EAZA Regional Collection Plan Caprinae Taxon Advisory Group.
November 2020. First edition.
EAZA Executive Office: Amsterdam.
Der Plan enthält eine Einleitung, eine Zusammenfassung der Beschlüsse des durchgeführten Workshops und Informationen sowie Empfehlungen zu den einzelnen Wildformen der Caprinae.
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus).
1st edition. European Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
The tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus) is a small deer with three subspecies, which is near-endemic in south China. It is closely related to the muntjacs (Muntiacus). A tuft of hair, dark brown coat, white patterned ears and tail, and, for the males, enlarged canines and very small antlers, are the main characteristics for this species. The species occurs in forests, mainly on hillsides, and is a browsing herbivore. The species has a seasonal reproduction; mating takes place in autumn and fawns are born inspring and early summer. The conservation status is Near Threatened and this status is supposed to vary between subspecies. In European zoo collections, Michie’s tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus michianus) are maintained. The tufted deer needs a planted enclosure which provides shade and shelter. An interesting enclosure is enriching in itself. Year-round access to an indoor area is recommended. They can be kept individually,in a pair or in a trio, but always only one adult male per enclosure. The animals should be fed forage, browse, (leafy) vegetables and concentrate, enriched with vitamin E. Tufted deer are strong, and few medical conditions are reported. The species should not be housed with or near to sheep, since they are susceptible to infection with ovine herpesvirus 2.
The great turtle rescue.
ZOOQUARIA 107: 22-23.
Aus dem Inhalt:
On 11 December 2001, during a joint operation of the Customs Ship Search and Cargo Command and the Agriculture Fisheries and Conservation Department, about 10,000 live South East Asiatic turtles were seized in Hong Kong. The shipment, originally destined for the Chinese food market, had an estimated market value of $3.2 million. The conservation and scientific value of the confiscated animals, as well as the ethical aspects of the situation, were enormous, and incalculable in monetary terms. Turtles were placed at Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden in Hong Kong. It was an incredible job to take care of such a quantity of mostly damaged, wounded and ill turtles. The wider international cooperation proved to be essential in reducing at least in part the suffering of the turtles. EAZA’s swift reaction and the international rescue that followed were exemplary. The superb cooperation between the Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, TSA and EAZA – namely the EAZA Executive Office, ARTAG, Rotterdam Zoo and 26 other zoos in 11 countries – resulted in the successful import of 988 turtles (285 Cuora amboinensis, 126 Orlitia borneensis, 283 Heosemys spinosa, 90 Heosemys grandis, 204 Siebenrockiells crassicollis) and their consequent housing in individual zoos. During the rescue operation, which attracted a huge amount of publicity and media coverage, EAZA demonstrated its ability to carry out a complicated international operation with speed and efficiency, and we can be rightly proud of that.
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines - Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).
175 Seiten. Veröffentlicht duch Barcelona Zoo, Januar 2017.
Right from the very beginning it has been the concern of EAZA and the EEPs to encourage and promote the highest possible standards for husbandry of zoo and aquarium animals. For this reason, quite early on, EAZA developed the “Minimum Standards for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria”. These standards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which the members of EAZA feel themselves committed. Above and beyond this, some countries have defined regulatory minimum standards for the keeping of individual species regarding the size and furnishings of enclosures etc., which, according to the opinion of authors, should definitely be fulfilled before allowing such animals to be kept within the area of the jurisdiction of those countries. These minimum standards are intended to determine the borderline of acceptable animal welfare. It is not permitted to fall short of these standards. How difficult it is to determine the standards, however, can be seen in the fact that minimum standards vary from country to country. Above and beyond this, specialists of the EEPs and TAGs have undertaken the considerable task of laying down guidelines for keeping individual animal species. Whilst some aspects of husbandry reported in the guidelines will define minimum standards, in general, these guidelines are not to be understood as minimum requirements; they represent best practice. As such the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for keeping animals intend rather to describe the desirable design of enclosures and prerequisites for animal keeping that are, according to the present state of knowledge, considered as being optimal for each species. They intend above all to indicate how enclosures should be designed and what conditions should be fulfilled for the optimal care of individual species.
This document reflects our current knowledge about general biology and keeping requirements to provide adequate levels of wellbeing for Gorillas, the biggest size great ape species, in captive environments. While providing information about
different aspects that should be taken into account when managing gorillas in captivity to ensure a healthy and selfsustainig population, helping to de development of a global “ex situ conservation” program, also provides information about the situation of the species in the wild and “in situ conservation” projects supporting field conservation work in host countries to which all the zoo institutions keeping gorillas are encouraged to support following the IUCN strategy of One Plan Approach.
Section 1., Biology and Field Data, reflects our current knowledge of species in the natural environment using the most recent taxonomic information. The philosophy behind this is that ex situ conservation can be used more effectively as a conservation tool if it is part of an integrated approach to species conservation (IUCN, 2014). The potential need for a conservation role of an EAZA ex situ population has therefore been decided in consultation with in situ specialists.
This section provides wide and actual information about the species in its natural habitat.
Section 2., Management in Zoos, covers housing and exhibition, nutrition, food presentation and enrichment, social structure and behaviour. There is also useful information on the formation of breeding groups and bachelor groups. Control of breeding is an essential component of successful managed programmes and comprehensive information to assist zoo veterinarians to decide on the most appropriate contraception method for their animals is provided. Managed programmes also rely on the movement of animals between zoos and advice on handling and transport is provided. It is essential that gorillas are provided with complex environments and there is detailed practical information on environmental enrichment. One indispensable method of feeding enrichment is the use of browse and information on suitable plants species is provided. A comprehensive veterinary section provides information on current knowledge on all aspects of medical care. Our knowledge can only increase through appropriate research and the final section covers ongoing and recommended research topics.
Voller Text: https://www.eaza.net/assets/Uploads/CCC/2017-BPG-Gorilla-approved.pdf
EAZA Mangabey Best Practice Guidelines - Cercocebus spp., Lophocebus spp. and Rungwecebus spp.
112 Seiten. Abbildungen. Parc Zoològic de Barcelona n & GaiaZOO, Kerkrade.
The current document details knowledge regarding the biology, management and keeping of the polyphyletic group of mangabeys (Cercocebus spp., Lophocebus spp. and Rungwecebus spp.) from the field and within zoos. As will become clear, per species there is information lacking regarding many aspects of their biology and ecology. Hence, the document is set up in such a way that, where appropriate, information can be interpreted from other mangabey species.
Section 1: Biology and Field data
This section covers an extensive overview of current knowledge regarding the taxonomic classification, morphology, natural distribution, conservation status, nutrition, behaviour and more of all the relevant species and subspecies.
Section 2: Management in Zoos and Aquariums
This section details Best Practice of management and keeping of mangabey species in zoos. Including topics on enclosure design, specifically focussed on appropriate barriers and enclosure complexity. Furthermore it includes nformation on optimal feeding practices, use of enrichment, social management and veterinary practices. Throughout are examples of current practice presented. Here it should be emphasized that these guidelines should be seen as a living document as knowledge will only increase through xperience and research.
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines De Brazza Monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus)
1. Auflage. 37 Seiten, Abbildungen.
EAZA Executive Office, Amsterdam.
These guidelines are composed of two sections. The first provides and overview of biology, ecology and behaviour in the wild summarising published information referenced at the end of the document. The second section provides information on management in captivity. This section was written using published information and from the findings of a questionnaire survey and the input of the species committee.
In addition to the standard enclosure and husbandry information particular focus has been made on managing social groups and introductions which can be challenging. One of the objectives of the EEP is to manage multiple female groups and retain youngsters until they have experience of reproductive and maternal behaviours. This has been supported by the inclusion of detailed case studies. Although the husbandry and management section is written for the De Brazza much of the information is relevant for other guenon species. An important role for the De Brazza Monkey EEP is for zoos to gain experience of managing guenons before obtaining more endangered guenon species.
European Studbook for Douroucouli 2007-2010, Aotus lemurinus griseimembra & Aotus azarai boliviensis. Current until 31.12.10.
107 Seiten. Marwell Wildlife, Winchester.
The Studbook provides a full overview of the living population, births, deaths and transfers over period 2007-2010, and also a full historical listing (a printed version of this list is only available on request). All animals registered in the studbook have been issued with a unique studbook number. Even if stillborn, animals will still be entered into the database as this is useful for reproductive analysis and also future demographic analysis. Temporary numbers mark animals of completely unknown origin and/or destiny, or animals where further investigation is needed.
The total number of douroucouli in captivity as reported to the studbook keeper by 31st December 2010 was Aotus lemurinus griseimembra 33.41.11 (85) in 19 institutions and Aotus azarae boliviensis 15.14.2 (31) in 12 institutions. These include animals in EAZA and non EAZA institutions and private holders.
O’CONNOR, J. (2014): European Studbook for Aotus lemurinus griseimembra and Aotus azarae boliviensis 2011-2013.
Captive Population: The total number of douroucouli in captivity as reported to the studbook keeper by 31st December 2013 was
Aotus lemurinus griseimembra 35.41.11 (87) in 22 institutions and Aotus azarae boliviensis 14.18.1 (33) in 14 institutions. These include animals in EAZA and non EAZA institutions and private holders.
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines - Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii).
24 Seiten, Abbildunge, Tabellen.
"The EEP recommends to keep Asiatic golden cats in an outdoor enclosure of minimum 150 m² and a minimum height of 2,5 m. To keep more than one Asiatic golden cat, a second enclosure is necessary to separate individuals for longer periods. Both enclosures should be connected by fine‐meshed wire with two sliding doors, so that cats can change enclosures by rotation. More to the dimensions of an enclosure, its furnishing is important. If the Asiatic golden cat has enough possibilities to climb, hide or rest, the number of square meters is secondary."
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).
1. Auflage. 42 Seiten, 3 Abbildungen..
Herausgeber: European Association of Zoosand Aquaria & Rotterdam Zoo
The first official version of the husbandry andmanagement guidelines for zoo red pandas was published in the fifth edition of the red panda studbook in 1988. The guidelines had been compiled over the previous yearsand were refined at the first red panda conference which was held in Rotterdamin 1987. Information and ideas from many peoplewere compiled into these guidelines. And during the course of the panda conservation workshop held in Front Royal in 1991, the red panda husbandry and management guidelines was updated. Nevertheless, since these meetings there has been a lot of research into red panda diets, pathology, behaviour etc. AZA published the Red Panda Care Manual in 2011. Because none of the publications had a focus on European standards, it was necessary to come up with the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for the Red Panda.
EAZA Best Practice Guidelines Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)
85 Seiten, mit Abbildungen, Verbreitungskartten und Tabellen.
1st edition. EAZA Amsterdam.
Right from the very beginning it has been the concern of EAZA and the EEPs to encourage and promote the highest possible standards for husbandry of zoo and aquarium animals. For this reason, quite early on, EAZA developed the “Minimum Standards for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria”. These standards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which the members of EAZA feel themselves committed. Above and beyond this, some countries have defined regulatory minimum standards for the keeping of individual species regarding the size and furnishings of enclosures etc., which, according to the opinion of authors, should definitely be fulfilled before allowing such animals to be kept within the area of the jurisdiction of those countries. These minimum standards are intended to determine the borderline of acceptable animal welfare. It is not permitted to fall short of these standards. How difficult it is to determine the standards, however, can be seen in the fact that minimum standards vary from country to country.
Above and beyond this, specialists of the EEPs and TAGs have undertaken the considerable task of laying down guidelines for keeping individual animal species. Whilst some aspects of husbandry reported in the guidelines will define minimum standards, in general, these guidelines are not to be understood as minimum equirements; they represent best practice. As such the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for keeping animals intend rather to describe the desirable design of nclosures and prerequisites for animal keeping that are, according to the present state of knowledge, considered as being optimal for each species. They intend above all to indicate how nclosures should be designed and what conditions should be fulfilled for the optimal care of individual species.
These Best Practice Guidelines were based on "concept husbandry guidelines for Black rhino (Diceros bicornis)" which were produced by Valentijn Assenberg and Thijs van den Houten for the final thesis of their Animal Management course at the Van Hall Larenstein Institute. The data to form the concept husbandry guidelines was collected by a literature study and a questionnaire. The literature was chosen from a number of sources. A full referencelist can be found at the end of this document.
The questionnaire was partly based on the AZA husbandry manual and partly on the EAZA husbandry guidelines for the greater one-horned rhino. The AZA husbandry manual was published in 1996 and covers all five rhino species and is made with the help of the International Rhino Foundation. The EAZA husbandry guidelines for the Greater one-horned rhino were published in 2002 by Basel Zoo.