West Indian iguana Cyclura spp. reintroduction and recovery programmes: zoo support and involvement.
International Zoo Yearbook 49: 49-55.
Many West Indian rock iguanas Cyclura spp comprise small restricted island populations that are threatened by habitat conversion and degradation, free-ranging domestic animals and invasive species. In the 1980s, concerted conservation efforts were initiated for Caribbean iguanas, using a combination of captive-breeding programmes and head-starting of wild-collected hatchlings for reintroduction, and habitat protection. Zoological facilities have been involved in the conservation efforts from the start, providing expertise, resources and extensive funding for various aspects of the conservation programmes, and by providing space to house ex situ groups of iguanas as assurance populations. Health assessments of wild and captive iguanas, and databases related to the biology and health of the species have benefited not only the wild populations but also those being bred and maintained in captivity. Data compilation and analysis through the use of population-management software have made it possible to manage the genetic diversity of the individuals being captive bred for release. The involvement of zoological facilities has been fundamental to the efforts that have gone into bringing the Grand Cayman blue iguana Cyclura lewisi and the Jamaican iguana Cyclura collei back from the brink of extinction. A review of the conservation efforts for West Indian iguanas, including the role played by zoos, is presented.
Reintroduced Chinese Alligators Now Multiplying In The Wild In China.
ScienceDaily, 18 July 2009.
The Wildlife Conservation Society announced today that critically endangered alligators in China have a new chance for survival. The WCS's Bronx Zoo, in partnership with two other North American parks and the Department of Wildlife Conservation and Management of the State Forestry Administration of China, has successfully reintroduced alligators into the wild that are now multiplying on their own.
The Tree Kangaroo Conservation Program - community-based conservation on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea.
Conservation Evidence (2006) 3, 47-48.
Following a community-based conservation programme started in 1996, with the endangered Matschie’s tree kangaroo Dendrolagus matschiei as the project’s flagship species, a joint proposal for the regions first protected area, comprising over 60,000 ha, was submitted to the regional government and approved in 2006.
Radiated Tortoise SAFE Program Plan.
AZA institutions that participated in Radiated Tortoise conservation in 2015 and 2016 focused their efforts on raising awareness, capacity building/training, assurance populations, reintroduction, population management, behavior/ethology, anti-poaching/patrolling, disaster emergency response and animal health. The AZA institutions included in the 2015 and 2016 ARCS database spent a total of $200,645 on 11 projects for the Radiated Tortoise over those two years.
Revisiting the reintroduced Eurasian lynx population in Kampinos National Park, Poland.
The European Zoological Journal 88(1): 966-979. https://doi.org/10.1080/24750263.2021.1968046
In the past centuries, many of the Eurasian lynx populations declined and finally disappeared. In Poland, only two populations survived until the 20th century. In the 90s a new population was reintroduced in central Poland but presently, its fate is considered uncertain. While the recurring observations of lynx in the area confirm its presence, they are insufficient to evaluate the state of this population. Therefore, using a population viability model and the reintroduction program data, we analyzed the ambiguities in the vital rates assessments to find the most likely scenario for the development of the population since its reintroduction. Finally, we modeled different options to improve the survival chances of this one and possibly other small populations. Estimated parameters result in a declining population. In the majority of the simulations, lynx populations go extinct within 20 years. This can be improved by reintroduction or natural immigration of new individuals every 4 years, but only if the new individuals arrive within a short period of time after the initial reintroduction. Also, longer time intervals are insufficient to elevate the median time to extinction beyond 50 years. Separately, moderate changes in reproduction or survival rates have only a marginal effect on the population’s survival. Decreasing only the impact of mortality would increase this population’s persistence time, but not ensure its long-term survival. However, decreased mortality in combination with immigration should result in much more successful population development. With higher longevity and release every 4 years the population is more successful even if the new individuals start entering the population up to 20 years later. Even less frequent immigration combined with enhanced longevity still improves survival. Combined adjustment of individuals to their environment and regular immigration provide the best chances of long-term survival. One or both of those factors could explain why lynx is still present in the area.
Method of releasing and number of animals are determinants for the success of European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) reintroductions.
Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 58: 473–482. DOI 10.1007/s10344-011-0597-8
Reintroductions are considered an important part of the action plans and recovery strategies of endangered ground squirrel species, but so far little is known about their proper methodology. We collected primary data on 12 European ground squirrel reintroduction projects carried out at 14 localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland since 1989. We focused on seven methodological aspects of each reintroduction: selection of release site, method of releasing, date of releasing, origin of released animals, total number of released animals, mean number of released animals per season and reintroduction site management. The method of releasing was found to be the key factor in determining the settlement of animals at the target locality. Only soft releasing methods, i.e. the use of enclosures and/or artificial burrows, ensure that animals remain at the target locality. The other factors significantly determining reintroduction success are the number of released animals per season (at least 23 animals required) and the total number of released animals (a minimum of 60 individuals). Long-term management of the site and regular monitoring of the newly established population are necessary. Our recommendations, based on experience with the successes and failures of previous reintroductions, could largely improve the efficiency of future reintroductions of highly endangered species.
Social organization and demography of reintroduced Dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas neglecta) in North Ferlo Fauna Reserve, Senegal.
Mammalia 80(6): 593-600. https://doi.org/10.1515/mammalia-2015-0017
As part of a reintroduction project in Senegal, 23 (9.14) captive-born Dorcas gazelles were released into a 440-ha fenced-in area in Katané (North Ferlo Fauna Reserve, Senegal) in March 2009. After 4 years of seasonal monitoring, the gazelles showed progressive adaptation of their behavior to semi-wild living conditions. Breeding gradually became seasonal, and 53.8% of births occurred during the rainy season (July to September). Gazelle group size and composition varied seasonally. Groups were smallest during the dry season (2.29±1.72) and largest at the beginning of the rainy season (4.18±2.73). Social group composition also showed seasonal variation. There were always a larger proportion of solitary males than solitary females and mixed couples were observed throughout the year. All-male groups were found the least. The proportion of adult females with subadults and juveniles decreased during the early rainy season, while mixed adults, subadults and juveniles groups increased during this period. The mortality rate during the first weeks after release was 13%. Four years of monitoring after release, demographic traits of this released population reveal its adaptation from captive to natural-living conditions.
The role of Senegal in the recovery of the Sahelo-Saharan antelope species: The case of the reintroduction of Dorcas Gazelle.
GNUSLETTER 28(1): 6-8.
Abstract. During the last 25 years Senegal made a signiﬁcant effort to recover the three sahelo Saharan species which disappeared from its sahelian region: the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), the mhorr gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr) and the dorcas gazelle (G. dorcas). With this purpose, the Senegalese government created two fauna reserves: the Guembeul Reserve and the Ferlo North Reserve. The mhorr gazelle was reintroduced in 1984 and the scimitar-horned oryx in 1999. The reintroduction of dorcas gazelles started in April 2007 with a project conceived to be carried out in three phases: phase 1) translocation of 20 gazelles (6.14) from the captive global population living in several zoological institutions in Europe to the Guembeul Reserve, phase 2) acclimtation to the new environmental and management conditions and growing of population under genetic control, and phase 3) translocation of part of the gazelles from the Guembeul Special Fauna Reserve to the North Ferlo Fauna Reserve and genetic reinforcement of the reintroduced population. After 14 months of the reintroduction, the gazelles are well adapted to the new conditions and now number 31 gazelles (9.22). To assure the success of the reintroduction project, other actions related with training and education of local people were carried out.
Reintroduction, distribution, population dynamics and conservation of a species formerly extinct in the wild: A review of thirty-five years of successful Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) reintroduction in China.
Global Ecology and Conservation 31: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2021.e01860
Reintroduction plays a vital role in conservation for many endangered species, however, little long-term information is available on the population dynamics and conservation status. Here we provide a detailed account of the Chinese Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) conservation and reintroduction efforts over the past 35 years, and give updated information on current Milu distribution, population dynamics and conservation status based on long-term monitoring (1985–2020) and a detailed follow-up investigation (2013–2020) in 235 wildlife institutions throughout China. Milu conservation in China comprised three phases: i) establishing ex situ populations and increasing the number of Milu through captive breeding (1985–1992); ii) preparing captive Milu for life in the wild and establishing in situ conservation populations (1993–1997); and iii) reintroduction of Milu into the wild throughout their historic range (1998–ongoing). Currently, there are ca. 9062 Milu (including 2825 wild individuals) distributed across 83 sites with 7380 individuals living at Beijing Milu Park, Jiangsu Dafeng Milu Nature Reserve and Hubei Shishou Milu Nature Reserve. The average birth rates in three sites were all over 0.200, and the average adult mortality rates were below 0.085, resulting in a rapid population growth. We discuss a variety of factors that contributed to ex situ conservation success in the reintroduction of a species formerly extinct in the wild, and highlight past and present challenges of Milu conservation in China. Our results will provide helpful information on conservation and reintroduction for other endangered species around the world.
EAZA Penguin Taxon Advisory Group - Regional Collection Plan.
First Edition.EAZA Executive Office, Amsterdam.
Aus der Einleitung:
The EAZA Penguin TAG encourages all EAZA penguin holders to contribute through concreteconservation education activities (as indirect conservation role). Holders are encouraged to educate thepublic on:
- The status of penguins e.g. 10 of 18 species declining, 10 of 18 species threatened;
- The threats to penguins (in general and for specific species) e.g. conflict between fisheries and penguin colonies, impact climate change, petroleum discharge, risk/consequencesinvasive/introduced predators, infections and trade in wild penguins to meet demands of unscrupulous zoos and private collectors;
- The need to conserve penguins in the wild and to protect their natural habitat;
- How can we help? Education around behaviour change –as a tourist to penguin areas,as a consumer, plastic use,etc.
The EAZA Penguin TAG also encourages all penguin holders to fundraise for any prioritized conservation projects either linked to the penguin species they keep orre-directed to aproject for a more threatened penguin species not kept in human care.The TAG will make sure a list of prioritized conservation projects will be made available and/or circulated annually.