Montag, 26 Oktober 2020 15:51

ZIEGLER, N. (2000)

Species Management Guidlines - Amazona versicolor.

6 Seiten. ZOOLex, Wien.

Volltext (PDF):


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Breeding programme for St Lucia amazon.

International Zoo Yearbook 37: 214 - 220
DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1090.2000.tb00726.x


Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust maintains the only captive population of St Lucia amazons Amazona versicolor outside St Lucia. In 1975 a captive-breeding progamme was established as a safeguard against extinction of A. versicolor in the wild, however, the wild population recovered from a low of 100 birds in the 1970s to between 350 and 500 individuals at time of writing. Over 20 offspring have been bred at Jersey and since 1996 all chicks have been parent-reared. An extensive programme of research has been carried out on diet, mortality and breeding behaviour, resulting in considerable advances in our knowledge of the requirements of this species when maintained in captivity.


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Il recupero dello storione cobice in Italia - ACTION PLAN -Progetto Life 04NAT/IT/000126 "Conservation and Breeding of Italian Cobice Endemic Sturgeon".

160 Seiten. DOI: 10.13140/2.1.1085.7286.


In the Italian waters there were historicaly three species of sturgeon: Huso huso (Beluga sturgeon), Acipenser sturio (common sturgeon) and Acipenser naccarii (Cobice sturgeon). The first two species are considered as locally extinct, while the Cobice sturgeon is still signalled, even if seldom. There is moreover a population of this species banished to the fresh waters of the Tessin river, an affluent of the Po river, due to the building of the barrage of Serafini Island on the Po river. The main reason that brought the Cobice sturgeon to the danger of extinction is the eccessive fishing pression. Just in recent times legislation protected all three species, completely forbidding their fishing. Different factors contributed to the decline of population, among them the interruption of the fluvial continuity which, preventing the going back up of some intervals of rivers reduced the number of reproductive sites. The biological cycle of the Cobice sturgeon is very long, male specimens reach sexual maturity at 7-11 years of age, with a total length of at least 80 cm, and female specimens at 12-14 years of age, with a length of at least 1 m. The Cobice sturgeon has been object of numerous studies and projects, both of research and conservative. During the years, single Administrations on the whole territory, in particular in Lombardy, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna, have been engaged in local conservation interventions, even with repopulation programs. The population restricted to fresh waters of Tessin has then been object of a specific conservation program guided by the Lombardy Park of the Tessin Valley and co-financed by the European Community through the project LIFE03NAT/IT/000113. Only with the project LIFE04NAT/IT/000126 a common and coordinated commitment on a big area has been started, almost the areale of distribution of the species. This project that lasted three years involved Lombardy, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna. The involvement of regional Bodies, Parks and Province Authorities of three regions has represented a successful prerequisite, as the Cobice sturgeon moves and migrates on a big area, not belongig to a unique jurisdition. The project realization was possible thanks to three solid fundamentals: the experience of the Public Authorities, the availability of a stock of Cobice sturgeon, the gained and consolidated technology for its reproduction and breeding. The stock specimens were captured in the 1970s in the same project area and since then maintained in captivity. This stock and its descendants built the only and fundamental tank for the species rescue. All specimens now kept ex-situ, both by public authorities and private citizens, come from that original centre, whose specimens, still living, are bred and belong to the Azienda VIP of Orzinuovi in Lombardy, breeding site with CITES authorization. The technology for the reproduction and breeding in all life stages of the Cobice sturgeon was worked out in the same facility that was the first to realize the bloodless reproduction of A. naccarii in the 1980s. Afterwards, thanks to the LIFE project, artificial reproduction was carried out also at the public centre of Quinto di Treviso, in Veneto. Thanks to the project LIFE04NAT/IT/000126 the genetic characterization of a part of the specimens kept ex-situ has been carried out and a crioconservation technique of the seed of the Cobice sturgeon has been worked out realizing the germoplasm bank. Thanks to the reproductions of the two breeding centres, an important repopulation effort has been performed. Seeding of 66,038 Cobice sturgeon specimens has been carried out: 17,038 of them had an average length of 50 cm and an average weight of 900 gram, the remaining 49,000 specimens were put at the post-larva stage. The post-larva seeding has been performed according to a successful reproduction of the two centres, so that it goes beyond the plant potentiality to wean a so high number of alevins. For this reason the choice was to release the specimens at this life stage. Before carrying out the repopulation program, the watercourses have been studied in detail, showing important features of the habitat for the Cobice sturgeon, as for example substratum granulometry, stream velocity and bathymetry. Particular attention has been drawn to the presence of holes. In the three regions involved in the project, following rivers have been studied: Po, Adda, Oglio, Mincio, Adige, Bacchiglione, Brenta, Sile, Piave, Livenza, Lemene, Tagliamento. For the evaluation of the repopulation program both campaigns of direct sampling with nets and electrofishing and monitoring campaigns through a national networtk that have involved fishermen for leisure, professional fishermen, volunteers and the staff of the security service of the different Bodies have been carried out. The monitoring network was previously organised, with informative meetings and distribution of materials. Thanks to this organisation, in case a sturgeon was accidentally captured, it was possible to signal it calling the nearest referring centre. As soon as the nearest surveyor received the call, he immediately went to the capture place to verify, with an adequate reader, the presence of microchip and to survey the biometric measures. If no microchip was present, a fin fragment of around 1 cm2 was taken for genetic tagging. The genetic tagging, thanks to the results of the genetic characterization analysis, made it possible to recognise the specimens analysed as descendants of the stocks kept in captivity (F0), deriving then from previous repopulation programs, or as wild. Out of 38 analysed animals, 23 have resulted not assignable to the F0. The organization of the monitoring network had also the aim of awakening the fishermen, but dissemination of the project was spread also among schools, carrying out a specific program of environmental education in which around 500 school groups corresponding to the total involvement of around 10,000 students have been met. The results of the repopulation and of the monitorings carried out both directly and through the survey network have been organized in a Geographical Information system (GIS). The GIS was developed on a geo-database with a geographical reference of the seeding points and the points of capture, to which following information has been added: information of the single specimens sown or captured, as the microchip number, length, weight, genetics of origin, date and place of seeding/capture, etc. These tables were linked with the points with a geographical reference and among them, in order to access all available information through GIS for each of the thousands of specimens having a microchip. This Action Plan for the Cobice sturgeon is the result of the same project but it also considered the Action Plan produced by the Tessin Park for the repopulation at the moment banished to the fresh waters of that river. The action plan was performed on the model of the management Plan and is therefore structured in four sections: knowledge framework; evaluation of the ecologic needs; aims; management strategy. Thanks to this structure one clear general goal was set: the conservation of the A. Naccarii in a satisfying state, as defined by the Habitat Directive. To this follow 14 detailed aims that are functional to the general aim: giving the Sile river the fluvial continuity back; monitoring on some rivers of the dangerous structures for the species; facilitation to the overcoming of barrages; conservation of the habitats where the Cobice sturgeon lives; reduction of the competition with the silurus; reduction of the poaching; awakening of the population to the topic of the conservation; awakening of the authorities; progressive increase of the natural population; ex-situ stock conservation; increase of the genetic diversity of the natural population; increase of the knowledge about the bio-ecology; promotion of a regional, provincial and sector planning and programming system; conservation of the species in the Ticino River. The management stategy analysed moreover the value of the Action Plan, integrating it in the regulations, as the areale of the Cobice sturgeon covers three different regions and it is not restricted to the sites of Rete Natura 2000. Periodical deadlines for the review of the Action Plan have been furthermore set, having the aim of adjusting it to the development of the conservation status of the natural population. Depending on such periodical reviews, some detailed aims have been selected: they cannot be faced in the first deadline, but it will be certainly necessary to consider them in the following reviews. In order to clearly identify how to reach those goals, the management activities were outlined and organized according to the types selected in the “Manual for the management of the Nature Sites 2000” of the Italian Ministry for the Environment: active intervention (IA); regulations (RE); monitoring and/or research programs (MR); didactic programs (PD). Each goal goes back to a structured table with the following items: Goal; Activity description; Implementation timetable; Indicators and parameters; Priorities; Expected results; Costs estimate; Potential programmatic references and financial funds; Person in charge of the implementation.


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Managing Polyploidy in Ex Situ Conservation Genetics: The Case of the Critically Endangered Adriatic Sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii).

PLoS One. 2011; 6(3): e18249. Published online 2011 Mar 29. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018249


While the current expansion of conservation genetics enables to address more efficiently the management of threatened species, alternative methods for genetic relatedness data analysis in polyploid species are necessary. Within this framework, we present a standardized and simple protocol specifically designed for polyploid species that can facilitate management of genetic diversity, as exemplified by the ex situ conservation program for the tetraploid Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii. A critically endangered endemic species of the Adriatic Sea tributaries, its persistence is strictly linked to the ex situ conservation of a single captive broodstock currently decimated to about 25 individuals, which represents the last remaining population of Adriatic sturgeon of certain wild origin. The genetic variability of three F1 broodstocks available as future breeders was estimated based on mitochondrial and microsatellite information and compared with the variability of the parental generation. Genetic data showed that the F1 stocks have only retained part of the genetic variation present in the original stock due to the few parent pairs used as founders. This prompts for the urgent improvement of the current F1 stocks by incorporating new founders that better represent the genetic diversity available. Following parental allocation based on band sharing values, we set up a user-friendly tool for selection of candidate breeders according to relatedness between all possible parent-pairs that secures the use of non-related individuals. The approach developed here could also be applied to other endangered tetraploid sturgeon species overexploited for caviar production, particularly in regions lacking proper infrastructure and/or expertise.


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Mittwoch, 17 Juni 2020 15:09

WOOD, R. J. (1992)

The propagation and maintenance of the Arabian tahr Hemitragus jayakari at the Omani Mammal Breeding Centre, Bait al Barakah.

International Zoo Yearb. 31: 255-260.


Der Artikel enthält Angaben über die Gefährdungs- und Schutzsituation, eine Artbeschreibung, Informationen über den Aufbau einer Zuchtherde, ihr Verhalten und ihr Management.


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Einheimische Nutztierrassen in Deutschland und Rote Liste gefährdeter Nutztierrassen 2017.

212 Seiten, farbig illustriert. Bonn.

Spätestens seit 1979 sind Fragen zur Erhaltung und nachhaltigen Nutzung tiergenetischer Ressourcen auch in Deutschland auf Ebene der Tierzuchtwissenschaft, Tierzuchtverwaltung und Landwirtschaft präsent. Die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Züchtungskunde e.V. (DGfZ) nahm sich mit der Gründung eines „Ausschusses zur Erhaltung der genetischen Vielfalt bei landwirtschaftlichen Nutztieren“ dieser Fragen an. Der Ausschuss formu-lierte die fachlichen Anforderungen für die Erhaltung gefährdeter Nutztier-rassen und kommunizierte sie den wesentlichen Entscheidungsträgern der deutschen Tierzucht, der Landwirtschaft und der Öffentlichkeit. Der Ausschuss der DGfZ hat, unter Beteiligung aller für die Tierzucht in Deutschland relevanten Organisationen und Institutionen, die inhaltlichen und thematischen Grundlagen sowie die Anforderungen an eine praktische Umsetzung in der „Konzeption zur Erhaltung und nachhaltigen Nutzung genetischer Ressourcen“ formuliert. Darauf aufbauend wurde das „Nationale Fachprogramm zur Erhaltung und nachhaltigen Nutzung tiergenetischer Ressourcen“ erstellt, welches im Jahr 2003 durch die Konferenz der Agrarminister des Bundes und der Länder verabschiedet wurde.

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Donnerstag, 28 Februar 2019 14:33


National Studbook Four Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis).

Hrsg.: Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi.TR.No2018/02.
109 Seiten.

Conclusions and Recommendations:

Four horned antelopes continue to face threats to their longterm survival in their natural habitats across their distribution range and are accordingly listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and in the Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act of India. The threats faced by the species remain operational and the populations across their range are showing declining trend. Maintenance of demographically stable and genetically viable ex-situ populations is thus crucial for ensuring the continued survival of the species. The captive population in Indian zoos is characterized by a declining trend (λ = 0.0676). The population remains biased towards females with a limited number of proven breeders, though a large proportion belong to reproductively active age classes. It retains approximately 93% genetic diversity introduced by 16 founders. Values of population mean inbreeding and mean kinship indicate that specimens are unrelated to each other; however, the founder genome is poorly represented with the population containing genetic diversity of approximately only 8founder animals. Population simulations run using PMx software indicate that supplementation with one effective founder every two years and increasing the population growth rate to 1.0252and population size to 200 specimens in Indian institutions can ensure that the population remains viable over the next 100 years. The captive population of Four horned antelope in Indian zoos therefore requires intensive management efforts towards ensuring achievement of ex-situ conservation goals to address the following concerns:

  1. Additional housing facilities are requiredto ensure availability of adequate space for holding the additional number of specimens needed for maintaining a genetically viable and demographically stable population.
  2. The wild origin specimens that are currently present in the population should be assessed for relatedness using appropriate molecular genetics tools. The assessment so carried out should form the basis for deciding mate choice.
  3. Issues that limit optimum reproductive performance of the captive population viz. housing and husbandry practices and keeping of unpaired animals need to be addressed for ensuring effective population growth.


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Sonntag, 24 Februar 2019 17:45

BLOMQVIST, L. (2017)

Reindeer Recovery.

Zooquaria 96: 20-21.

Recovery Plan:

To counteract the ongoing population decline, reintroductions will be undertaken in two Finnish Natura 2000 areas in western Finland, south of the current distribution range. The reintroductions form part of a larger, seven-year EU LIFE project on forest reindeer population management. Fifteen-hectare acclimatisation enclosures will be built in both areas to house 10 to 15 animals each. Reindeer from four participating EAZA zoos will be mixed with wild individuals captured by staff from the Natural Resources Institute Finland. Calves bred in the enclosures will then be soft-released when they are between 18 months and two years old.



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Donnerstag, 21 Februar 2019 13:56


Populationsgröße, Verhalten und Arterhaltung des Bawean-Hirsches - Eine Studie des Projekt BEKI (Bawean Endemics Conservation Initiative).

ZGAP-Mitteilungen 33(1): 28-30


Der Artikel informiert über den Bestand, das Verhalten der wilden Tiere, die Bedrohungsfaktoren sowie das Ex-situ-Management und gibt einen Ausblick auf zukünftige Artenschutzinitiatven.



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The Philippine Spotted Deer Conservation Project.

ORYX 25 (4): 199-205. Published online: 06 July 2009.


The Philippine spotted deer Cervus alfredi, endemic to the Visayan Islands, is threatened by deforestation and hunting. Already extinct over 95 per cent of its former range, populations survive probably only in Panay and Negros. In 1987 a conservation programme was drawn up with two immediate objectives: to establish a national park in west Panay and to embark on a captive-breeding programme. The authors describe the operation of the project and its progress to date, and discuss plans for its extension.


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