BLOMQVIST, L. (2017)
Zooquaria 96: 20-21.
To counteract the ongoing population decline, reintroductions will be undertaken in two Finnish Natura 2000 areas in western Finland, south of the current distribution range. The reintroductions form part of a larger, seven-year EU LIFE project on forest reindeer population management. Fifteen-hectare acclimatisation enclosures will be built in both areas to house 10 to 15 animals each. Reindeer from four participating EAZA zoos will be mixed with wild individuals captured by staff from the Natural Resources Institute Finland. Calves bred in the enclosures will then be soft-released when they are between 18 months and two years old.
RODE-MARGONE, J. & RADEMAKER, M. (2017)
Populationsgröße, Verhalten und Arterhaltung des Bawean-Hirsches - Eine Studie des Projekt BEKI (Bawean Endemics Conservation Initiative).
ZGAP-Mitteilungen 33(1): 28-30
Der Artikel informiert über den Bestand, das Verhalten der wilden Tiere, die Bedrohungsfaktoren sowie das Ex-situ-Management und gibt einen Ausblick auf zukünftige Artenschutzinitiatven.
OLIVER, W. L. R., COX, C. R. & DOLAR, L. L. (1991)
The Philippine Spotted Deer Conservation Project.
ORYX 25 (4): 199-205.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605300034335. Published online: 06 July 2009.
The Philippine spotted deer Cervus alfredi, endemic to the Visayan Islands, is threatened by deforestation and hunting. Already extinct over 95 per cent of its former range, populations survive probably only in Panay and Negros. In 1987 a conservation programme was drawn up with two immediate objectives: to establish a national park in west Panay and to embark on a captive-breeding programme. The authors describe the operation of the project and its progress to date, and discuss plans for its extension.
RATAJSZCZAK, R., ADLER, J. & SMIELOWSKI, J. (1993)
The Vietnamese sika Cervus nippon pseudaxis conservation project.
International Zoo Yearbook 32: 56-60·
Ziel des Projekts war, Sikas aus dem Gatter im Cuc Phuong Nationalpark an europäische Zoos zu senden, um die genetische Variabilität der europäischen Popultion zu erhöhen und die Kooperation zwischen den vietnamesishcen Behörden und Institutionen mit en Zoos zu stärken.
THÉVENON S., BONNET A., CLARO F., MAILLARD J.C. (2003)
Genetic diversity analysis of captive populations : the Vietnamese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) in zoological parks.
Zoo Biology 22: 465-475.
The Vietnamese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) is an endangered subspecies; it has disappeared in the wild, but is being bred in zoological parks. We studied the neutral genetic diversity and population structure of herds kept in different European zoos, using nine microsatellite loci. The goal was to evaluate the consequences of founding effects and breeding practices on the level and structure of genetic variability. The level of genetic diversity within the European zoos is not lower than that of the populations kept in Vietnamese farms. Strong differences among zoological parks and between the European group and the Vietnamese population were detected. This is probably due to founding effects, genetic drift, and possibly hybridization in both Europe and Vietnam. We expected to find a much lower level of genetic diversity in Europe. The current overall level of genetic diversity is probably due to the recent introduction of Cuc Phuong individuals, and to important differences among the populations of different zoological parks, which increase the total genetic variability. Although the current level of genetic variability is not particularly low, future levels are probably threatened by the current herd sizes and structure. Based on these results, management guidelines are proposed.
LERNOULD, J.-M., KIERULF, M.C.M. & CANALE, G. (2012)
Yellow-breasted capuchin Cebus xanthosternos: Support by zoos for its conservation - a success story.
International Zoo Yearb. 12: 71-79.
A breeding programme for Yellow-breasted capuchin Cebus xanthosternos was initiated at the Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre [Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ)], Brazil, in 1980 when this monkey was considered highly threatened. In 1987, a field survey concluded that an urgent measure that should be taken to save the species was the expansion of the breeding programme at the CPRJ and the extension of the programme to other collections with expertise in breeding New World primates. Mulhouse Zoo, France, proposed that CPRJ should expand the breeding programme to Europe and that the participating zoos should be asked to fund in situ conservation. The breeding programme began in Europe in 1990 at Mulhouse Zoo. At the end of 2010, there were 140 Yellow-breasted capuchins at 21 European zoos. Since 2002, in situ conservation actions have provided important information about wild populations. The largest forest fragments, scattered across c. 470 000 km2 over Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and Caatinga, were visited, and wild groups were monitored in three of them. The findings from these studies help us to understand the basic ecology of this primate and to build a conservation action plan for the future.
SCHREINER, C., SCHWARZENBERGER, F., KIRCHNER, W.H. & DRESSEN, W. (2015)
Hormonphysiologische und ethologische Untersuchung am Goodfellow-Baumkänguru (Dendrolagus goodfellowi Thomas, 1908).
Zool. Garten N.F. 84, 45-60.
Currently seven animal species worldwide are managed in Global Species Management Programs (GSMPs). Since 2013 the Goodfellow's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus goodfellowi) is the first marsupial in this group of species. The primary goal of the GSMP is to enhance the sustainability of the captive population. Reproductive cycles of seven female Goodfellow-tree kangaroo's kept in German zoos were studied during a period of 23 weeks. Faecal samples and behavioural data were collected in order to identify oestrous specific behaviour. Faecal hormone metabolites were analysed using an enzyme-immunoassay for 4-Pregnen-20α-ol-3-one (trivial name: 20α-Progesterone). Faecal hormone metabolites indicated reproductive activity in all females studied, even in a 19 year old individual. The average oestrous cycle was 54.3 ± 1.6 days. During oestrus periods females showed significantly more pouch licking behaviour (p < 0,01), while the breeding male had significantly more interest in females (p < 0,05) indicated by sniffling and vocalization (sound: clicking/“chitching”). Finally this study demonstrates that the applicability of faecal hormone analysis is an adequate method for reproductive monitoring in Goodfellow's tree kangaroos.
JANSE, M., ZIMMERMAN, B., GEERLINGS, L., BROWN, C. & NAGELKERKE, L. A. J. (2017)
Sustainable species management of the elasmobranch populations within European aquariums: a conservation challenge.
Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 5(1) 2017: 172-181.
Elasmobranchs, including sharks and rays, are popular animals in public aquariums. Worldwide,
more than 700 million people visit zoos and aquariums annually, enabling elasmobranchs to become
an important ambassador for their natural habitats. We conducted a census within the European
Association of Zoos and Aquaria to gain a better overview of which species are present within European
collections. The census showed that 102 chondrichthyan species are found in European zoos and public
aquariums, accounting for 8.6% of all known species. Benthic species are the most common. Of the
captive population, 47.1% of species have reproduced in aquariums. Of the reproducing species, 87.8%
exhibit body sizes of 51 to 250 cm. Categorising the reproductive results by reproductive mode, the
most successful are oviparous and aplacental viviparous groups with uterine villi or trophonemata. A
regional collection plan, stating the level of organised breeding recommended within the region, has
been defined using the results of the census and the IUCN status. Currently, 42 species are managed
by a species coordinator, within the ex-situ European elasmobranch population, to ensure a genetically
healthy population, to increase reproductive output and to conduct husbandry research. Longterm
breeding efforts will help to reduce the demand on wild populations to supply the aquarium
population. Species coordinators will become the contact for in-situ conservation initiatives and
international conservation bodies like IUCN. This study discusses further the future challenges in the
captive management of chondrichthyan populations.
FERGUSON, A. & PEARCE-KELLY, P. (2005)
Captive management of the Frégate Island giant tenebrionid beetle Polposipus herculeanus.
Phelsuma 13: 25-43.
The Frégate Island giant tenebriond beetle Polposipus herculeanus is a Critically Endangered species restricted to Frégate Island, Seychelles. The ex-situ conservation programme at the Zoological Society of London and the European Endangered Species Programme are described. Captive propagation started in 1996 and has been highly successful with the programme holding 980 adult beetles by the end of 2003. Reproductive data is described and the finding of pathological infections of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae is discussed.
GIBSON, R. C. & BULEY, K. R. (2004)
Maternal Care and Obligatory Oophagy in Leptodactylus fallax: A New Reproductive Mode in Frogs.
Copeia 2004(1):128-135. 2004. https://doi.org/10.1643/CE-02-091R2
Leptodactylus fallax is an endangered frog (Leptodactylidae) found only on Montserrat and Dominica in the eastern Caribbean. Here we report the first captive breeding of this species and document a unique reproductive strategy with an unprecedented level of maternal care. Male frogs fought and dominant animals occupied a nesting burrow. Males enticed females into the burrow with a trilling bark call (100–120 calls/min). A terrestrial foam nest was produced after 9–14 h. Female frogs remained close to their foam nests and defended them aggressively throughout larval development (42–57 days). Females fed larvae (26–43 per nest) trophic (unfertilized) eggs. Many provisioning events (10–13) were recorded, supplying a total of 10,000—25,000 eggs. Male frogs also remained close to the burrow and defended the site. Trophic eggs were the exclusive food source for the developing larvae, and L. fallax is therefore probably displaying a new form of amphibian endotrophy.