EAZA Husbandry Guidelines for the White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).
Safaripark Beekse Bergen, Hilvarenbeek.
76 Seiten, 22 Abbildungen, Tabellen.
One of the main goals of modern zoos worldwide is conservation (WAZA, 2010). According to the IUCN red list 37% of all evaluated species are threatened (17.291 threatened species) (IUCN, 2010a). To keep the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) from extinction and to maintain a healthy, sustainable captive population, the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) started an European Endangered Species Program (EEP) (Versteege, 2010a; EAZA, 2009a). The numbers of white rhinos are increasing and therefore the white rhino is stated as near threatened since 2002 by the IUCN (IUCN, 2010b). Nowadays 527 white rhinos in captivity are registered on ISIS worldwide, with 247 of them in European zoos. (ISIS, 2010) The first registration of a white rhino kept in an European zoo was in 1950 (Versteege, 2010a).
One of the tasks of an EEP is to develop husbandry guidelines to stimulate best husbandry and facilitate experience and knowledge throughout the EEP institutions. In these guidelines information is given on the best practice. The best practice serves multiple goals, i.e. higher welfare resulting in better reproduction successes and exchange of animals between EAZA institutions being more practical. Both goals enhance conservation efforts. This way it is hoped that the breeding program can meet its goals to get a sustainable ex situ population. Proper animal husbandry is needed for good population management and helps conservation of the white rhinoceros. (EAZA, 2009b)
Through a thesis assignment performed by Martijn van der Sijde and Wiebe Boomsma, students at the University of Applied Sciences ‘Van Hall Larenstein’, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, from April 2010 till October 2010, a draft husbandry manual has been published using the experience and knowledge of several keepers, curators and veterinarians working in different EEP institutions.
All experts who were contacted (listed in table 1) received an extensive questionnaire which they were asked to fill in and which has formed the backbone of Section 2 of the draft husbandry guidelines.
All information for Section 1 of the husbandry guidelines (the biology and field data) was collected through a literature study.
For the white rhino husbandry in zoos (Section 2), the filled in questionnaires of the twelve experts in table 1 were integrated together with information from the AZA Rhinoceros Husbandry Resource Manual (Fouraker and Wagener, 1996) and the EAZA draft EEP African Rhinoceroses Husbandry Guidelines for Rhinoceroses (Göltenboth et al., 2001). The process of the design is shown in a survey research model in figure 1.
The literature consists of scientific articles and books. Recent research has been preferred over older research, although older articles were used when no recent articles were available.
All answers from the twelve colleagues were incorporated to show all possible options for the management of the white rhinos. In the editing process (TAG decision), possible differences of opinion were weighed against each other, which resulted in the final husbandry guidelines for the white rhinos. The guidelines will nevertheless always remain a “living document”. There is no perfect way to take care of the white rhinos, there will always be room for discussion and adaptation.
The last phase of the production of the husbandry guidelines consisted of a review by several rhino keepers. They looked at the guidelines in a practical way to make sure that the information was reliable and could be put into practise. Their comments and advices have been implemented in the guidelines.
Haltungsstandards zur Pflege von Tapiren in Menschenhand (deutsche Version der AZA- Tapir Husbandry Guidelines).
Übersetzung, Gestaltung & Druck: André Herzig & Tomas Sickert (Redaktion "Arbeitsplatz Zoo")
Als Taxon gesehen sind Tapire in Menschenhand unter der Voraussetzung verhältnismäßig einfach zu halten und zu züchten, daß gute praktische Kenntnisse über ihre Biologie und ihr Verhalten vorliegen. Besonders fehlende Kenntnisse sind für viele der medizinischen und verhaltensbezogenen Probleme verantwortlich, welche in Menschenhand gehaltene Tapire haben. Bei der Erstellung von Haltungsrichtlinien für Tapire müssen die einzelnen Besonderheiten im Verhalten, in der Verträglichkeit, im Klima und im Grad der Interaktionen mit dem Pfleger beachtet werden. Da es immer große Unterschiede zwischen den Zoos geben wird, soll diese Auflistung von Haltungsstandards als Grundlage für jedes Programm eines erfolgreichen und tiergerechten Tapirmanagements benutzt werden.
Management Guidelines for the Welfare of Zoo animals - Gundi (Ctenodactylus gundi, C. vali and C. spec.).
PDF. Aquazoo/Löbbecke-Museum Düsseldorf.
Husbandry Manual Lesser Mousedeer (Tragulus javanicus-group).
Second Edition, 2010.
Since the 1970ies Lesser Mousedeer are kept and bred in European zoos. A studbook was founded in 1987 and is hence one of the oldest within Europe. But despite this long tradition, little has been published on husbandry, diseases and various aspects of population management. A severe decline in population size between 1998 and to date as much as the detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in 2002 gave reason for a comprehensive survey on husbandry and diseases, the compilation of basic individual data, studbook analysis, study of necropsy reports and literature review. Moreover, a questionnaire was sent to European zoos housing mousedeer ; the response rate on the 31st of January 2008 was 70% (21/30) when counting EEP-participants, and 50% (21/42), when including ex-EEP-participants. Additionally, answered questionnaires were returned by two Asian zoos. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all respondents!
Mousedeer may not be neither a magnet to zoo visitors nor critically endangered, but against the background that tropical rainforests, a mousedeer’s natural habitat and generally the most species-rich terrestrial ecosystem on earth, are degraded at an alarming rate, a properly structured captive-breeding programme gains in importance. Summarising the various results this manual hopefully assists in husbandry, handling and care of Lesser Mousedeer as one item of future management.
Eventually, it provides impulse and information for those who have whatever interest in these unimposing but certainly graceful and amazing animals ...
Right from the very beginning it has been the concern of EAZA and the EEPs to encourage and promote the highest possible standards for husbandry of zoo and aquarium animals. For this reason, quite early on, EAZA developed the “Minimum Standard s for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria”. These standards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which themembers of EAZA feel themselves committed. Above and beyond this, some countries have defined regulatory minimum standards for the keeping of individual species regarding the size and furnishings of enclosures etc., which, according to the opinion of a uthors, should definitely be fulfilled before allowing such animals to be kept within the area of the jurisdiction of those countries. These minimum standards are intended to determine the borderline of acceptable animal welfare. It is not permitted to fall short of these standards. How difficult it is to determine the standards, however, can be seen in the fact that minimum standards vary from country to country. Above and beyond this, specialists of the EEPs and TAGs have undertaken the considerable task of laying down guidelines for keeping individual animal species. Whilst some aspects of husbandry reported in the guidelines will define minimum standards, in general, these guidelines are not to be understood as minimum requirements; they represent best practice. As such the EAZA/EEP Husbandry Guidelines for keeping animals intend rather to describe the desirable design of enclosures and prerequisites for animal keeping that are, according to the present state of knowledge, considered as being optimal for each species. They intend above all to indicate how enclosures should be designed and what conditions should be fulfilled for the optimal care of individual species.
Draft Husbandry Guidelines for true seals (Phocidae).
For Review by the EAZA Marine Mammal TAG
Within EAZA the need to improve the standards in zoos was the reason to start writing Husbandry Guidelines. Husbandry Guidelines are housing and care guidelines with the objective to guarantee optimal conditions for welfare and reproduction of captive animal populations. They have to fulfil the need for co-operation and information exchange between EAZA zoos and to improve husbandry knowledge. The marine mammal TAG is responsible for writing the guidelines for marine mammals, in this case the true seals. The goal of this study is to design Husbandry Guidelines for keeping true seals in captivity, by giving an overview of all aspects concerning the responsible husbandry and care of true seals. To accomplice this objective the following research question had to be answered: How to guarantee the optimal conditions for welfare and reproduction of true seals in EAZA zoos?
This draft version of Husbandry Guidelines for captive true seals is compiled by studying the biology and field data, as well as the management in captivity of true seals. The current situation is described, literature research is performed, important subjects are determined, experts are consulted and finally all these data are compiled into a draft version Husbandry Guidelines for true seals. The structure of the Husbandry Guidelines is set up according to the standard table of contents assessed by EAZA, and the draft version Husbandry Guidelines for eared seals by Osinga/ De Wit (2002). This draft version has to be reviewed by experts in the Marine Mammal TAG before it becomes a final version of Husbandry Guidelines for true seals.
The Husbandry Guidelines are divided in two parts in which both the data of animals in the wild and the management in captivity are described. In section A information is given on the biology and field data of true seals. Special attention was paid to the species that are kept in EAZA zoos now. In section B all aspects concerning management in captivity are described.
Most information is based on experiences and not on scientific knowledge. Additional research is necessary to improve the quality of these Husbandry Guidelines.
Husbandry Guidelines for Eared Seals (Otariidae).
Edited and Compiled by the EAZA Marine Mammal TAG. Ouwehands Dierenpark, Rhenen
Husbandry guidelines are housing and care guidelines with the objective to guarantee optimal conditions for wellbeing and reproduction of captive populations. It has to fulfil the need for cooperation and information exchange between EAZA zoos and to improve husbandry knowledge.
The marine mammal TAG is responsible for writing the guidelines for marine mammals. The goal of this study is to design husbandry guidelines for keeping eared seals (Otariidae) in captivity, by giving an overview of all aspects concerning the responsible husbandry and care of eared seals. To accomplice this objective the following research question had to be answered: How to guarantee the optimal conditions for welfare and reproduction of eared seals in EAZA zoos?
This manual for husbandry of captive eared seals is compiled by studying the biology and field data, as well as the management in captivity of eared seals. The current situation was described, literature research was performed, extra important subjects were determined, experts were consulted and finally all this data was brought together. The structure of the husbandry guidelines is set up according to the standard table of contents assessed by EAZA.
The husbandry guidelines are divided in two parts in which both the data of wild animals and the management in captivity are described. In section A information is given on the biology and field data of eared seals, which is important for good management of husbandry in captivity, to adjust the captive situations as much as possible to the needs of the animals. Extra attention was paid to the six species kept in EAZA zoos. In section B the management in captivity is described. In the first chapter the enclosure for eared seals is described including minimum requirements for the dimensions. Extra attention was paid to good alternatives for chlorine water treatment systems.
Chapter two deals with the feeding; the fish species and quantity were described, as well as the process of maintaining quality during transport, storage and thawing. Chapter three is about behaviour and social structure. Behaviour problems were discussed and advice is given to prevent them. By social structure the composition and group size is an important factor in wellbeing. Attention was paid to changing group structure and sharing the enclosure with other species. In chapter four the different tools for enriching eared seals in captivity are summarised. In chapter five the different stages of reproduction in captivity are described, with attention for the changes in behaviour. Different methods for weaning and forced feeding were given. Chapter six is about all handling procedures. First the catching and restraining were discussed, then transport, followed by safety and finally the training of eared seals. In chapter seven information of recent literature sources concerning the health and welfare of captive eared seals were included. Chapter eight is about the population management of the animals present in the EAZA zoos. National and European legislation is described in chapter nine. In chapter ten suggestions for additional research are given. In the attachments the following parts are included: the EAZA standards for accommodation and care of wild animals in zoos, Canadian and American legislation concerning space requirements and a checklist for the building of an enclosure for eared seals.
Most information is based on experiences and not on scientific knowledge. Additional research is necessary to lay down the knowledge of people working in the field of marine mammal husbandry and to extend the scientific knowledge. A more exhaustive literature study and consulting of experts can give more specific guidelines.