Freitag, 04 Dezember 2020 17:29


EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus).

1st edition. European Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Amsterdam, The Netherlands


The tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) is a small deer with three subspecies, which is near-endemic in south China. It is closely related to the muntjacs (Muntiacus). A tuft of hair, dark brown coat, white patterned ears and tail, and, for the males, enlarged canines and very small antlers, are the main characteristics for this species. The species occurs in forests, mainly on hillsides, and is a browsing herbivore. The species has a seasonal reproduction; mating takes place in autumn and fawns are born inspring and early summer. The conservation status is Near Threatened and this status is supposed to vary between subspecies. In European zoo collections, Michie’s tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus michianus) are maintained. The tufted deer needs a planted enclosure which provides shade and shelter. An interesting enclosure is enriching in itself. Year-round access to an indoor area is recommended. They can be kept individually,in a pair or in a trio, but always only one adult male per enclosure. The animals should be fed forage, browse, (leafy) vegetables and concentrate, enriched with vitamin E. Tufted deer are strong, and few medical conditions are reported. The species should not be housed with or near to sheep, since they are susceptible to infection with ovine herpesvirus 2.


Freigegeben in W
Montag, 10 Februar 2020 09:18


Haltung von Wildeseln. Der Persische Onager in europäischen Zoos.

WildTierZeit 2012/2: 19-21.


Der Onager ist in seiner Heimat Iran vom Aussterben bedroht. Die Bestände in der Wildbahn beschränken sich auf maximal 500 Tiere. Europäische Zoos bemühen sich im Rahmen eines Erhaltungszuchtprogramms (EEP) um die Erhaltung dieser seltenen Tierart. Doch auch in Europa sinken die Bestandszahlen. Zurzeit sind noch 83 (28,55) Onager im Zuchtprogramm erfasst. Viele zoologische Einrichtungen geben die Onagerhaltung auf und zeigen "publikumswirksamere" Tiere, so dass dringend neue Haltergesucht werden. Im Folgenden sollen Möglichkeiten aufgezeigt werden, wie auch kleinere Tierparks oder Wildparks Onager mit relativ geringem finanziellen und baulichen Aufwand tiergerecht halten können und wie diese interessante und anspruchslose Tierart für Besucher attraktiv präsentiert werden kann.



Freigegeben in H
Donnerstag, 03 Januar 2019 16:19


Pygmy Hippopotamus/MandriII exhibit at Melbourne Zoo.

International Zoo Yearbook 33: 252-262


Melbourne Zoo has recently developed a naturalistic West African tropical rain‐forest exhibit for Pygmy hippopotamuses Choeropsis liberiensis and Mandrills Mandrillus sphinx. The design of the enclosures was commenced in 1989 and the growing and planting of appropriate vegetation took three years. Once the animals were transferred to the exhibit various water‐management problems had to be resolved and some plant destruction occurred.



Freigegeben in A
Sonntag, 18 November 2018 09:43

CLUBB, R. & MASON, G. J. (2007)

Natural behavioural biology as a risk factor in carnivore welfare: How analysing species differences could help zoos improve enclosures.

Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102 (3–4): 303-328


In captivity, some species often seem to thrive, while others are often prone to breeding problems, poor health, and repetitive stereotypic behaviour. Within carnivores, for instance, the brown bear, American mink and snow leopard typically adapt well to captivity and show few signs of poor welfare, while the clouded leopard and polar bear are generally hard to breed successfully and/or to prevent from performing abnormal behaviour. Understanding the fundamental source of such differences could enable reproductive success and behavioural normalcy to be improved in zoos and breeding centres, by increasing the appropriateness of the enclosure designs and environmental enrichments offered particular species, and by allowing these to be offered pre-emptively instead of reactively. Here, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of the variation in apparent welfare between captive carnivore species stems from specific aspects of natural behaviour. We tested pre-existing hypotheses that species-typical welfare is predicted by natural hunting behaviour, general activity levels, ranging, or territorial patrolling (all activities that are constrained in captivity), by collating data on median stereotypy levels and infant mortality for multiple captive species, and then regressing these against median values for the relevant aspects of natural behavioural biology (e.g. hunts per day, proportion of flesh in the diet, home-range size, etc.). Our results revealed that instead of relating to foraging (e.g. hunting), as often assumed, carnivore stereotypy levels are significantly predicted by natural ranging behaviour (e.g. home-range size and typical daily travel distances). Furthermore, naturally wide-ranging lifestyles also predicted relatively high captive infant mortality rates. These results suggest that enclosure designs and enrichments focussing on carnivores’ ranging tendencies (e.g. providing more space, multiple den sites, greater day-to-day environmental variability/novelty, and/or more control over exposure to aversive or rewarding stimuli) could be particularly effective means of improving welfare; and also, that targeting such enrichment programmes on wide-ranging species, before problems even emerge, might effectively pre-empt their development. Alternatively, species with relatively small ranges could instead be made the focus of future collections and breeding programmes, zoos phasing out wide-ranging carnivores in favour of those species inherently more suited to current or readily achievable enclosure sizes and enrichment regimes.


Freigegeben in C

Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

ZooKeys 507: 99-114 (08 Jun 2015).


Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

Ganzer Text:

Freigegeben in H
Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 07:42

CIRKULAN, S. (2016)

Načrtovanje oskrbe in Živiljenjskega prostora obročkstorepth makijev ali kat (Lemur catta) v Bioparku Lipovec.

Planning of supply and habitat for Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) in Biopark Lipovec.


Universität Ljubljana, Pädagogische Fakultät und Biotechnische Fakultät
Mentor: doc. dr. Miha Krofel

Zoo Augsburg. Direktorin: Dr. Barbara Jantschke
und andere Zoos

V + 74 Seiten, 12 Tabellen, 36 Abbildungen (Fotos, Grafiken, Pläne)



Ring-tailed Lemur or Katta (Lemur catta) is a species of lemur, which naturally inhabits the gallery forests and spiny scrub of the African island Madagascar. With other lemur species it is one of the endemic species. And it is an extremely flexible and opportunistic species. According to the IUCN Red List from 2014 Ring-tailed Lemur is an endangered species, and is often bred in parks and zoos as part of breeding programs around the world in order to maintain diverse genetic bank and a healthy population of animals in the artificial environment which would be, in the case of extinction in the wild reintroduced into the natural environment. This charismatic lemur will be settled in the Biopark Lipovec, a project that is currently in progress and in Slovenia represents an innovative approach in education, green tourism and especially nature conservation. In the Graduation thesis we used the scientific literature, analysed the life of Ring-tailed Lemurs in nature and compared it with life of animals in an artificial environment in five different European zoos and in the end created a plan of supply, care and living space for the animals to be settled in the Biopark Lipovec. European zoos have very specialized diet plans, based on natural diet. We previewed the best practices and made a diet plan for our lemurs. Ring-tailed lemurs are very flexible and opportunistic, also in nature, that is why in an artificial environment preventive and curative veterinary care is used rarely. Research showed that the quality of exhibit is more important than its size. We also summed up good practices of habitat design and tehniques by other zoos and made a plan of new habitat in Biopark Lipovec and added some innovation and unique solutions for animal display and care. Breeding of Ring-tailed Lemur in an artificial environment is undemanding in comparison with other species. Since the natural environment of Ring-tailed Lemur is still declining due to human impact, the population of wild animals is decreasing, that is why the breeding of animals in zoos and parks, education about endangered species and their habitat, of the most important for the species survival.



Freigegeben in C
Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 07:34

WEITKAMP, M. (2016)

Umgestaltungsmaßnahmen im Giraffengehege des Zoos Osnabrück zur Förderung der Klauengesundheit.

Reconstruction of the giraffe exhibit at Osnabrück Zoo to improve the quality of hooves.

Bachelor Thesis

Fakultät Agrarwissenschaften und Landschaftsarchitektur, Hochschule Osnabrück. Betreuer: Prof. Thomas Heinrich und Prof. Olaf Hemker

Zoo Osnabrück, Prof. Dr. Michael Böer

Veröffentlichung: Der Zoologische Garten, 85 (3–4): 121-130

Bezugsquelle für ganzen Artikel


The Bachelor thesis answered many questions regarding the hoof health of giraffes. It determined that it is dependent on many different factors like the horn wear. From the biomechanical view an adequate, natural horn wear is essential for healthy hooves. The rougher the ground material and the more sharp-edged the grain shape, the stronger is the horn wear. At the Zoo in Osnabrück the sharp-edged, crushed grit on the concrete surface in the giraffe stable is responsible for the horn wear. Thus, an adequate natural horn wear is guaranteed. However, the ground in the area around the feed baskets should be set up with concrete and grit because of the long lasting of the giraffes in this area at day. Additional sharp-edged material should be placed on the itineraries of the giraffes as well. The grain size should be over 8mm and compacted very well to prevent a possible removal of the material. The analysis of the gradient and the ground samples of the “Samburu-Land” showed that the formation of channels and the material removal was caused by the interaction of different factors like the water permeability of the ground, the hoof pressure, the amount of the water runoff and the gradient in the enclosure. The visitor survey revealed that the “Samburu-Land” seems very “grey” and “deserted” in the winter month. A possible solution could be a planting with evergreen wood, the creation of a grassing element or the planting of redtop (Agrostis gigante.).



Freigegeben in W
Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 09:31

JES, H. (1972)

Eine Uferanlage fur Schlammspringer und Winkerkrabben im Kölner Aquarium am Zoo.

Z. Kölner Zoo 15 (4): 111-117.


Nach einer kurzen Schilderung des Lebensraumes von Schlammspringern und Winkerkrabben der Mangrovenzone tropischer Küsten folgt die Beschreibung einer Uferanlage zur Haltung dieser Tiere. Das Verhältnis von Land- und Wasserfläche beträgt 1:2, der Bodengrund besteht aus Sand. Bei den 500 l Wasser handelt es sich um ein aus künstlichem Meerwasser hergestelltes Brackwasser, spezifisches Gewicht 1.015-1.018, pH-Wert 8.2. Das Wasser wird über Muschelgrit gefiltert, 35 l/min, und fliedßt über einen sogenannten Wellenkipper zurück in die Anlage. Mit dem genannten Gerät, welches ausführlich beschrieben wird, werden 6 cm hohe Wellen erzeugt, die im Abstand von 15 Sekunden die Anlage durchfließen. Neben der Beschreibung der verschiedenen Wärmequellen, Angaben über die unterschiedlichen Temperaturbereiche, Raum 22°C, Sandoberfläche 26°C, in der Nähe der Heikabel 32°C, Luft 25°C, relative Luftfeuchtigkeit 65-90%.

Die von anderen Fischen abweichenden morphologischen Besonderheiten der Atmung und der Beflossung werden geschildert und das Verhalten der Schlammspringer in der Uferanlage wird einschließlich Fütterungshinweisen aufgezeigt. Von dem Leben der Winkerkrabben wird berichtet und anhand der in ihrer Heimat ablaufenden Handlungen, immer geprägt von den Gezeiten, die Schwierigkeiten einer vollkommenen Nahahmung dargelegt.



Freigegeben in J
Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 12:47

RÜBEL, A. & ZINGG, R. (2015)

Kaeng Krachan Elefantenpark für Asiatische Elefanten (Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758) im Zoo Zürich.

Kaeng Krachan Elephant Park for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758) at Zürich Zoo

Der Zoologische Garten 84, 1–2: 61–74


Mehr Raum für die Elefanten, mehr Nähe für die Besucher: Der neue Kaeng Krachan Elefantenpark markiert einen weiteren Meilenstein im Zoo Zürich. Während sich die Elefanten vielseitiger in der so genannten „protected contact“ Haltung bewegen, soziale Kontakte pflegen und sogar schwimmen können, sind die Zoobesucher so nahe am Tier dran wie nie zuvor.

Seinen Namen hat der neue Elefantenpark vom Kaeng Krachan Nationalpark in Thailand. Der Zoo Zürich unterstützt dort ein Projekt zum Schutz Asiatischer Elefanten. Wichtiger Teil des Projekts ist die Entschärfung des „Human-Elephant-Conflict“, des Konfliktes zwischen Bauern und Elefanten.

Der Einsatz des Zoo Zürich für den Kaeng Krachan Nationalpark zeigt sich in der Gestaltung der Anlage und den integrierten edukativen Elementen und Aktivitätsprogrammen des neuen Elefantenparks. In der Anlage wird ein Beobachtungsturm mit einem Alarmzaun gezeigt, wie ihn die Thailändischen Bauern nutzen, um ihre Felder rund um den Park vor Zerstörung zu nutzen. Eine Elefantenspur, die auf eine zerstörte Bauernhütte hinführt, zeigt auf, welche Schäden die Tiere in einer Nacht anrichten können.



Freigegeben in R

The design of new bear facilities.

Kapitel 2 der EAZA Bear Husbandry Guidelines. 45 Seiten, Abbildungen, Tabellen. EAZA, Amsterdam


This chapter considers both outdoor and indoor enclosures, their furnishings, substrates and the technical features of new bear facilities. An enclosure should be designed to provide all the requirements necessary for the care and maintenance of the bears and also, if needed, for reproduction. The facility must not only be escape proof, but should also create suitable conditions and stimulation which will enable the animals to perform a wide range of species-specific behaviours. The environment must not permanently create problems, which the animals cannot solve, and should be sufficiently flexible in design for any adverse situations to be easily rectified.

It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the normal behaviour of bears, their use of habitat and particularly their locomotor activities in relation to the use of cage furnishings and structures in outdoor enclosures, substrates and any other factors, which may effect them. This will enable the zoo to design facilities, which meet the animals' physical and behavioural needs. Feeding, social and spatial organization and reproductive biology will be treated in more detail in subsequent chapters. Only general features of these aspects of bear biology will be considered in this chapter, where they are relevant to the design of a bear facility.



Freigegeben in K
Seite 1 von 3
© Peter Dollinger, Zoo Office Bern hyperworx