Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 17:40

GROVES, C. (2006)

The genus Cervus in eastern Eurasia.

European Journal of Wildlife Research (Impact Factor: 1.36). 02/2006; 52(1):14-22.
DOI: 10.1007/s10344-005-0011-5


In 2004, Christian Pitra and co-workers published the first molecular phylogeny of Old World deer which advanced our understanding of the Cervinae immeasurably by demonstrating the non-monophyletic status of the red deer/wapiti roup, the chital/hog deer group and the swamp deer/Eld's deer group. Therefore, many conspicuous external features—antler complexity, mane and rump-patch development—turned out to be related not to phylogeny as much as to climatic-related lifestyle factors. At a lower level, molecular genetics has reinforced some conclusions drawn on the basis of morphology or behaviour. Striking examples are the divisions between mainland and Japanese sika and between northern and southern forms of Japanese sika. In this paper, I will look at the species living in what Pitra et al. (Evolution and phylogeny of old world deer. Mol Phylogenet Evol 33:880–895, 2004) identified as the heartland of cervine evolution: eastern Eurasia. I will consider the two species groups in this region that seem to crystallize both the problems of cervine classification and the ways in which the new sources of evidence have opened up new avenues of inquiry.



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Evolution and phylogeny of old world deer.

Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 2004 Dec;33(3):880-95.


The phylogenetic pattern and timing of the radiation of Old World deer was determined based on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 33 Cervinae taxa. Using rooted and unrooted phylogenies derived from distinct theoretical approaches, strong support was achieved for monophyly of the Old World deer with muntjacs as sister group as well as for the divergence of at least three distinct genera: Rucervus, Dama, and Cervus. The latter clade comprises what have previously been regarded as the genera or subgenera Panolia, Rusa, Cervus, Sika, and probably Przewalskium. Our data also consistently confirmed paraphyly of nominate C. elaphus and did not support the monophyly of Axis. We used these molecular phylogenies to assess the homoplastic evolution of morphological, geographical, ecological, and selected behavioural character state differences within the Cervinae. Reliable fossil calibrations, large molecular data sets, and improved dating methods are shaping a molecular time scale for the evolutionary radiation of Old World deer that occurred at the Miocene/Pliocene transition and is largely compatible with existing palaeontological evidence. Using node ages estimated from sequence data, we estimated an average per-lineage diversification rate of 0.51+/-0.1 species per million years (my) over roughly the last 6 mya.

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Population genetics of the roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus ) with suggestions for conservation.

Mol Ecol. 2004 Jul;13(7):1771-84.


The roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) is the second largest African antelope, distributed throughout the continent in sub-Saharan savannah habitat. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequencing (401 bp, n = 137) and microsatellite genotyping (eight loci, n = 137) were used to quantify the genetic variability within and among 18 populations of this species. The within-population diversity was low to moderate with an average mtDNA nucleotide diversity of 1.9% and average expected heterozygosity with the microsatellites of 46%, but significant differences were found among populations with both the mtDNA and microsatellite data. Different levels of genetic resolution were found using the two marker sets, but both lent strong support for the separation of West African populations (samples from Benin, Senegal and Ghana) from the remainder of the populations studied across the African continent. Mismatch distribution analyses revealed possible past refugia for roan in the west and east of Africa. The West African populations could be recognized together as an evolutionarily significant unit (ESU), referable to the subspecies H. e. koba. Samples from the rest of the continent constituted a geographically more diverse assemblage with genetic associations not strictly corresponding to the other recognized subspecies.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 13:54

KRÜGER, K. (2003)

Vergleichende molekulargenetische Untersuchungen zur Phylogenese der Equiden, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von E. hemionus kulan und E. hemionus onager

Comparative Molecular Genetic Analysis on the Phylogeny of Equids with Special Reference to Equus hemionus kulan and Equus hemionus onager


113 Seiten

Institut für Nutztierwissenschaften der ETH Zürich un der Veterinärmedizinischen Fakultät der Universität Zürich
Leitung: Dr. Stefan Rieder
Wildpark Langenberg, Leitung C. Stauffer, und andere Zoos und Tierpärke


Phylogenese und Evolution der Equiden standen im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit. Daneben kam auch die Problematik des Artenschutzes zur Sprache. Von zentraler Bedeutung war die Frage, ob sich Individuen und Populationen von E.hemionus onager und E.hemionus kulan mittels Mikrosatelliten-Markern differenzieren liessen.

31 Mikrosatelliten, verteilt auf alle autosomalen Chromosomen des Pferdes (2n=64), ergänzt durch einen Marker auf dem X-Chromosom, dienten als Grundlage für diese Studie. Anhand der Marker wurden 120 Equiden aus 11 verschiedenen Populationen genotypisiert (3840 Genotypen). Die 11 Populationen verteilten sich auf drei Gruppen von E.asinus asinus, eine Gruppe von E.africanus somaliensis, vier Populationen der Asiatischen Wildesel (E.hemionus sbsp. und E.kiang), sowie je eine Gruppe von E.burchelli, E.ferus przewalskii und E.caballus caballus. Die erhaltenen Multilocus-Genotypen wurden mit speziell für Phylogenese-Fragen entwickelten Statistik-Programmen ausgewertet. Die Analyse nach dem ?Allele Sharing? Ansatz ergab klare Klassierungen zwischen allen getesteten Spezies. Phylogenetische Untersuchungen mittels (__)_ wiesen Divergenzzeiträume für die Populationen aus, die vergleichbar waren mit bereits veröffentlichten Daten basierend auf mitochondrialer DNA und fossilen Funden. Die Durchführung einer multivariaten Korrespondenzanalyse bestätigte die aus ?Allele Sharing? erhaltenen Resultate und liess die Gruppierungen der einzelnen Populationen ebenfalls deutlich erkennen. Die Hypothese eines alleinigen genetischen Ursprungs aller domestizierten Esel aus dem Afrikanischen Wildesel bestätigte sich mehrfach aus den erarbeiteten Daten.

Die Ergebnisse der Zuweisungsmethoden nach Bayes deuten darauf hin, dass grundsätzlich grössere Stichproben nötig sind, um auch Zweifelsfälle eindeutig einer Population zuzuordnen. Allerdings konnten in der vorliegenden Studie trotz relativ limitierter Anzahl von Equiden etwa 83% der Tiere mit sehr hoher Sicherheit richtig klassiert werden. Es zeichnete sich ab, dass auf Ebene der Mikrosatelliten Marker Unterschiede zwischen E.h.onager und E.h.kulan bestehen, die zur Identifizierung von Einzeltieren aus der jeweiligen Subspezies bei grösserem und repräsentativerem Probenumfang ausreichen.


The phylogeny and evolution of equids were at the center of this study. In addition, the problems of conservation were discussed. The essential question was whether individuals and populations of E. hemionus onager and E.hemionus kulan could be differentiated by means of microsatellite markers.

31 microsatellites, distributed on all autosomal chromosomes of the horse (2n=64) and completed with a marker on the X-chromosome, served as the base for this study. Through those markers, 120 equids from 11 different populations were genotyped (3840 genotypes). The 11 populations belonged to three groups of E.asinus asinus, one group of E.africanus somaliensis, four populations of Asiatic wild asses (E.hemionus sbsp. and E.kiang), as well as one group each of E.burchelli, E.ferus przewalskii and E.caballus caballus. The generated multilocus genotypes were analysed with statistical programs developed especially for questions of phylogeny. The analysis used the ?allele-sharing? approach, which resulted in clear differentiations between all tested populations. Phylogenetic analyses by means of (__)_ showed periods of divergence for populations that were comparable to already published data based on mitochondrial DNA and fossils. The application of a multivariate correspondence analysis confirmed the results obtained from ?allele sharing? and made the single populations’ groupings clearly discernible. The hypothesis of the exclusive genetic origin of all domesticated donkeys from the African wild donkey was confirmed repeatedly from the acquired data.

The results of the assignment methods according to Bayes suggest that generally, bigger random samples are necessary in order to definitely assign even unclear cases to a population. However, about 83% of the animals could be assigned correctly with a high degree of certainty in this study, in spite of a relatively limited number of equids. On the whole, it became apparent that there are differences on the level of microsatellite markers between E.h.onager and E.h.kulan which are sufficient to identify single animals from the respective subspecies in a bigger and more representative sample.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 10:04

ZACHOS, F. E. & HARTL, G.B. (2006)

Island Populations, Human Introductions and the Limitations of Genetic Analyses: the Case of the Sardinian Red Deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus).

Human Evolution (2006) 21: 177–183. DOI 10.1007/s11598-006-9012-y


The Corsican red deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus) is endemic to the Tyrrhenian islands of Corsica and Sardinia. It has been regarded as an introduced species and has allegedly been present on the islands since the beginning of the Neolithic culture some 8,000 years ago. In this review, we present the results of relevant genetic analyses and discuss their implications for the origin of C. e. corsicanus. Different genetic studies hypothesize that the most probable ancestral populations for Sardianian red deer were alternatively, the Near East, North Africa, or mainland Italy. These respective scenarios are evaluated and it is concluded that geneticists have not yet been unable to definitively solve the problem. However, a natural colonization of the Tyrrhenian islands from mainland Italy via the Tuscan archipelago is not only in accordance with palaeontological findings but also with at least some of the genetic data.

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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 08:13

STÜWE, M. & GRODINSKY, C. (1986)

Die Wiedereinbürgerung des Steinbockes - ein ungewollter genetischer Grossversuch.

Wildbiologie in der Schweiz 6/13. Wildtier Schweiz, Zürich.



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Genetic Analysis of Sable (Martes zibellina) and Pine Marten (M. martes) Populations in Sympatric Part of Distribution Area in the Northern Urals.

Russian Journal of Genetics, 2010, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 488–492. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., ISSN 1022-7954.


European pine martens (Martes martes) were once distributed across much of western Europe. A combination of factors, such as persecution, trapping, and habitat loss have led to sharp declines in the species’ numbers and range and, as such, local populations have become more vulnerable to extinction. To evaluate the influence of these factors on both the level of genetic variation and population structure, we genotyped pine martens from across much of their current distribution. Continental M. martes populations were found to have a higher level of genetic structure and lower genetic variation than their North American sibling species, M. americana, sampled throughout Canada.

The differences among mainland populations of these species may lie in greater levels of habitat fragmentation and persecution experienced by European martens, though it is difficult to exclude more ancient processes such as the influence of glaciations. Among island populations of the two species, the Scottish population revealed a similar level of structure and variation to the M. a. atrata population of Newfoundland, however Ireland was more differentiated with less genetic variation. Our work using microsatellites also extends previous mtDNA evidence for the presence of M. americana haplotypes in England, raising the possibility of hybridization with M. martes. These  findings may  influence current discussions  on  the  status  of English  martens and the  appropriateness of proposed re-introductions by revealing that some indigenous martens persist in England, despite the presence of some potential hybrids in the region


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Freitag, 14 Dezember 2012 09:31


Konstitution ist die körperliche Verfassung eines Tieres, die es aufgrund seiner genetischen Veranlagung und der Lebensbedingungen während der Wachstumsphase erlangt hat.

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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 07:44


Evolution ist ein Prozess, der sich über mehrere Generationen hinwegzieht. In diesem Prozess gibt es Änderungen im genetische Erbgut (Mutation) einer Population von Lebewesen, die sich paaren und vermehren.

Teile des Erbguts (Gene) können sich durch Mutation so verändern, dass deren entsprechenden Eigenschaften positive, negative oder auch keine Auswirkungen auf das Überleben einer Population haben. Dabei bleiben Gene, welche für Eigenschaften stehen, die das Überleben einer Art begünstigen, mit höherer Wahrscheinlichkeit im Erbgut einer Population, als Gene, die für Eigenschaften stehen, welche das Überleben nicht oder negativ beeinflussen.

Durch die Mutationen entstehen aus primitiven Tierformen höher entwickelte, differenziertere Arten. Arten sterben aus, um neuen, besser an die Umweltbedingungen angepassten Arten Platz zu machen.

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