EAZA Mangabey Best Practice Guidelines - Cercocebus spp., Lophocebus spp. and Rungwecebus spp.

112 Seiten. Abbildungen. Parc Zoològic de Barcelona n & GaiaZOO, Kerkrade.

Executive Summary:

The current document details knowledge regarding the biology, management and keeping of the polyphyletic group of mangabeys (Cercocebus spp., Lophocebus spp. and Rungwecebus spp.) from the field and within zoos. As will become clear, per species there is information lacking regarding many aspects of their biology and ecology. Hence, the document is set up in such a way that, where appropriate, information can be interpreted from other mangabey species.

Section 1: Biology and Field data

This section covers an extensive overview of current knowledge regarding the taxonomic classification, morphology, natural distribution, conservation status, nutrition, behaviour and more of all the relevant species and subspecies.

Section 2: Management in Zoos and Aquariums

This  section  details  Best  Practice  of management and keeping of mangabey species in zoos. Including topics on enclosure design, specifically focussed on appropriate barriers and enclosure  complexity. Furthermore it includes  nformation on optimal feeding practices, use of enrichment, social management and veterinary practices. Throughout are examples of current practice presented. Here it should be emphasized that these guidelines should be seen as a living document as knowledge will only increase through xperience and research.


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Sonntag, 30 Dezember 2018 10:49

HARTLEY, M. & CHAPMAN, M. (eds. 2018)

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines De Brazza Monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus)

1. Auflage. 37 Seiten, Abbildungen.
EAZA Executive Office, Amsterdam.


These guidelines are composed of two sections. The first provides and overview of biology, ecology and behaviour in the wild summarising published information referenced at the end of the document. The second section provides information on management in captivity. This section was written using published information and from the findings of a questionnaire survey and the input of the species committee.

In addition to the standard enclosure and husbandry information particular focus has been made on managing social groups and introductions which can be challenging. One of the objectives of the EEP is to manage multiple female groups and retain youngsters until they have experience of reproductive and maternal behaviours. This has been supported by the inclusion of detailed case studies. Although the husbandry and management section is written for the De Brazza much of the information is relevant for other guenon species. An important role for the De Brazza Monkey EEP is for zoos to gain experience of managing guenons before obtaining more endangered guenon species.


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Sonntag, 16 Dezember 2018 23:01

PARKES, S. (2011)

European Studbook for Douroucouli 2007-2010, Aotus lemurinus griseimembra & Aotus azarai boliviensis. Current until 31.12.10.

107 Seiten. Marwell Wildlife, Winchester.


The Studbook provides a full overview of the living population, births, deaths and transfers over period 2007-2010, and also a full historical listing (a printed version of this list is only available on request). All animals registered in the studbook have been issued with a unique studbook number. Even if stillborn, animals will still be entered into the database as this is useful for reproductive analysis and also future demographic analysis. Temporary numbers mark animals of completely unknown origin and/or destiny, or animals where further investigation is needed.

The total number of douroucouli in captivity as reported to the studbook keeper by 31st December 2010 was Aotus lemurinus griseimembra 33.41.11 (85) in 19 institutions and Aotus azarae boliviensis 15.14.2 (31) in 12 institutions. These include animals in EAZA and non EAZA institutions and private holders.


O’CONNOR, J. (2014): European Studbook for Aotus lemurinus griseimembra and Aotus azarae boliviensis 2011-2013.

Captive Population: The total number of douroucouli in captivity as reported to the studbook keeper by 31st December 2013 was
Aotus lemurinus griseimembra 35.41.11 (87) in 22 institutions and Aotus azarae boliviensis 14.18.1 (33) in 14 institutions. These include animals in EAZA and non EAZA institutions and private holders.


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Donnerstag, 06 Dezember 2018 10:42

REICHLER, S. (2018)

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines - Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii).

24 Seiten, Abbildunge, Tabellen.
EAZA Amsterdam


"The EEP recommends to keep Asiatic golden cats in an outdoor enclosure of minimum 150 m² and a minimum height of 2,5 m. To keep more than one Asiatic golden cat, a second enclosure is  necessary to separate individuals for longer periods. Both enclosures should be connected by fine‐meshed wire with two sliding doors, so that cats can change enclosures by rotation. More to the dimensions of an enclosure, its furnishing is important. If the Asiatic golden cat has enough possibilities to climb, hide or rest, the number of square meters is secondary."



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Montag, 01 Oktober 2018 14:31

WEERMAN, J. (2015)

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).

1. Auflage. 42 Seiten, 3 Abbildungen..
Herausgeber: European Association of Zoosand Aquaria & Rotterdam Zoo


The first official version of the husbandry andmanagement guidelines for zoo red pandas was published in the fifth edition of the red panda studbook in 1988. The guidelines had been compiled over the previous yearsand were refined at the first red panda conference which was held in Rotterdamin 1987. Information and ideas from many peoplewere compiled into these guidelines. And during the course of the panda conservation workshop held in Front Royal in 1991, the red panda husbandry and management guidelines was updated. Nevertheless, since these meetings there has been a lot of research into red panda diets, pathology, behaviour etc. AZA published the Red Panda Care Manual in 2011. Because none of the publications had a focus on European standards, it was necessary to come up with the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for the Red Panda.

Volltext: https://www.eaza.net/assets/Uploads/CCC/2015-Red-panda-EAZA-Best-Practice-Guidelines-Approved.pdf 



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Montag, 30 Juli 2018 11:00

PILGRIM, M. & BIDDLE, R. (2013)

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

85 Seiten, mit Abbildungen, Verbreitungskartten und Tabellen.
1st edition. EAZA Amsterdam.  

EAZA Preamble

Right from the very beginning it has been the concern of EAZA and the EEPs to encourage and promote the highest possible standards for husbandry of zoo and aquarium animals. For this reason, quite early on, EAZA developed the “Minimum Standards for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria”. These standards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which the members of EAZA feel themselves  committed. Above and beyond this, some countries have defined regulatory minimum standards for the keeping of individual species  regarding the size and  furnishings  of  enclosures  etc., which, according  to  the  opinion  of  authors,  should  definitely be fulfilled before allowing such animals to be kept within the area of the jurisdiction of those countries. These minimum standards are intended to determine the borderline of acceptable animal welfare. It is not permitted to fall short of these standards. How difficult it is to determine the standards, however, can be seen in the fact that minimum standards vary from country to country.

Above and beyond this, specialists of the EEPs and TAGs have undertaken the considerable task of laying down guidelines for keeping individual animal species. Whilst some aspects of husbandry reported in the guidelines will define minimum standards, in  general, these  guidelines are not to  be  understood as minimum equirements; they represent best practice. As such the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for keeping animals intend rather to describe  the desirable design of nclosures and prerequisites for animal keeping  that are, according to the  present state  of  knowledge, considered as being optimal for each species. They intend above all to indicate how  nclosures should be designed and what conditions should be fulfilled for the optimal care of individual species.


These Best Practice Guidelines were based on "concept husbandry guidelines for Black rhino (Diceros bicornis)" which were produced by Valentijn Assenberg and Thijs van den Houten for the final thesis of their Animal  Management course at the Van  Hall Larenstein Institute. The data to form the concept husbandry guidelines was collected by a literature study and a questionnaire. The literature was chosen from a number of sources. A full referencelist can be found at the end of this document.
The questionnaire was partly based on the AZA husbandry manual and partly on the EAZA husbandry guidelines for the greater one-horned rhino. The AZA husbandry manual was published in 1996 and covers all five rhino species and is made with the help of the International Rhino Foundation. The EAZA husbandry guidelines for the Greater one-horned rhino were published in 2002 by Basel Zoo.


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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 16:58

EAZA Elephant TAG (2005)

Management Guidelines for the Welfare of Zoo Animals - Elephant.

36 Seiten. EAZA, Amsterdam.


Elephants are kept in zoos as part of an overriding conservation mission so that they are in actively managed breeding programmes. This may mean that non-breeding elephants are kept at some zoos to ensure maximization of the capacity for elephant breeding zoos. Their presence enables progressive educational activities and demonstrates links with field conservation projects and benign scientific research, leading to continuous improvements in breeding and welfare standards.

Zoos have a duty of care: that standards of husbandry practices, housing, health and welfare management are humane and appropriate to the intelligence, social behaviour, longevity and size of elephants. All zoos should aim to continuously improve welfare standards.
Zoos have a moral and legal responsibility to ensure the safety of visitors and staff.

Zoos must continually assess their performance against the EAZA Elephant Management Policy with its defined standards and procedures, in order to demonstrate legal compliance and address legitimate public concerns. The policy documents will be reviewed annually and comments can be submitted at any time by members to one of the EEP Coordinators for consideration.

The goal of this policy statement is the ongoing well-being of elephants in controlled environments in European collections. Furthermore these recommendations offer a tool to all elephant keeping institutions for improving their standards as old keeping regimes are phased out over the years and with the aging of individual elephants.

All sections of this document are intended as exemplary and make no claim to be comprehensive.



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The design of new bear facilities.

Kapitel 2 der EAZA Bear Husbandry Guidelines. 45 Seiten, Abbildungen, Tabellen. EAZA, Amsterdam


This chapter considers both outdoor and indoor enclosures, their furnishings, substrates and the technical features of new bear facilities. An enclosure should be designed to provide all the requirements necessary for the care and maintenance of the bears and also, if needed, for reproduction. The facility must not only be escape proof, but should also create suitable conditions and stimulation which will enable the animals to perform a wide range of species-specific behaviours. The environment must not permanently create problems, which the animals cannot solve, and should be sufficiently flexible in design for any adverse situations to be easily rectified.

It is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the normal behaviour of bears, their use of habitat and particularly their locomotor activities in relation to the use of cage furnishings and structures in outdoor enclosures, substrates and any other factors, which may effect them. This will enable the zoo to design facilities, which meet the animals' physical and behavioural needs. Feeding, social and spatial organization and reproductive biology will be treated in more detail in subsequent chapters. Only general features of these aspects of bear biology will be considered in this chapter, where they are relevant to the design of a bear facility.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 07:58


Environmental enrichment - methods of improving old enclosures and keeping new ones stimulating.

Kapitel 3 der EAZA Bear Husbandry Guidelines.
15 Seiten, Abbildungen, Tabellen. EAZA, Amsterdam


Bears should live in an environment where they can, as far as possible, replicate a repertoire of natural behaviour including foraging, feeding and breeding. In addition they are highly intelligent and easily become bored in over restricted enclosures and are highly prone to show abnormal behaviour. The visitor wishes to see the bears active and behaving normally, while zoos seek to provide an environment which stimulates normal behaviour and is flexible in use and easy to manage. In many zoos bear enclosures are old and their replacement may be delayed until funds are available to build new housing. This section of the guidelines addresses the ways in which existing enclosures may be improved and new ones (see chapter 2) maintain a high degree of diversity and novelty.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 16:47

EAZA Giraffe EEPs (2006)

EAZA Husbandry and Management Guidelines for Giraffa camelopardalis.

140 Seiten, Abbildungen, Tabellen.
Burgers’ Zoo, Arnhem


2.2 Feeding:



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