Leopard - Panthera pardus.

Cat News Special Issue 5, Autumn 2010: Cats in China: 30-33. IUCN Cat Specialist Group, ISSN 1027-2992.


In Asia, the leopard was originally widely distributed south of about 45°N. Across southwest and central Asia, leopard populations are small, separated and isolated; distribution and present status is however poorly known in most central Asiatic countries. Leopards are believed to be still relatively abundant in the forests of the Indian sub-continent, through Southeast Asia and into China, although they are becoming increasingly rare outside protected areas. In China, they are still present throughout the east, centre and south. In the 1950s, national campaigns to eradicate pest animals – including tigers and leopards – had a considerable impact on the populations, mainly in the south. Based on purchased skins, 2,000–3,000 leopards were killed each year during the mid 1950s. The Critically Endangered Amur leopard has been reduced to a very small population in Russia, China, and possibly North Korea. The 2007 census revealed 25–34 animals remaining in the wild. Although P. p. orientalis is extremely rare compared to the other subspecies, we know much more about leopards in northeastern China than about those in the rest of the country, because the Amur leopard has received much attention and has also profited from field research and conservation activities focussing on Siberian tigers.


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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 23:55

NOWELL, K. & JACKSON, P. (1996)

Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan - Wild Cats.

IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. IUCN Gland. 382 pp. ISBN-2-8317-0045-0.


The publication resents the most comprehensive and up-to-date information available on the 36 wild cats of the world. It includes the first published collection of detailed range maps and some of the first photographs of rare species in the wild. It provides a thorough review of major issues in cat conservation such as habitat loss and management of big cats in livestock areas; field and laboratory research; international trade; the role of zoos; and reintroduction. High priority are identified to further the cause of cat conservation.


The Cat Action Plan Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan consists of a review and analysis of information relevant to the conservation of wild cats, and a priority action program.

Part I provides summaries of the biology, ecology, distribution, and conservation status of each cat species. These Species Accounts are organized under five geopolitical regions: Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and southwest Asia, Tropical Asia, Eurasia, and the Americas.

Part II examines the major issues pertinent to the conservation of all cats: habitat loss, management of big cats near people, research, trade, cats in captivity, and reintroduction. Parts I and II together form a comprehensive reference for people interested in cats and their conservation. The information contained within is a demonstration of the work of cat specialists, and it is hoped that the rich and multi-faceted picture of cats and their conservation which emerges will stimulate more people to become active on behalf of the wild cats. Wild Cats is more, however, than an authoritative reference work. It is a strategic planning document which prescribes methods for making cat conservation more effective. These principles of cat conservation, which can be drawn from the text, prioritize conservation action on both international and regional levels. The principles also serve as a framework to aid local authorities in planning their own cat conservation priorities.

Part III, the Action Plan itself, presents 105 projects that build on the data and recommendations presented previously, and focus the general principles of cat conservation. Drawn up by the Cat Specialist Group, they concentrate on the most vulnerable species and are priorities for cat conservation in the 1990s. Implementation of these projects forms the mission of the Cat Specialist Group over the coming decade. If these projects realize their objectives, the family Felidae should enter the 21st century in good shape. The priority projects listed in the Action Plan, for the most part, are in need of (1) financial support and (2) researchers and others to work on them. Those interested in funding, carrying out, or helping with any of these projects should contact the Vice Chairman, Projects for details: Kristin Nowell, 2520-4,41st St. NW, Washington DC 20007, U.S.A.

An Executive Summary of Wild Cats prefaces Part I. In addition, the “Major Issues” chapters of Part II end in short summary sections which outline key points. A regional index to species vulnerability, which generally indicates species conservation priority, prefaces each regional chapter in Part I, the Species Accounts. The introduction to the Species Accounts explains how species vulnerability is ranked. Part III, the Action Plan, is organized according to the topics examined in Part II and the species order of Part I.

The Cat Specialist Group
The IUCNKSC Cat Specialist Group is the world’s premier body of scientific and practical expertise on wild cats and their conservation. Over 160 members (see Appendix 5) represent 50 countries and include field biologists, wildlife managers, government officials, leaders of nongovernmental organizations which focus on cat conservation, and other specialists from diverse but interrelated fields including taxonomy, genetics, environmental law, wildlife trade and use, conservation education and wildlife photography, small population biology and captive breeding, and wildlife veterinary medicine. These people serve as Cat Specialist Group members in their personal capacities, but bring with them the experience and the knowledge gained in their professional careers. They volunteer the best of their thinking, and also, in many cases, their time and services, for cat conservation. This document represents the Group’s first major collective effort to review what has been accomplished in the past, and to prepare a strategic plan for future action.

Through its members, the Cat Specialist Group maintains a substantial collective library. The Group plans to consolidate and disseminate this resource by establishing a Cat Conservation Data Center (see priority project in Part III). The Chairman publishes a biannual newsletter, Cat News, which is circulated to members of the group. It is available to anyone else who makes an annual donation to a special fund in the name of “Friends of the Cat Group.”

For more information about the Cat Specialist Group, contact: Peter Jackson, Chairman, IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Route des Macherettes, 1172 Bougy-Villars, Switzerland, Tel + Fax: +41 (21) 808 6012, email: peterjackson@gn.apc.org or c/o the Species Survival Commission, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, 1196 Gland, Switzerland, Tel: +41 (22) 999 0001, Fax: +41 (22) 999 0015, email: mgd@hq.iucn.ch (attn jackson).



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Effect of housing and environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity, behavior and reproductive cyclicity in the female tigrina (Leopardus tigrinus) and margay (Leopardus wiedii).

Zoo Biol. 26(6):441-60


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different captive housing conditions on reproductive cyclicity and adrenocortical activity in adult females of two small‐sized felid species, the tigrina (Leopardus tigrinus; n = 3) and margay (Leopardus wiedii; n = 2). Females were housed as singletons and subjected to three enclosure conditions over successive time periods: Phase I—large, enriched enclosures for 3 months; Phase II—small, empty enclosures for 5.5 months; Phase III—the same small enclosures enriched with branches and nest boxes for 6.5 months. Fecal samples were collected five times weekly throughout the study for analysis of progestagen, estrogen, and corticoid metabolites. On the basis of observed behaviors, stereotypic pacing was more frequent before feeding for all cats, regardless of enclosure conditions. Both species displayed a bimodal activity pattern, with peaks occurring at nightfall and dawn. All animals exhibited agitated behavior, characterized by a high frequency and duration of stereotypic pacing, primarily during the first 3 days after moving to the small empty enclosures. On the basis of hormonal analyses, ovarian follicular activity decreased and corticoid concentrations increased in tigrinas after transfer to the small barren cages compared to the patterns observed in the initial large, enriched enclosures. Corticoid concentrations in tigrinas then declined after small cage enrichment. Margay females exhibited increased corticoid excretion during Phases II and III, but in contrast to tigrinas, concentrations remained high even after cage enrichment. It was further showed that enriching the small enclosures was insufficient to reestablish normal ovarian activity within the time frame of the study for both species. In summary, margay and tigrina females exhibited distinct elevations in corticoid concentrations after transfer from large enriched enclosures to smaller barren cages that corresponded with agitated behavior, especially immediately after transfer. Fecal corticoid concentrations were reduced after cage enrichment in tigrinas, but not in margays. Although only a few individuals were evaluated, data suggest there may be species differences in response to captive environmental conditions. Overall results emphasize the importance of enclosure dimensions and enrichment when designing species appropriate environments for improving the health and reproductive fitness of threatened species. 


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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 12:54

MEYER, J. N. von (1826)

Dissertatio inauguralis anatomico-medica de genere felium.

Diss. Vet. med. Univ. Wien. 62 pp.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 10:50

HEMMER, H. (1974)

Untersuchungen zur Stammesgeschichte der Pantherkatzen (Pantherinae).
Teil III: Zur Artgeschichte des Löwen Panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758).

Veröff. Zool. Staatssammlung München 17: 167-280.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 10:48

HEMMER, H. (1967)

Über das Aussehen der klein- bzw. vorderasiatischen Löwen, Panthera leo ssp.

Säugetierkd. Mitt. 15, München: 50-53.




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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 10:47

HEMMER, H. (1966)

Über das Aussehen des altgriechischen Löwen (Panthera leo ssp. bzw. persica).

Säugetierkd. Mitt. 14, München: 297-303.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 10:45

HEMMER, H. (1963)

Über das Aussehen des altägyptischen Löwen (Panthera leo nubica) und seine verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen zu den benachbarten Löwenunterarten.

Säugetierkd. Mitt. 11, München: 117-128.



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Die Katzen der Welt - Kurzporträts.

IUCN/SSC, Cat Specialist Group c/o KORA, CH-3074 Muri bei Bern.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 21:39

DROSTE, F. Baron von (1869)

Die zwei letzten in der Provinz Preussen erlegten Luchse.

Der Zoolog. Garten. Z. für Beobachtung, Pflege und Zucht der Thiere. Gemeinsames Organ für Deutschland und angrenzende Gebiete. 10: 48-50. Verlag der Zoologischen Gesellschaft Frankfurt a. M.



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