Buffalo in the Northern Territory.

21 Seiten. Technical Bulletin of the  Conservation Commission of the Niorthern Territory.


An aerial survey was conducted to obtain an estimate of the numbers of buffalo throughout their range in the Northern Territory and to determine their distributional pattern at the time of the survey. These data were required to form the basis for future management decisions.

The total of 282,870 head was higher than previous estimates. Higher densities were all associated with the coastal floodplain systems. Major concentrations were found in the Wagait, Marrakai and Kapaiga strata. No lage concentrations occurred more than about 100 km inland from the coast.


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Sonntag, 08 Januar 2023 10:45

SAALFELD, K. (2014)

Feral buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): distribution and abundance in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory.

21 Seiten, NT Govt.

Volltext (PDF)


Populations of feral buffalo Bubulas bubalis in Arnhem Land provide both an economic opportunity and a source of significant environmental damage. There has been no consistent management of feral buffalo in the Northern Territory since the Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign (BTEC) of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Local control programs have been undertaken in response to concern about buffalo impacts, but these programs have not been coordinated or integrated at the regional level. The development of a strategic management program for feral buffalo in Arnhem Land requires adequate baseline data on the distribution and abundance of buffalo across the region.

From 9 June to 23 June 2014, an aerial survey was conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of feral buffalo (and other large feral vertebrates) in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. The total survey area of 91,658 km2 was surveyed at a sampling intensity of 3.6%. Species counted were buffalo, cattle, donkey, horse and pig. Buffalo counts were corrected for perception (observer) bias, but uncorrected for availability (habitat) bias.

The corrected population estimate for feral buffalo in Arnhem Land was 97,923 ± 9,327, a density of 1.07 ± 0.10 buffalo per km2. This estimate has a precision of 9%, which is considered good for such broad-scale aerial survey. Population estimates for other feral species were not calculated as sightings were too few for estimation with an acceptable level of precision.

The 2014 survey recorded relatively high buffalo densities in a number of areas:

  • a large area to the north-west of Bulman and south-east of the Arnhem Land Plateau;
  • the floodplains of the Blyth and Cadell Rivers;
  • the coastal floodplains between the Blyth and Glyde River mouths;
  • the floodplains and wetlands to the south-west of Buckingham Bay;
  • the floodplains and wetlands north of the Roper River, downstream from Ngukurr;
  • the south-west corner of the survey area.

Previous (1985 and 1998) surveys also recorded high buffalo densities in the Bulman area, but these surveys showed moderate to low buffalo density throughout the rest of Arnhem


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A molecular phylogeny of the Australian monitor lizards (Squamata:Varanidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

Australian Journal of Zoology. 54: 253–269.

Volltext: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248902243_A_molecular_phylogeny_of_the_Australian_monitor_lizards_Squamata_Varanidae_inferred_from_mitochondrial_DNA_sequences


To date no complete phylogeny of all of the currently recognised Indo-Australian varanid species and subspecies has been published. This paper presents a comprehensive mitochondrial gene phylogeny of these lizards. A portion of the mitochondrial genome comprising part of the ND4 gene and three adjacent tRNA genes (hereafter referred to as ND4) was analysed alone and, for a subset of the taxa, combined with previously published mitochondrial data. Similar tree topologies were produced by both datasets although combining the data helped resolve some of the unresolved or weakly supported nodes in the ND4 analyses. The monophyly of the Indo-Australian group was strongly supported in all analyses. This group comprised three major lineages: the gouldii group, the Odatria group and the varius group. Mitochondrial ND4 nucleotide sequences were successfully amplified from all of the Indo-Australian monitor species and subspecies currently recognised and, as such, is the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the Australian monitor lizards published. Analysis of the tempo of diversification and evolution of preferred habitat use identified six episodes of increased net speciation rate, with two closely adjacent episodes showing the highest rates of diversification and correlating with the appearance of all preferred habitat types. The comprehensive molecular phylogenetic framework will also be useful for the identification of varanid species and traded products derived from monitors and, as such, has important applications for wildlife management and conservation.


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Translocation of a top-order carnivore: tracking the initial survival, spatial movement, home-range establishment and habitat use of Tasmanian devils on Maria Island.

Australian Mammalogy 38(1) 68-79. 


The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial threatened with extinction from the emergence of Devil Facial Tumour Disease. The establishment of ex situ populations is a key management action for the species. We examined the initial survival, movement pattern, home range, and habit use of six devils from a total of 15 individuals translocated to Maria Island (south-east Tasmania). A total of 14 devils (93%) survived the initial monitoring phase within this study (122 days after translocation). The maximum and minimum distance recorded during one night was 21.73 km (range = 14.12–25.40 km) and 1.94 km (range = 0.07–7.71 km), respectively, while the average nightly distance travelled varied significantly (range = 7.24–13.07 km) between individuals. Short-term home-range size (90% kernel) varied from 936 to 3501 ha, with an average of 2180 (±836) ha for all devils. The habitat preference of devils on Maria Island shows a positive association with agricultural and urban habitats, and an avoidance of wet eucalypt forest. The home range and habitat associations may change as competitive pressures increase with population growth; however, this initial research indicates that translocation as a management action is a powerful tool for the establishment of ex situ populations, assisting in the continued conservation of this species.


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Dienstag, 14 Juli 2020 07:42

SHINE, R. (1989)

Constraints, Allometry, and Adaptation: Food Habits and Reproductive Biology of Australian Brownsnakes (Pseudonaja: Elapidae).

Herpetologica. 45 (2): 195–207.

305 006 042 007 pseudonaja textilis artikel


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Freitag, 23 August 2019 08:46

CHAPMAN, T. (2005)

The status and impact of the Rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus moluccanus) in south-west Western Australia.

17 Seiten.
Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, Perth. Report 04/2005.

Executive Summary:

Rainbow  lorikeets  Trichoglossus  haematodus  moluccanus  were  first  recorded  in  Perth  in  1968 and the population was thought to have originated from fewer than 10 birds that were either  deliberately  released  or  had  escaped  from  aviaries.    Since  the  early  1960s,  the  population has increased exponentially and spread rapidly over 174 km2 of the metropolitan area.  The population now numbers an estimated 8,400 birds and is expanding in range at a rate of 0.7 km per year. Rainbow  lorikeets  are  highly  mobile,  have  generalised  feeding  and  breeding  requirements  and  can  quickly  adapt  to  exploit  new  feeding  and  breeding  resources.    They  have  taken  advantage  of  the  year-round  supply  of  native  and  exotic  food  plants  available  in  Australia’s  major  cities  and  are  expanding  in  number  and  distribution  in  Brisbane,  Sydney,  Melbourne,  Canberra, Adelaide and Perth. The rainbow lorikeet is regarded as either a pest of agriculture or an unwanted organism in New  Zealand,  the  Northern  Territory,  Queensland,  the  Australian  Capital  Territory,  Victoria,  Tasmania and South Australia.  It is also a major pest of agriculture in the Northern Territory, Queensland and the fruit growing regions of the Adelaide Hills in South Australia. Analyses  conducted  in  this  study  show  that  the  feral  rainbow  lorikeet  population  in  Perth  poses an extreme risk to the State’s social, environmental and agricultural values.  Rainbow lorikeets cause a nuisance in the form of noise, damage to backyard fruit crops and fouling of outdoor areas and vehicles with droppings.  The large roosting flock of over 1000 birds near Perth  domestic  airport  may  also  pose  a  risk  of  bird-strike  to  aircraft.    

The  lorikeets  also  exclude native birds from feeding resources and nesting sites, kill the nestlings of other bird species and carry Psittacine beak and feather disease in the liver (once infected), which they can spread to native lorikeets and parrots. Lorikeets are a serious pest of cherries, apples, pears and stone fruit and a very serious pest of grapes in Australia and this study showed that the potential for rainbow lorikeets to spread outside  the  Perth  metropolitan  area  is  high. Thus,  the  lorikeets  pose  an  extreme  threat  to  Western Australia’s $245 million fruit, nut and grape growing industry. An  integrated  pest  management  program  must  be  developed  to: restrict  the  population  to  the  Perth  metropolitan  area,  and  reduce  the  number  of  birds  in  the  population  from  an  estimated  8400  in  2004  to  an  estimated  5000  by  2020. The  management  program  should  include the following objectives:

  1. Investigate sources and obtain the funding required to manage the population.
  2. Estimate  the  number  of  birds  in  the  Perth  population,  establish  its  distribution  and  locate major roost sites.
  3. Alter  the  status  of  the  rainbow  lorikeet  in  south-west  Western  Australia  so  that  it  is  a  declared  pest  in  the  metropolitan  area  (alter  to  A2;  ‘subject  to  eradication  in  the  wild’  south of the 20th parallel of latitude, and A5; ‘numbers to be reduced/controlled’ in the Perth metropolitan area).
  4. Investigate  methods  of  population  reduction  in  the  metropolitan  area  and  document  their effectiveness.
  5. Educate the public on the impacts of rainbow lorikeets and the need for control.
  6. Eradicate rainbow lorikeets that are sighted outside the metropolitan area.
  7. Investigate and document the effectiveness of methods for the mitigation of agricultural damage. 
  8. Conduct a cost/benefit analysis of the damage caused by rainbow lorikeets and lorikeet control.
  9. Develop a molecular approach to population control and management.
  10. Review standards for the import and keeping of rainbow lorikeets to reduce the risk of aviary escapes.


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Mittwoch, 14 August 2019 16:03


Australische Sittiche - Haltung, Zucht und Artenschutz.

215 Seiten, mit zahlreichen Farbfotos.
Verlag Oertel + Spoerer GmbH. ISBN 10: 3886274071 / ISBN 13: 9783886274079


Die australischen Sittiche zählen zu den am häufigsten gehaltenen Papageienvögeln. Durch ihre prächtigen Farben und ihre besonderen Verhaltensweisen ziehen sie immer mehr Vogelliebhaber in ihren Bann.
Es ist aber besonders wichtig, die Haltung und die Zucht dieser beliebten Papageienvögel neu zu bedenken und zeitgemäss zu betreiben. Und hier setzt dieses Buch an, denn eine möglichst artgerechte Haltung der Tiere und eine vorausschauende Zucht zur Erhaltung der Arten sind das besondere Anliegen der Autoren.
Im ersten Teil des Buches erfahren Sie alles Wissenswerte über Biologie, Verhalten, Herkunft, Haltung, Pflege, Zucht und vor allem auch den Artenschutz dieser Papageienvögel.

Der zweite Teil beinhaltet ausführliche Porträts aller gegenwärtig anerkannten australischen und ozeanischen Sitticharten und deren Unterarten. Das Ganze wird abgerundet durch wunderbare Fotos.
Ein neues Standardwerk für die Freunde dieser wunderschönen Papageienvögel.
Die australischen Sittiche zählen zu den am häufigsten gehaltenen Papageienvögeln. Durch ihre prächtigen Farben und ihre besonderen Verhaltensweisen ziehen sie immer mehr Vogelliebhaber in ihren Bann.

Es ist aber besonders wichtig, die Haltung und die Zucht dieser beliebten Papageienvögel neu zu bedenken und zeitgemäss zu betreiben. Und hier setzt dieses Buch an, denn eine möglichst artgerechte Haltung der Tiere und eine vorausschauende Zucht zur Erhaltung der Arten sind das besondere Anliegen der Autoren.

Im ersten Teil des Buches erfahren Sie alles Wissenswerte über Biologie, Verhalten, Herkunft, Haltung, Pflege, Zucht und vor allem auch den Artenschutz dieser Papageienvögel.

Der zweite Teil beinhaltet ausführliche Porträts aller gegenwärtig anerkannten australischen und ozeanischen Sitticharten und deren Unterarten. Das Ganze wird abgerundet durch wunderbare Fotos.

Ein neues Standardwerk für die Freunde dieser wunderschönen Papageienvögel.


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Freitag, 08 Februar 2019 08:55

GLEN, A. S. & SHORT, H. (2000)

The control of dingoes in New South Wales in the period 1883-1930 and its likely impact on their distribution andabundance.

Australian Zoologist 31 (3): 432-442

The sheep grazing industry has been an economic mainstay of New South Wales from the early period of European settlement. The dingo quickly established itself as a predator of sheep and a pest of the pastoral industry. In the latter decades of the nineteenth century, a system was established under which bounties were paid on a wide range of species, but bounties paid for dingoes were far in excess of those paid for other species. In addition,an exclusion fence was built, spanning 5'614 km and three States, to prevent dingoes from reinvading south-eastern Australia. This level of control effortreflects the importance of the dingo as a pest of the sheep industry. In the period between 1883 and 1930, over 280,000 bounties were paid for dingoes in New South Wales. At the beginning of this period. dingoes appeared to be distributed throughout New South Wales. By 1930, dingoes were scarce in all but the north-eastern corner of the State. The highest numbers of sheep were grazed in the areas that showed the most rapid decline in dingo numbers, while relatively low numbers were grazed in the areas where dingoes remained common.

No relationship was observed between the value of bounties offered and the number of scalps submitted. The main incentive for the destruction of dingoes by humans is likely to have been the protection of stock, rather thanthe monetary reward of the bounty payments.


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A Case Study of Orangutan and Siamang Behavior Within a Mixed-Species Zoo Exhibit.

Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 13:4, 330-346, DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2010.507125.


A Mixed-Species zoo exhibit is an exhibit that contains two or more distinct species, and is becoming increasingly common across the globe, as exposure to other species allows for animals in captivity to behave in ways similar to their natural environments. Zoo exhibits that have mixed species have built in enrichment activities for the animals as they interact with one another. In this way these living environments can increase animal welfare by reducing boredom, increasing behavioral diversity These researchers at an immersion exhibit at Adelaide Zoo in South Australia examined the behavior of orangutans and siamangs within a mixed-species exhibit by collecting empirical data on the presence of affiliative interactions, aggression, inter-species mingling, natural behaviors, and the absence of stereotypic behaviors. The exhibit included two orangutans (a male and a female), and two simang, which also included one male and one female. The simangs were younger (born since the 2000s), and the organgutans were older.  In the wild, while the two species might forage together, they often chase and even attack the each other, with the siamangs typically initiating the attacks. At the beginning of the introductory phase, the animals were introduced using a series of gradual introductions, beginning with visual contact only. At the time of the research, the orangutans and siamangs had been on display together for six months.  During the research, most interactions between Karta the orangutan and the siamang pair were playful, which included, pulling hair and running away, wrestling, and poking each other, as well as grooming, embracing and sharing food. The interactions were typically initiated by the siamangs. Further, supplanting of one species by the other was infrequent and typically occurred when one group tried to initiate play and the other did not wish to comply. Further, the two groups did use the exhibit equally with little to no segregation. The authors conclude that the presence of affiliative interactions beyond mere mutual tolerance supports the argument that mixed-species exhibits can be beneficial. It is possible that the greater success of the integration at this exhibit is due to the brief separation overnight. However, four months after the conclusion of the study, one of the siamangs did sustain a fracture of the radius and ulna of his left arm, and bite marks on the back of Karta the orangutan’s head suggest she was responsible, although the witness (a zoo visitor) was unable to describe the cause of context. So, while in general the two species were able to interact peacefully, there is an inherent danger in placing two species with disproportionate strengths together. To alleviate some of this danger, a surveillance system should be put in place, as well as ensure adequate safety routes. However, the fact that Irian the siamang was unable to reach the safety route before sustaining the injury should be considered.

Main Points and Potential Applications

  • Mixed-Species zoo exhibits can be beneficial in ensuring the well-being of each species, although the integration can be challenging and unsuccessful if not taken gradually and carefully.
  • It is necessary to monitor the two species and to ensure adequate safe routes are available in case of a disagreement.


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Female reproductive success in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.): life history, habitat, provisioning, and group-size effects.

Behavioral Ecology 11 (2): 210–219. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/11.2.210


This study examines factors influencing female reproductive success in wild Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Australia. Eighty-three females and their 142 calves were surveyed between 1988 and 1998 (3457 surveys); 42 calves were also observed during focal follows for 1330 h. Calf mortality is 44% by age 3 (n = 110). Reproduction is moderately seasonal (September-January), peaking from October to December. Calf loss between August and December is followed by rapid conception (1-2 months), whereas conception is delayed (2-9 months) if calf loss occurs between January and July. Weaning ages ranged from 2.7 to 8.0 years, but 66.7% (42 calves) were weaned by their fourth birthday. Females tended to wean mid-pregnancy. Accordingly, median interbirth interval was 4.1 years. Female reproductive success was classified as 0, 1, 2, or 3 according to the number of calves who survived to age 3 over a 10-year period (n = 38 females with complete histories). We examined whether factors affecting predation or food availability, water depth, and group size, were related to female reproductive success. Group size was unrelated to water depth or female reproductive success, but reproductive success was predicted by water depth (p <.002). Shallow water may allow mothers and calves to detect and avoid predatory sharks. Alternatively, or additionally, prey density may be higher in shallow water compared to deep water.


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