Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 12:28

McCULLOUGH, D. R. (1999)

Sika Deer Project News.

IUCN-SSC Deer Specialist Group News 15: 6-7.


I am currently involved in a genetics study of the sika deer in Asia. This cooperative project involves scientists in Japan, Taiwan, Russia, China, Vietnam, and Great Britain, and DNA labs in Japan, Taiwan, and Scotland. Recently I have visited countries over most of the geographic distribution to gather tissue samples, and to assess the status of the species. The sika deer has been raised in captivity for antlers for the Chinese medicine market for many years, but uncontrolled hunting and habitat loss either has, or is, driving them to extinction in the wild.

Currently, China has some 600,000 in  captivity, and less than 600 (and declining) in three isolated populations in the wild.  They are extinct in the wild in Vietnam  and Taiwan.  Both countries have native sika deer in captivity, Vietnam about 3,000 in various locations, including 2 national parks, and Taiwan about 400 in 2 locations.  They are also extinct in South Korea, and apparently no original stock is  in  captivity. Their status in North Korea is not known. Substantial wild populations still occur in Far East Russia and Japan.

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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 10:47

MANATI, A. R. (2011)

Unterartenfrage Persischer Leoparden geklärt

Der Zoologische Garten 81, (1): 1- 13, ISSN 0044-5169


The Studbook for the Persian Leopard, Panthera pardus saxicolor, was analyzed. The whole population derives from a few founder animals, imported in the midth fifties from Iran and in the late sixties from Afghanistan. To avoid inbreeding later on the Iranian and the Afghan lines were mixed. A female imported in 1968 from Kabul to Cologne is represented in each of the more than 100 animals living today.

This study deals with the question of subspecies of leopards in Afghanistan. Out of the 27 subspecies described four are believed to exist in Afghanistan. However, according to a molecular-biological revision of the species there is only one subspecies in Afghanistan, Panthera pardus saxicolor. To clarify the subspecies question various measures of furs have been taken in the bazars. The results revealed that the leopards in Afghanistan are the biggest of its species. However a further differentiation according to the area of origin within the country was not possible. Also the traditional differentiation on the basis of colours and patterns on the furs was not possible.

In contrast to the molecular-biological investigations published, not only samples of zoo animals were available in this study but also samples from the wild. The results confirm that almost all leopards from Afghanistan and Iran belong to one and the same subspecies. Only in the most eastern part of Afghanistan, the Indian leopard, Panthera pardus fusca, can be found.

Mixing the two lines subsequently is justified by the results of this study. Recently acquired animals from the Caucasus, however, should be tested genetically before integrating them into the zoo population.


Siehe auch: MANATI, A. R. (2008)



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 21:58

KERN, C. (2008)

Beobachtungen zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie beim Davidshirsch.

Milu, Berlin 12: 314-325.


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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 14:42

HOFMANN, R. R. (2006)

Milu-Jubiläum in China.

Milu, Berlin 11: 739-746.


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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 08:00

GROVES, C. P. (1997)

Taxonomy of wild pigs Sus of the Philippines.

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 163-191.


Native wild pigs of the Philippines are now in grave danger of extinction. Study of available material indicates that three species are present: Sundaland Sus barbatus on Palawan, and two endemic species, Sus philippensis (with three subspecies, one of them here described as new) on Luzon, Mindanao, Basilan, Leyte, Samar, Catanduanes and Mindoro, and Sus cebifroms on Negros, debit and Panay. Specimens from Jolo. Masbale and Bohol presently remain unallocated to species, and may reflect the occurrence of hybridization.



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Mittwoch, 06 März 2013 22:13

EHRENBERG, C. G. (1828)

Naturgeschichtliche Reisen durch Nord-Afrika und West-Asien in den Jahren 1820 bis 1825 von Dr. W. F. Hemprich und Dr. C. G. Ehrenberg, Historischer Theil.

Mittler, Berlin 1828.

Kostenloses e-Book:


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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 09:48


Die Bergbachmolche der Gattung Neurergus im Irak (Caudata: Salamandridae).

The Kurdistan newts of the Genus Neurergus in Iraq (Caudata: Salamandridae).

HERPETOZOA Wien 23 (3/4): 3 - 20.


Die verfügbaren Angaben zur Verbreitung der Gattung Neurergus im Irak wurden während einer 11-tägigen Reise in die autonome Provinz Kurdistan/Irak im Frühjahr 2010 verifiziert.  Dazu wurden die in der Literatur genannten Fundorte aufgesucht, wenn der Zugang zu ihnen möglich war.  Beobachtungen im Habitat, Beschreibungen der bewohnten Gewässer, Daten zur Morphologie und Biologie der Molche und die aktuelle Beurteilung der ungefähren Verbreitung der Arten werden präsentiert. Bergbachmolche die völlig mit den von NESTEROV (1916) als Rhithrotriton  derjugini Forma typica und Rhithrotriton derjugini var. microspilotus beschriebenen Tieren übereinstimmten, wurden in unmittelbarer Nähe ihrer jeweiligen Typuslokalitäten gefunden.  Beide Molchformen wurden erstmals seit NESTEROVs Reise im Jahr 1914 für den Irak wieder nachgewiesen. Neurergus derjugini derjugini (NESTEROV, 1916) und Neurergus derjugini microspilotus (NESTEROV, 1916) [Syn. Neurergus microspilotus (NESTEROV, 1916)] werden als gültige Namen der beiden Taxa vorgeschlagen. Färbungsvarianten der Art Neurergus crocatus, COPE 1862  von  verschiedenen Fundpunkten werden beschrieben.

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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 23:13

ARAMILEV, V. V. (2009)

Sika Deer in Russia.

In: McCULLOUGH, D. R., TAKATSUKI, S. & KAJI, K. (eds., 2008) Sika Deer – Biology and Management of Native and Introduced Populations: 475-500. Springer Verlag, Tokyo, Berlin Heidelberg, New York. ISBN 978-4-431-0-9428-9.


Sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum) were originally distributed over much of Primorsky Krai (an administrative division in the Russian Far East similar to a U.S. state) in Far East Russia, occupying coastal and inland valley deciduous and mixed deciduous-pine forests up to about 500 m elevation, with isolated individuals in favored habitat at higher elevations. Their limits to the north extend into southern Khabarovsky Krai along the Ussuri River Valley, and along the seacoast to the vil lage of Malaya Kema. These limits are set by winter snow depth, which also limits their occupation of higher elevations in the Sikhote-Alin mountain range. Sika deer were translocated in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to other coun tries and to European Russia where they have shown considerable adaptive capacity by acclimatizing to severe winter conditions. Sika deer feed primarily on forest understory vegetation and on herbaceous plants in forest openings. Their native forage is deficient in sodium so they seek sources of salt at the seashore, from min eral soils and springs, or from aquatic freshwater plants with high sodium content. Sika deer displace other ungulate competitors from their preferred habitats and, in high numbers, can have serious impacts on vegetation. There is some interbreeding between sika deer and wapiti, but intermediate phenotypes are rare. Overhunting beginning in the late 1800s and extending through World War II resulted in a severe decline in the sika deer numbers and distribution. At the same time, many sika deer were raised in farms for commercial production of antlers and other products. In the last 25 years there has been an increase in the wild population and expan sion of the distribution across Primorsky Krai. Now sika deer occupy most of their original range, apparently colonizing all suitable habitats. Serious anthropogenic pressure, both a loss of habitat and hunting, has not hindered this growth in the number and dispersal of sika deer, although some former habitat along the seacoast has been lost to human development. Sika deer in farms are not very economically viable at present. The re-occupation of the original range consisted of both wild and farm-escaped deer, but genetic studies show that they are all of the original genetic stock. Their increase has occurred despite serious predation pressure by tigers and leopards, and illegal hunting; they are currently managed for sustainable harvest.


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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 18:53


Wiederansiedlungsprojekt Tachin Tal.

Bongo 30: 1-14.



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Donnerstag, 14 Juni 2018 18:38


Pallas’s cat in the Altai Republic, Russia.

CATnews 54: 4-7.


Pallas’s cat is a small wild cat occurring in Russia at the northern periphery of its global range. The results of Pallas’s cat surveys conducted in the Altai Mountain area are presented in this paper. Before the 2000s, there was no special research undertaken on Pallas’s cat population numbers and distribution in the Altai part of its range, except for the gathering of interview data in the late 1990s. This study carried out snow-tracking and obtained survey data on the species from 2006 to 2009 in the Altai Republic, one of the core habitats for Pallas’s cat in Russia. Pallas’s cat density reaches 1.20-2.18 individuals per 10 km2 in the main Pallas’s cat habitats. A total of 480-650 Pallas’s cats were estimated to live within the Altai Republic. The areas of high conservation value for Pallas’s cat are situated on the Sailughem and Kurai ridges. The main threats to the species are poaching and killing by dogs. It is necessary to estimate the threats from possible human activity, such as mining. It is presumed that educational work with local people will reduce deaths amongst Pallas’s cats. The creation of new protected areas within the key habitat of Pallas’s cat in the Altai Republic, including the enlargement of the recently-created national park on Sailughem ridge, is very encouraging.



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