Maintenance and breeding of duikers Cephalophus spp. at Gladys Porter Zoo, Brownsville
International Zoo Yearb. 20: 93-98.
Der Gladys Porter Zoo hielt damals eine der größten Ducker-Kollektionen bestehend aus 30 Tieren in 6 Arten. Es wird über die Haltung und Zucht dieser Tiere berichtet, insbesondere über den erhöhten Kupferbedarf des Zebraduckers.
Strukturierung eines Geheges für Nasenbären (Nasua nasua) im Hinblick auf eine Gemeinschaftshaltung mit Brillenbären (Tremarctos ornatus).
Universität Zürich, Zoologisches Institut, Abteilung Ethologie und Wildforschung
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. H. Kummer
Das Benthal ist die Bodenzone eines Gewässers. Das Benthos (altgriechisch τό βένθος = die Tiefe) die Gesamtheit aller in dieser Bodenzone vorkommenden Lebewesen. Benthisch = am Gewässerboden lebend.
EEP Husbandry Guidelines for Bush Dogs (Speothos venaticus).
5 Seiten. Hrsg. Zoo Frankfurt für EAZA, Amsterdam.
EEP Husbandry Guidelines for Squirrel Monkeys (genus Saimiri).
57 Seiten. La Vallée des Singes, Romagne.
Squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri) are attractive primates that are popular in zoos. However, recent surveys showed that breeding of the genus in European zoos is often poor and that a close cooperation between zoos will be necessary to prevent the extinction of the genus in the near future. For this reason, breeding programs have been established for both species that are being kept in European zoos.
In order to help zoos to improve the husbandry of squirrel monkeys, husbandry guidelines have been compiled. The guidelines are based on information from the literature, results of earlier surveys and personal experiences. These guidelines should be seen as a living document that will need regular updates whenever there are new developments in the husbandry.
One problem with the consulted publications is that it has not always been clear which species was used for the study, and we do know that there are interspecific differences in behaviour and hormonal responses. However, as there is little evidence that the husbandry require ments for the two species of squirrel monkeys kept in European zoos are very different, the guidelines can be used for both of them.
In order to further improve our knowledge on the husbandry of squirrel monkeys, zoos should continue to exchange information on their experiences. I sincerely hope that these guidelines will have a positive effect on the well-being and reproductive outcome of squirrel monkeys in captivity
Maintenance of Xenarthra in captivity.
In: Vizcaíno, S.F. & LOUGHRY, W. J. (eds.) The Biology of the Xenarthra: 232-243.
University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-3165-1.
Although captive conditions for Xenarthra have improved considerably, many questions regarding appropriate husbandry still remain unanswered and breeding success in captivity is low for many species. It is important to realize that behavior as well as dietary and environmental needs vary considerably across species within a taxon. Husbandry protocols that have been elaborated for one species are therefore of only use when designing enclosures or developing diets for other, even closely related species. A description of the specific needs of each species would go beyond the scope of this book. This chapter therefore provides just a brief overview of appropriate husbandry conditions.
Given that important interspecific differences can occur, we have tried to avoid making sweeping generalizations about captive management. Nonetheless, given the limitations of space, some generalizations were unavoidable.limited.
Preliminary findings of behavioral patterns in captive alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) and prospects for future conservation.
Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 2010; 34(2): 111-117 © TÜBİTAK, doi:10.3906/vet-0707-2
Captive farming of alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) in China has been used for conservation and harvesting of musk since the mid 1950s. Despite this long history, management practices and captive breeding have been primarily based on trial and error due to lack of behavioral and ecological information about this vulnerable species. Understanding behavioral patterns plays a vital part in determining appropriate management systems; hence the aim of this study was to determine the effect of captivity on behavioral patterns of alpine musk deer by comparing wild-caught and the captive-born alpine musk deer. From August 2002 to January 2003, the behavioral patterns of 30 wild-caught (WC) and 15 captive-bred (CB) adult alpine musk deer were recorded at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm (XMDF), located in Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu province, China. Focal sampling was used to observe the frequencies of 12 behavior categories. The behavioral patterns of WC and CB musk deer were found to be similar; however, when gender was considered, male WC deer showed a significantly high er frequency of agonistic nteraction. These preliminary results suggest that captivity has had no immediate impact on the behavioral patterns of captive alpine musk deer despite 10 generations of captivity. Therefore, the alpine musk deer is not suited for domestication and further investigation into the effectiveness of musk deer farming for the purpose of harvesting musk should be undertaken.
Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures (10 m × 10 m), in groups ranging from 5 to 7 individuals. Each enclosure contained a central yard with 7 adjoining indoor cells (4 m²). Wire mesh separated enclosures enabled animals to see, hear, and smell each other. Human interaction was limited to 5 min at dawn and dusk during which animals were fed and husbandry duties were conducted.
During the study, males and females were housed separately from March to October; both CB and WB individuals, however, were housed in the same enclosures. From November to February, one male was introduced into each of the female enclosures and the males introduced into the female enclosure were both CB and WB, as with commercial breeding practices.
Enclosure Design for Captive Slow and Pygmy Lorises.
In: Primates of the Oriental Night - proceedings of the Indonesian Workshop: Taxonomy, husbandry, and conservation of tarsiers and lorises. Jakarta, Indonesia, 15-25 February 2003, at the Pusat Primata Schmutzer / Schmutzer Primate Center, Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta. Special edition of Treubia, Bogor: 123-135
While large numbers of slow and pygmy lorises are commonly kept in local zoos and rescue centers, information about
enclosure design and minimal housing requirements is often lacking. We present recommendations for designing indoor and
outdoor loris enclosures for exhibits, rescue centers, and sanctuaries. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each
enclosure type and address construction specifications, furnishings, environmental requirements, social considerations, and
keeper monitoring. Essential requirements for loris release into naturalistic outdoor enclosures are presented along with
questions for future studies.
In some facilities such as primate rescue centers, wire cages may be the best option available. An outdoor cage measuring 2.00 m x 2.50 m x 1.80 m can successfully house 1-3 slow lorises if the furnishings are sufficient. (See climbing structures and nest box sections.) Wire should always be free of rust or sharp edges. Poly vinyl coated wire is ideal because it resists corrosion from moisture and loris urine marking. Wire gage of 2 cm x 2 cm is comfortable for lorises to grasp, and it will keep rodents and potential predators outside. Outdoor enclosures must also have a solid roof to protect lorises from sun and rain.
Maximum flexibility can be achieved by building several smaller cages (minimum size of 1.70 m x 1.00 m x .70 m per slow loris), which are connected with removable wire tunnels. Depending on whether the tunnel gates are open or closed, lorises can be kept alone or given access to other enclosures. If cages share common walls, double wire mesh or solid walls must be used to prevent lorises from biting their neighbor ’s fingers. Keeper doors should be large enough for a person to walk inside the enclosure or easily reach any area inside the cage. Doorframes must be made of a solid material that will not bend. Otherwise, lorises may be able to escape by squeezing their bodies through the small gaps between door openings. Cages should be elevated at least 15 cm above the ground to so that excreta and other waste will fall below. Indoor cages can easily be moved for cleaning if wheels are attached to the bottoms. Food dishes and nest boxes can be placed on wire shelves, which are also useful for loris resting places.
The Grzimek House for Small Mammals at Frankfurt Zoo.
International Zoo Yearbook 22: 276–287, January 1982.
ISSN 0074-9664. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1090.1982.tb02051.x