

Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 2010; 34(2): 111-117 © TÜBİTAK, doi:10.3906/vet-0707-2


Captive farming of alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) in China has been used for conservation and harvesting of musk since the mid 1950s. Despite this long history, management practices and captive breeding have been primarily based on trial and error due to lack of behavioral and ecological information about this vulnerable species. Understanding behavioral patterns plays a vital part in determining appropriate management systems; hence the aim of this study was to determine the effect of captivity on behavioral patterns of alpine musk deer by comparing wild-caught and the captive-born alpine musk deer. From August 2002 to January 2003, the behavioral patterns of 30 wild-caught (WC) and 15 captive-bred (CB) adult alpine musk deer were recorded at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), located in Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu province, China. Focal sampling was used to observe the frequencies of 12 behavior categories. The behavioral patterns of WC and CB musk deer were found to be similar; however, when gender was considered, male WC deer showed a significantly high er frequency of agonistic nteraction. These preliminary results suggest that captivity has had no immediate impact on the behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer despite 10 generations of captivity. Therefore, the alpine musk deer is not suited for domestication and further investigation into the effectiveness of musk deer farming for the purpose of harvesting musk should be undertaken.


Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures (10 m × 10 m), in groups ranging from 5 to 7 individuals. Each enclosure contained a central yard with 7 adjoining indoor cells (4 m²). Wire mesh separated enclosures enabled animals to see, hear, and smell each other. Human interaction was limited to 5 min at dawn and dusk during which animals were fed and husbandry duties were conducted.

During the study, males and females were housed separately from March to October; both CB and WB individuals, however, were housed in the same enclosures. From November to February, one male was introduced into each of the female enclosures and the males introduced into the female enclosure were both CB and WB, as with commercial breeding practices.



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Enclosure Design for Captive Slow and Pygmy Lorises.

In: Primates of the Oriental Night - proceedings of the Indonesian Workshop: Taxonomy, husbandry, and conservation of tarsiers and lorises. Jakarta, Indonesia, 15-25 February 2003, at the Pusat Primata Schmutzer / Schmutzer Primate Center, Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta. Special edition of Treubia, Bogor: 123-135


While large numbers of slow and pygmy lorises are commonly kept in local zoos and rescue centers, information about
enclosure design and minimal housing requirements is often lacking. We present recommendations for designing indoor and
outdoor loris enclosures for exhibits, rescue centers, and sanctuaries. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each
enclosure type and address construction specifications, furnishings, environmental requirements, social considerations, and
keeper monitoring. Essential requirements for loris release into naturalistic outdoor enclosures are presented along with
questions for future studies.


In some facilities such as primate rescue centers, wire cages may be the best option available. An outdoor cage measuring 2.00 m x 2.50 m x 1.80 m can successfully house 1-3 slow lorises if the furnishings are sufficient. (See climbing structures and nest box sections.) Wire should always be free of rust or sharp edges. Poly vinyl coated wire is ideal because it resists corrosion from moisture and loris urine marking. Wire gage of 2 cm x 2 cm is comfortable for lorises to grasp, and it will keep rodents and potential predators outside. Outdoor enclosures must also have a solid roof to protect lorises from sun and rain.

Maximum flexibility can be achieved by building several smaller cages (minimum size of 1.70 m x 1.00 m x .70 m per slow loris), which are connected with removable wire tunnels. Depending on whether the tunnel gates are open or closed, lorises can be kept alone or given access to other enclosures. If cages share common walls, double wire mesh or solid walls must be used to prevent lorises from biting their neighbor ’s fingers. Keeper doors should be large enough for a person to walk inside the enclosure or easily reach any area inside the cage. Doorframes must be made of a solid material that will not bend. Otherwise, lorises may be able to escape by squeezing their bodies through the small gaps between door openings. Cages should be elevated at least 15 cm above the ground to so that excreta and other waste will fall below. Indoor cages can easily be moved for cleaning if wheels are attached to the bottoms. Food dishes and nest boxes can be placed on wire shelves, which are also useful for loris resting places.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 16:58

EAZA Elephant TAG (2005)

Management Guidelines for the Welfare of Zoo Animals - Elephant.

36 Seiten. EAZA, Amsterdam.


Elephants are kept in zoos as part of an overriding conservation mission so that they are in actively managed breeding programmes. This may mean that non-breeding elephants are kept at some zoos to ensure maximization of the capacity for elephant breeding zoos. Their presence enables progressive educational activities and demonstrates links with field conservation projects and benign scientific research, leading to continuous improvements in breeding and welfare standards.

Zoos have a duty of care: that standards of husbandry practices, housing, health and welfare management are humane and appropriate to the intelligence, social behaviour, longevity and size of elephants. All zoos should aim to continuously improve welfare standards.
Zoos have a moral and legal responsibility to ensure the safety of visitors and staff.

Zoos must continually assess their performance against the EAZA Elephant Management Policy with its defined standards and procedures, in order to demonstrate legal compliance and address legitimate public concerns. The policy documents will be reviewed annually and comments can be submitted at any time by members to one of the EEP Coordinators for consideration.

The goal of this policy statement is the ongoing well-being of elephants in controlled environments in European collections. Furthermore these recommendations offer a tool to all elephant keeping institutions for improving their standards as old keeping regimes are phased out over the years and with the aging of individual elephants.

All sections of this document are intended as exemplary and make no claim to be comprehensive.



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Dienstag, 06 Januar 2015 18:34


Artgemäße Haltung von Wasserbüffeln

Tierärztliche Vereinigung für Tierschutz e.V. (TVT) Merkblatt Nr. 102.
17 Seiten

Volltext herunter laden von:


06.01.2015 - 526

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Husbandry and Pathology of Polar Bears (Thalactos maritimus) in Swiss Zoos.

European Association of Zoo- and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV)
First scientific meeting, May 16 - 18, 1996, ROSTOCK, Germany: 47-54.

Volltext PDF


Die Zoos von Basel und Zürich halten Eisbären unter Bedingungen, die der gegenwärtigen schweizerischen Tierschutzgesetzgebung entsprechen. Währenddem die Lebensdauer der als Erwachsene oder Subadulte erworbenen Eisbären zufriedenstellend ist, ist die Aufzuchtrate der Jungtiere unannehmbar tief. Die Haltung genügt daher dem Grundsatz der Nachhaltigkeit nicht. Als das Hauptproblem werden Verhaltensstörungen angesehen, die durch sozialen Stress und das Unvermögen der Bären, sich der Zooumgebung anzupassen, verursacht werden, und zu Stereotypien, Jungentötung und Hautkrankheiten führen. Unter den gegebenen Bedingungen sollte daher die Eisbärenhaltung mittelfristig eingestellt werden. Die Tierschutzgesetzgebung ist so zu ändern, dass sie dem Verhalten der Art besser Rechnung trägt. Im weiteren enthält der Beitrag Informationen über Fütterung, Lebenserwartung und Fortpflanzungsbiologie, sowie einen Überblick über die Sektionsbefunde bei Eisbären in schweizerischen Zoos.



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The design of new bear facilities.

Kapitel 2 der EAZA Bear Husbandry Guidelines. 45 Seiten, Abbildungen, Tabellen. EAZA, Amsterdam


This chapter considers both outdoor and indoor enclosures, their furnishings, substrates and the technical features of new bear facilities. An enclosure should be designed to provide all the requirements necessary for the care and maintenance of the bears and also, if needed, for reproduction. The facility must not only be escape proof, but should also create suitable conditions and stimulation which will enable the animals to perform a wide range of species-specific behaviours. The environment must not permanently create problems, which the animals cannot solve, and should be sufficiently flexible in design for any adverse situations to be easily rectified.

It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the normal behaviour of bears, their use of habitat and particularly their locomotor activities in relation to the use of cage furnishings and structures in outdoor enclosures, substrates and any other factors, which may effect them. This will enable the zoo to design facilities, which meet the animals' physical and behavioural needs. Feeding, social and spatial organization and reproductive biology will be treated in more detail in subsequent chapters. Only general features of these aspects of bear biology will be considered in this chapter, where they are relevant to the design of a bear facility.



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© Peter Dollinger, Zoo Office Bern hyperworx