Conservation Status of Freshwater Turtles in Papua New Guinea.
Asian Turtle Trade: Proceedings of a Workshop on Conservation and Trade of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises in Asia
P.P. van Dijk, B.L. Stuart, and A.G.J. Rhodin, Eds.
Chelonian Research Monographs 2:129–136
Trade in turtles from PNG is strictly regulated by law as proscribed by the Fauna (Protection and Control) Act (Parker, 1981) (this Act is currently in the process of being amended). Papua New Guinea is also a CITES signatory since 1975. All exports of all turtles require permits to be issued by the Conservator of Fauna (currently the Dept. of Environment and Conservation). No turtles are listed by PNG as Protected Species, which would limit legal permitted export to at most 4 animals to legitimate approved zoological institutions. However, all marine turtles and two freshwater turtles, C. insculpta and P. bibroni are listed as Restricted Species, with narrow guidelines limiting any legal export to only a few animals for legitimate scientific purposes. The rest of the non-protected and non-restricted turtle species may be exported only with issued export permits, and then only for approved legitimate scientific and zoological purposes. Export of curios incorporating wildlife parts (e.g., turtle shell masks) also requires export permits.
At least on paper, PNG protects its wildlife and turtle resources fervently from export, with proper concern for their continued utilization at the local level by the native population. Unfortunately, control and enforcement of these regulations is badly lacking, and very few export permits for turtles are actually issued. A search of permits issued during the last 3 years yielded evidence of only a single specimen of E. subglobosa exported to Hawaii in 1996. Permits were also previously obtained in 1987 for export of one C. novaeguineae (actually C. pritchardi), and in 1977 for a few specimens each of C. siebenrocki, C. novaeguineae, E. subglobosa, and E. novaeguineae, with only one specimen each of C. insculpta and P. bibroni (AGJR, pers. obs.).
Trade in New Guinea turtles at present appears to be restricted primarily to the international exotic pet industry. There appear to be significant levels of illegal export trade along the southern PNG – Irian border, as described above for the different species traded along this route. Some of this trade may pass through Daru, an off-shore regional port and air facility with a long history of illegal wildlife trade and also a major regional market for the sale of marine turtle meat. No similar trade appears to occur along the northern PNG – Irian border. The reasons for the difference reflect the higher levels of border control present along the northern border. Illegal export via air or ship from major ports such as Port Moresby probably also occurs, especially for vulnerable species like C. pritchardi which occurs close to Port Moresby. The Dept. of Environment and Conservation has inadequate manpower and resources to inspect and control these probable avenues of illegal trade.
As mentioned above for E. novaeguineae, the international food trade does not yet appear to have significantly impacted populations of turtles in New Guinea. However, as populations of heavily traded species in southeast Asia are depleted, the export routes for the pet trade currently emanating from New Guinea will probably convert and begin to trade increasing amounts of turtles primarily for the food trade. If the freshwater turtle fauna of Papua New Guinea is to continue to survive as a viable and sustainable resource base for utilization by the native population, and if we are to avoid the consumption of this resource in international exotic pet and food markets, then stricter adherence to existing laws and necessary control and inspection at probable export sites needs urgently to be implemented.
Chelodina oblonga Gray 1841 – Northern Snake-Necked Turtle.
In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 077.1–13, doi:10.3854/crm.5.077.oblonga.v1.2014, http://www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.
The Northern Snake-necked Turtle, Chelodina (Macrochelodina) oblonga (Family Chelidae), until very recently known as C. (M.) rugosa, is a fairly large freshwater turtle (carapace length to 360 mm) with a broad distribution in tropical northern Australia and southern New Guinea. Its preferred habitats are seasonal wetlands on the coastal floodplains and adjacent hinterlands. These habitats undergo extensive flooding during the tropical wet season, with declining water levels during the following dry season; many waterholes dry completely. The species survives the dry season by migrating to permanent water or by estivating under the mud of dried waterholes. It is a highly prized food item among Aboriginal people, and turtles are collected each year in a harvest that has occurred for many millennia. The species is exclusively carnivorous and feeds on a range of fast-moving aquatic invertebrates, tadpoles, and fish. It is a highly fecund, fast-growing, and early-maturing species in comparison to most other Australian chelids. Its habit of nesting underwater makes it unique among all turtles. Nesting commences in the wet season (February) and is mostly complete by July (mid-dry season), though gravid females can be found as late as September if waterholes remain inundated. Eggs are laid in holes dug in mud under shallow water in the littoral zone of flooded waterholes. Embryonic development remains arrested while the nest remains flooded, but recommences when floodwaters recede and the ground dries. Embryonic development proceeds during the dry season and hatchling emergence coincides with the heavy rainfall or flooding in the following wet season. The species remains common in all the major river systems across northern Australia and southern New Guinea, and is sustainably harvested for traditional consumption in Australia, but is under some threat there from pig predation.
Chelodina longicollis (Shaw 1784) – eastern long-necked turtle, common long-necked turtle, common snake-necked turtle.
In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs 5: 031.1-031.8, doi:10.3854/crm.5.031.
The eastern long-necked turtle, Chelodina longicollis (Family Chelidae), has a wide distribution throughout southeastern Australia. It occupies a broad range of freshwater aquatic habitats but is more abundant in shallow, ephemeral wetlands often remote from permanent rivers. Its propensity for long distance overland migration, coupled with a low rate of desiccation and the capacity to estivate on land, enable it to exploit highly-productive ephemeral habitats in the absence of competition from fish and other turtle species. In wetter periods, such habitats provide optimal conditions for growth and reproduction. In drier periods, however, turtles may need to seek refuge in permanent water where high population densities and low productivity can lead to reduced growth rates and reproductive output. The species is an opportunistic carnivore that feeds on a broad range of plankton, nekton and benthic macro-invertebrates, carrion, as well as terrestrial organisms that fall upon the water. It is relatively slow to mature (7–8 yrs for males and 10–12 yrs for females), lays between 6 and 23 hard-shelled eggs during spring and late summer, and can produce up to 3 clutches per year. Although currently considered common and not under major threat, the most widespread conservation concern for C. longicollis is high nest predation from the introduced fox (Vulpes vulpes), and roads, pest fencing, and habitat changes brought about by prolonged drought and climate change, which present localized and potential future threats for certain populations.
Kinixys erosa (Schweigger 1812) – Forest Hinge-back Tortoise, Serrated Hinge-back Tortoise, Serrated Hinged Tortoise.
In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs 5(7):084.1–13, doi:10.3854/crm.5.084.erosa.v1.2014, http://www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.
The Forest Hinge-back Tortoise, Kinixys erosa (Family Testudinidae), is a forest tortoise with considerable range over the continuous Guinea–Congo rainforest region in West and Central Africa. It is a medium-sized to large tortoise, with a carapace length reaching ca. 400 mm, and males larger than females. Tortoises of the genus Kinixys can close themselves entirely within their shells through a unique posterior carapacial hinge. Kinixys erosa inhabits the lowland evergreen forest, marshy areas, and forest galleries growing along rivers and streams, where it is locally threatened by clearance of forest for cultivation and hunting pressure. It has an omnivorous diet, with mushrooms being predominant. Population sizes are strongly depressed in areas where these tortoises are actively hunted by human populations. The main threats for this species include subsistence hunting by local people in desperately poor economic conditions, agricultural and industrial expansion with deforestation, and trade for the pet industry. There is a strong need for more field research on K. erosa ecology, abundance, and status. There are no known conservation actions for this species; however, there is a need to establish protected areas that include viable populations of these tortoises through their natural range.
Distribution. – Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo–DRC), Congo (Republic of Congo–ROC), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire), Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo, Uganda. Widely distributed along coastal forested West Africa from Sierra Leone and Guinea through the Congo Basin of central Africa to northern Angola.
Synonymy. – Testudo erosa Schweigger 1812, Kinixys erosa, Cinixys erosa, Kinixys belliana erosa, Testudo schoepfii Fitzinger 1826 (nomen nudum), Kinixys castanea Bell 1827, Cinixys (Cinixys) castanea, Cinixys castanea.
Subspecies. – None recognized.
Status. – IUCN 2014 Red List: Data Deficient (DD, assessed 1996); TFTSG Draft Red List: Endangered (EN, assessed 2013); CITES: Appendix II, as Testudinidae spp.
Chersina angulata (Schweigger 1812) – Angulate Tortoise, South African Bowsprit Tortoise.
In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 030.1-030.6, doi:10.3854/crm.5.030.angulata.v1.2009, http://www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.
The angulate or bowsprit tortoise, Chersina angulata (Family Testudinidae), is endemic to southern Africa and is the type species of the monotypic genus. No subspecies are distinguished, but mtDNA markers indicate the presence of two distinct evolutionary lineages associated with the southern and western regions of South Africa, respectively. The species is medium-sized (carapace length to ca. 350 mm), sexually dimorphic with males larger than females, characterized by a large, protruding, undivided gular scute, and displays substantial color and size variation.
The species is active throughout the year but temperature and rainfall modify its activity patterns. Males appear to establish dominance hierarchies in spring when they use their large gular scute to overturn rival conspecific males. Females produce single-egg clutches from late summer to late
spring and can lay up to six clutches annually. Egg retention time varies substantially and correlates with temperature and rainfall. The diet includes a wide range of angiosperms as well as mosses, mushrooms, insects, snails, and animal feces. They are selective feeders and their diet changes with season and site.
Chersina angulata is not threatened and is adequately protected.
Distribution. – Namibia, South Africa. The range extends along the southern and western regions of South Africa into southwestern Namibia.
Synonymy. – Testudo angulata Schweigger 1812, Testudo (Chersina) angulata, Chersina angulata, Goniochersus angulata, Neotestudo angulata, Chersine angulata, Testudo bellii Gray 1828, Chersina angulata pallida Gray 1831
Subspecies. – No subspecies currently recognized.
Status. – IUCN 2008 Red List: Not Listed (= Least Concern, LR/lc) (assessed 1996, needs updating); CITES: Appendix II (as Testudinidae spp.); South African Red Data Book: Not Listed.
Leucocephalon yuwonoi (McCord, Iverson, and Boeadi 1995) – Sulawesi forest turtle, kura-kura Sulawesi.
In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 039.1–039.7, doi:10.3854/crm.5.039.yuwonoi.v1.2009, http://www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.
The Sulawesi forest turtle, Leucocephalon yuwonoi (Family Geoemydidae), is one of the world’s most enigmatic and poorly known turtles; there are few observations from the wild and its life history remains virtually unstudied. The species is a moderate-sized (carapace length to 278 mm), semi-aquatic omnivorous turtle, that lays one or occasionally two large eggs in each clutch. First purchased from local people in Gorontalo in northern Sulawesi during the late 1980s, large numbers appeared in the commercial turtle trade to China in the early 1990s, and the species was formally described in 1995. The species is endemic to the island of Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes), Indonesia, and believed restricted to the Central, Gorontalo, and North Sulawesi provinces. Owing to its limited geographic distribution and low fecundity, as well as extensive and unsustainable exploitation for the food and pet trade and substantial habitat loss, we regard L. yuwonoi as a species of grave international conservation concern. Unresolved husbandry problems make captive propagation problematic.
Distribution. – Indonesia. Endemic to Sulawesi, where it occurs in the northwestern portions of the island.
Synonymy. – Geoemyda yuwonoi McCord, Iverson, and Boeadi 1995, Heosemys yuwonoi, Leucocephalon yuwonoi.
Subspecies. – None recognized.
Status. – IUCN 2009 Red List: Critically Endangered (CR A1cd+2cd,C1) (assessed 2000); CITES: Appendix II.
Mauremys japonica (Temminck and Schlegel 1835) – Japanese pond turtle.
In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., and Iverson, J.B. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 003.1-003.6, doi:10.3854/crm.5.003.japonica.v1.2008, http://www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt.
Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan [email@example.com]
The Japanese pond turtle, Mauremys japonica (Family Geoemydidae), is endemic to Japan and is distributed in Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and adjacent small islands. The turtle is found in various freshwater habitats such as swamps, marshes, irrigated rice paddies, ponds, lakes, and rivers. Many of these habitats have been the objects of recent rapid land developments, or under the constant influences of human activities, obviously involving population declines of this species. The overexploitaion by pet dealers and the prevalence of artificially introduced species with similar ecological requirements could be reducing the numbers of this turtle as well. Thus, although the turtle seems still to be relatively abundant in most districts, preservation of its habitats, as well as regulations for the handling of this species and the control of invasive turtles (especially of the red-eared slider Trachemys scripta elegans) should be considered urgently for the conservation of this species. Accumulation of field data for various ecological aspects of the Japanese pond turtle is also strongly desired in order to formulate effective conservation actions.
Distribution. – Japan. Restricted to Honshu, Kyoshu, and Shikoku.
Synonymy. – Emys vulgaris japonica Temminck and Schlegel 1835, Emys japonica, Emys caspica japonica, Clemmys japonica, Mauremys japonica, Ocadia japonica .
Subspecies. – None.
. – IUCN 2007 Red List: Near Threatened (LR/nt) (assessed 2000) ; CITES: Not Listed.
Mauremys annamensis (Siebenrock 1903) – Vietnamese Pond Turtle, Annam Pond Turtle, Rùa Trung Bộ.
In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs 5(7):081.1–14, doi:10.3854/crm.5.081.annamensis.v1.2014, http://www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.
The Vietnamese Pond Turtle, Mauremys annamensis (Family Geoemydidae), is a medium-sized (carapace length to 285 mm in females, 232 mm in males), highly aquatic turtle known only from the lowland wetlands of central Vietnam. Field records are limited and the natural history of M. annamensis is poorly known, in part due to the difficulty in conducting research within the species’ native range as a result of conflict and political isolation during much of the period since its description. Recent work has delimited the historical distribution and gathered evidence for the historical abundance of M. annamensis, but also indicates that the species has largely been extirpated across its range and is now extremely rare in the wild. Over-collection and habitat loss are the greatest contributors to the species’ decline, while pollution and interspecific hybridization may represent additional threats. Substantial international trade in M. annamensis occurred in the past, and despite national and international protection for the species, surviving populations continue to be threatened by intensive collection efforts. In captivity, the species acclimates well and breeds readily, with females capable of producing several clutches of eggs per year. Current conservation efforts include greater enforcement of trade restrictions, the establishment of a protected habitat area, and planning for future reintroductions from captive stocks. Continued research and conservation measures are required to save this critically endangered species.
Distribution. – Vietnam. Historically ranged across central Vietnam coastal lowlands from the municipality of Da Nang and Quang Nam Province south to Phu Yen Province and west into the low-lying inland areas of Gia Lai and Dak Lak provinces.
Synonymy. – Cyclemys annamensis Siebenrock 1903, Cuora (Cyclemys) annamensis, Cuora annamensis, Annamemys annamensis, Mauremys annamensis, Annamemys annamemys (ex errore), Cathaiemys annamensis, Annamemys merkleni Bourret 1940, Annamemys mekleni (ex errore), Clemmys guangxiensis Qin 1992 (partim, hybrid), Mauremys guangxiensis, Ocadia glyphistoma McCord and Iverson 1994 (partim, hybrid).
Subspecies. – None.
Status. – IUCN 2014 Red List: Critically Endangered (CR A1d+2d, assessed 2000); TFTSG Draft Red List: Critically Endangered (CR, assessed 2011); CITES: Appendix II with zero quota for commercial purpose; Vietnam: Decree No. 32/2006/ND-CP.
Batagur baska (Gray 1830) – northern river terrapin.
In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 037.1–037.10, doi:10.3854/crm.5.037.baska.v1.2009, http://www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.
The northern river terrapin, Batagur baska (Family Geoemydidae), is a large (carapace length to 59 cm) critically endangered river turtle that previously occupied most rivers and estuaries of South Asia (India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar). Populations of river terrapins occurring in Southeast Asia (Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, and Indonesia) previously referred to this species are now considered a separate closely-related species, the southern river terrapin, Batagur affinis. Exceptionally large concentrations of this species that resided in the Hugli River of West Bengal in India and the Ayeryawady Delta in Myanmar during the 19th and early 20th centuries are now extirpated. Nesting throughout the northern river terrapin’s former range is now extremely rare and the product of only a few scattered survivors. The terrapin’s demise has resulted from extensive exploitation of its flesh and eggs, exacerbated by indirect factors, including habitat alteration and destruction (e.g., sand-mining, dam building, water projects, and pollution) that have degraded the turtle’s nesting areas and feeding habitat. Recently, remnant populations have also suffered from the introduction of efficient mechanized fishing craft with lethal wide-area nets throughout much of the remaining habitat. Conservation action for the terrapin has been woefully inadequate. Ideally, the species and its eggs require complete protection throughout its range. In India and Bangladesh, extant terrapins now appear to be so few that unless some previously unknown viable population is discovered, the only recourse may be to capture as many of the remaining wild individuals as possible to keep in captive breeding facilities until such time as it is feasible to re-establish a wild population in one or more sanctuaries. Less is known about the species’ status in Myanmar. Additional surveys are needed for estuarine habitats in the poorly-known eastern and southeastern river systems in Myanmar to determine if viable populations survive, and if so, to identify nesting sites and critical feeding areas.
Distribution. – Bangladesh, India, Myanmar. The northern river terrapin historically inhabited estuarine habitats from Orissa and West Bengal in India, eastward through Bangladesh to at least the Ayeyarwady, Bago, and possibly the Thanlwin (Salween) and Sittaung rivers in Myanmar. Reports of river terrapin in the Indus and Mahanadi rivers require verification. It is presently unknown if terrapin sightings in southernmost Myanmar represent the northern or southern river terrapin (B. affinis).
Synonymy. – Emys baska Gray 1830a, Testudo baska, Batagur (Batagur) baska, Tetraonyx baska, Tetronyx baska, Batagur baska, Batagur baska baska, Emys batagur Gray 1830b, Clemmys (Clemmys) batagur, Tetraonyx batagur, Batagur batagur, Batagur batagur batagur, Trionyx (Tetraonyx) cuvieri Gray 1830b, Tetraonyx longicollis Lesson 1831, Tetronyx longicollis, Clemmys longicollis, Tetraonyx lessonii Duméril and Bibron 1835, Hydraspis (Tetronyx) lessonii, Emys tetraonyx Temminck and Schlegel 1835.
Subspecies. – None currently recognized.
Status. – IUCN 2009 Red List: Critically Endangered A1cd (assessed 2000); CITES: Appendix I; US ESA: Endangered; Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act: Schedule I; Myanmar: Protection of Wildlife, Wild Plants and Conservation of Natural Areas Law: Protected.
Herausgeber: DOLLINGER, P. (1979-88), danach BIBER, J.-P., später CITES Secretariat
Band 1 Säugetiere
- DOLLINGER, P. (1984): Tupaiidae
- MACEY, A., DOUGLAS, C. H. & GOSSELIN, M. (1982) Ursidae
- DOLLINGER, P. (1985) Hyaenidae
- DOLLINGER, P. & DILLER, H. (1992) Felidae
- DOLLINGER, P. (1984) Proboscidea
Band 2 - Vögel
- CUNAZZA, C. & VENEGAS, C. (1987): Rheiformes
- DIXON, A. & SCOTT, P. (1985): Phoenicopteriformes
- BIBER, J.-P. & HIPPENMEYER, C. (1992/94): Galliformes
- BIBER, J.-P. & SALATHÈ, T. (1992): Cacatuidae
- INSKIPP, C. & T. & BRUNING, D. (1986): Psittacidae
- SACHER, H. & FJELDSÅ, j. (1981): Strigiformes
- BIBER, J.-P. & HIPPENMEYER, C. (1998) Bucerotidae
Band 3 - Reptilien / Amphibien / Fische / Wirbellose
- BIBER, J. P., HONEGGER, R. E., SCHMIDT, F. & WOY, U. (1985-2005): Emydidae und Geoemydidae
- GAZE, P. (2005): Sphenodon spp.
- HONEGGER, R. E. & WOY, U. (1980): Testudinidae
- HONEGGER, R. E. & WOY, U. (1982): Cheloniidae
- HONEGGER, R. E. & WOY, U. (1982): Trinychidae
- HONEGGER, R. E. & WOY, U. (1985): Pelomedusidae- und Porocnemidae
- HONEGGER, R. E. & WOY, U. (1986): Sphenodon punctatus
- HONEGGER, R. E. & WOY, U. (1991): Boidae (einschließlich Pythonidae)
- HONEGGER, R. E. & WOY, U. (1996): Colubridae, Elapidae, Crotalidae und Viperidae
- JENKINS, R. W. G., COGGER, H. W. & WOY, U. (1985): Varanidae
- WERMUTH, H. & FUCHS, K.-H. (1983): CROCODYLIA. Zeichnungen von G. RICHTER
- MARTENS, H. & KASTNER, R. (1986): Ambystomatidae
- HONEGGER, R. E. & WOY, U. (1996): Cryptobranchidae
- MAHNERT, V. & ROTH, G. (1986) Bufo (= Amietophrynus) superciliaris
- BRAYLEY, R. &LYNCH, B. (1987): Tridacnidae
Band 4 - Teile und Erzeugnisse 1
- DOLLINGER, P. (1985) Affenfelle
- DOLLINGER, P. (1985) Raubtierfelle
- DOLLINGER, P. (1985) Robbenfelle
Band 5 - Teile und Erzeugnisse 2
- MAHNERT, V., REINHARD, W. & CHEVELU, L. (1981) Schlangenhäute
- WERMUTH, H. & FUCHS, K.-H. (1983): Krokodilhäute