European Code of Conduct om Zoological Gardens and Aquaria and Invasive Alien Species.

$40 Seiten, illustriert. Europarat, Straßburg.


3.1. The history of zoological gardens and aquaria
3.2. Zoological gardens and aquaria as pathways for IAS
3.2.1. IAS originating from zoological gardens and aquaria
3.3. The multifaceted role of zoological gardens and aquaria in conservation
1. Adopt effective preventative measures to avoid unintentional introduction and spread of IAS
2. Take into account the risks of IAS introductions in all wildlife and habitat management projects
3. Proactively engage in awareness raising and outreach activities focusing on IAS and their impacts
4. Adopt best practice for supporting early warning and rapid response system for IAS
5. Be aware of all relevant regulations concerning zoological gardens



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EAZA Best Practice Guidelines Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

147 Seiten. EAZA Executive Office, Amsterdam.

Volltext (PDF)


The content of the document is divided up into two sections. The Biology and Field data of the species describes the natural range, habitat, behaviour, longevity and Conservation status of cheetah “in-situ”. The Management in Zoos and Aquariums discribest in eight chapters all captive specifications for the best practice regarding the keeping of cheetah in captivity including enclosure design, nutrition, breeding, handling and veterinary care.


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EAZA Best Practice Guidelines YELLOW-FOOTED ROCK WALLABY (Petrogale xanthopus).

Hrsg: Zoo Mülhausen im Elsass. 93 Seiten.


Endemic from  Australia, the yellow-footed rock wallaby(YFRW) is listed as Near Threatened (IUCN, 2016) because its habitat is fragmented and declining (probably not much greater than 20,000 km²) and its population is likely to be less than 10,000 mature individuals. Due to its IUCN status, YFRWs are  under  intensive  level  of  management under an Ex-situ Programme (EEP) in European zoos. The purpose of this programme is to secure a genetically healthy and sustainable captive population which may serve as a backup population for the wild. This  species is  closely followed-up by the Australian government and deep cooperative conservation efforts are implemented between the EEP and the Australian government. It is an Ambassador Agreement (AA) species and the Department of the Environment and Water Resources (DEW) of Australia ensures that all holding institutions meet the husbandry and management requirements for the species, following their own Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines. These Best Practice Guidelines combine all our current knowledge about general biology and husbandry requirements to provide a high level of well-being for YFRWs in captivity. It is addressed to YFRWs holders to get the most up to date knowledge on housing this emblematic species in the appropriate and best possible way, and for future holders which should be prepared to offer to the animals optimal housing and care. Regularly consulting the Guidelines and sharing them with all staff members (especially keepers!) is recommended. Holders are advised to contact TAG members with any concerns or queries about YFRWs husbandry.

Section 1. Biology and Field Data reflects our current knowledge of this species in the natural environment using the most recent taxonomic information. The philosophy behind this is that ex-situ conservation can be used more  effectively as a conservation tool if it is part of an integrated approach to species conservation (IUCN, 2014). The potential need for a conservation role of an EAZA ex-situ population has therefore been decided in consultation with in-situ specialists. This section provides wide and actual information.

Section 2. Management in Zoos covers housing and exhibition, nutrition, food presentation, welfare and enrichment, social structure, behaviour, and veterinary care. This part was written relying on one survey realized in March-April 2021 among all the 10 European institutions housing YFRWs. Control of breeding is an essential component of  successful managed programmes and comprehensive information to assist zoo veterinarians to decide on the most appropriate contraception method for their animals is provided. Managed programmes rely on control of breeding and  movement of animals between zoos. This document provides advice on birth control, handling, and transportation. A  comprehensive veterinary section  provides information on current knowledge on all aspects ofmedical care. It is essential that YFRWs are provided with complex environments and there is detailed practical information on environmental enrichment and medical training.

Section 3: References & Appendices includes, amongst other documents, a summary of references to each section and examples of appropriate YFRWs diet provided in different EEP institutions.


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EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

1st edition. 146 Seiten. European Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Amsterdam, The Netherlands


This document reflects our current knowledge about general biology and keeping requirements to provide adequate levels of wellbeing for chimpanzees. It provides information about different aspects that should be taken into account when managing chimpanzees in captivity to ensure a healthy and self-sustaining population, helping to the development of a global “ex situ conservation” program. It also provides information about the situation of the species in the wild and “in situ conservation” projects supporting field conservation in host countries, which all the zoo institutions keeping chimpanzees are encouraged to support following the IUCN strategy of One Plan Approach.

Section 1., Biology and Field Data, reflects our current knowledge of species in the natural environment using the most recent taxonomic information. The philosophy behind this is that ex situ conservation can be used more effectively as a conservation tool if it is part of an integrated approach to species conservation (IUCN/SSC 2014). This section provides wide and actual information about the species in its natural habitat.

Section 2., Management in Zoos, covers housing, nutrition, food presentation and environmental enrichment, social structure and behaviour. There is also useful information on introductions of chimpanzees. Control of breeding is an essential component of successful managed programmes and comprehensive information to assist zoo veterinarians to decide on the most appropriate contraception method for their animals is provided. Managed programmes also rely on the movement of animals between zoos and advice on handling and transport is provided. It is essential that chimpanzees are provided with complex environments and there is detailed practical information on environmental enrichment. One indispensable method of feeding enrichment is the use of browse and information on suitable plants species is provided. A comprehensive veterinary section provides information on current knowledge on all aspects of medical care. Our knowledge can only increase through appropriate research and the final section covers ongoing and recommended research topics.


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Freitag, 07 Januar 2022 08:18

MARCORDES, B. et al. (2020)

Regional Collection Plan of the EAZA Waterfowl and Pelecaniformes Taxon Advisory Group

344 Seiten. EAZA, Amsterdam.

Aus der Einleitung:

The need for a new Regional Collection Plan was also linked to the outcome of the report ‘Future prospects of commonly kept pinioned bird species in EAZA collections’ (Dekker, 2016). The report made clear that waterfowl collections are clearly impacted by the legislative restrictions and/or institutional ambitions to work towards the EAZA Standards (EAZA, 2014) and move away from pinioning versus the growing legislative limitations towards pinioning. For that reason clear guidance from the TAG isneeded regarding priority species.

EAZA members are expected to follow up on the EAZA position statement on ‘Intentional Breeding for the Expression of Rare Recessive Alleles’(2013)for their waterfowl collection, and are encouraged to phase out any color mutations in their collections(e.g. white Mandarin ducks). As some of the duck, goose species hybridize rather easily, special attention is needed to prevent this.

The TAG is covering 240 species falling under different taxonomic groups (varying from Anatidaet o Prodicipedidae and Procellariidae). The taxonomy used is as proposed by the Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International “Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World Vol. 2” (del Hoyo &Collar, 2016).

A total of 54taxa are the subject of this RCPand have been discussed individually. With the main focus on threatened waterfowl species.


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Sonntag, 02 Januar 2022 17:24

DE WIT, P. et al. (eds. 2021)

EAZA Penguin Taxon Advisory Group - Regional Collection Plan.

First Edition.EAZA Executive Office, Amsterdam.

Aus der Einleitung:

The EAZA Penguin TAG encourages all EAZA penguin holders to contribute through concreteconservation education activities (as indirect conservation role). Holders are encouraged to educate thepublic on:

  • The status of penguins e.g. 10 of 18 species declining, 10 of 18 species threatened;
  • The threats to penguins (in general and for specific species) e.g. conflict between fisheries and penguin colonies, impact climate change, petroleum discharge, risk/consequencesinvasive/introduced predators, infections and trade in wild penguins to meet demands of unscrupulous zoos and private collectors;
  • The need to conserve penguins in the wild and to protect their natural habitat;
  • How can we help?  Education around behaviour change –as a tourist to penguin areas,as a consumer, plastic use,etc.

The EAZA Penguin TAG also encourages all penguin holders to fundraise for any prioritized conservation projects either linked to the penguin species they keep orre-directed to aproject for a more threatened penguin species not kept in human care.The TAG will make sure a list of prioritized conservation projects will be made available and/or circulated annually.

de wit-biblio

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Sonntag, 02 Januar 2022 10:07

BROUWER, K. et al. (2020)

EAZA Hornbill TAG - Regional Collection Plan.

June 2020, 1st Edition. 350 Seiten. EAZA Executive Office, Amsterdam.


Das Dokument gibt einen Überblick üner die in EAZA- sowie in weiteren Zoos im April 2019 gehaltenen Hornvögel. Es handelt die einzelnen Arten individuell ab und priorisiert ihre Relevanz für Zuchtprogramme, indem es sie in 7 Kategorien unterteilt. Kategorie 1 umfasst die 10 Arten, für die es bereits Zuchtprogramme oder Zuchtbüchert gibt, Kategorie 2 gefährdete asiatische Arten, von denen bereits ein Bestand in EAZA-Zoos vorhanden ist, Kategorie 3 sonstige gefährdete asiatische Arten etc. ...


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EAZA Regional Collection Plan Caprinae Taxon Advisory Group.

November 2020. First edition.
EAZA Executive Office: Amsterdam.


Der Plan enthält eine Einleitung, eine Zusammenfassung der Beschlüsse des durchgeführten Workshops und Informationen sowie Empfehlungen zu den einzelnen Wildformen der Caprinae.


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Freitag, 04 Dezember 2020 17:29


EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus).

1st edition. European Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Amsterdam, The Netherlands


The tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) is a small deer with three subspecies, which is near-endemic in south China. It is closely related to the muntjacs (Muntiacus). A tuft of hair, dark brown coat, white patterned ears and tail, and, for the males, enlarged canines and very small antlers, are the main characteristics for this species. The species occurs in forests, mainly on hillsides, and is a browsing herbivore. The species has a seasonal reproduction; mating takes place in autumn and fawns are born inspring and early summer. The conservation status is Near Threatened and this status is supposed to vary between subspecies. In European zoo collections, Michie’s tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus michianus) are maintained. The tufted deer needs a planted enclosure which provides shade and shelter. An interesting enclosure is enriching in itself. Year-round access to an indoor area is recommended. They can be kept individually,in a pair or in a trio, but always only one adult male per enclosure. The animals should be fed forage, browse, (leafy) vegetables and concentrate, enriched with vitamin E. Tufted deer are strong, and few medical conditions are reported. The species should not be housed with or near to sheep, since they are susceptible to infection with ovine herpesvirus 2.


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Samstag, 07 März 2020 11:27

REHÁK, I. (2020)

The great turtle rescue.

ZOOQUARIA 107:  22-23.

Aus dem Inhalt: 

On 11 December 2001, during a joint operation of the Customs Ship Search and Cargo Command and the Agriculture Fisheries and Conservation Department,  about 10,000 live South East Asiatic turtles were seized in Hong Kong. The shipment, originally destined for the Chinese food market, had an estimated market value of $3.2 million. The conservation and scientific value of the confiscated animals, as well as the ethical aspects of the situation, were enormous, and incalculable in monetary terms. Turtles were placed at Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden in Hong Kong. It was an incredible job to take care of such a quantity of mostly damaged, wounded and ill turtles. The wider international cooperation proved to be essential in reducing at least in part the suffering of the turtles. EAZA’s swift reaction and the international rescue that followed were exemplary. The superb cooperation between the Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, TSA and EAZA – namely the EAZA Executive Office, ARTAG, Rotterdam Zoo and 26 other zoos in 11 countries – resulted in the successful import of 988 turtles (285 Cuora amboinensis, 126 Orlitia borneensis, 283 Heosemys spinosa, 90 Heosemys grandis, 204 Siebenrockiells crassicollis) and their consequent housing in individual zoos. During the rescue operation, which attracted a huge amount of publicity and media coverage, EAZA demonstrated its ability to carry out a complicated international operation with speed and efficiency, and we can be rightly proud of that.


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